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  • murine
  • Recent work from the laboratory of Dr. Azim Surani has identified Blimp-1 ( Prdm1 ) as an early marker of the first primordial germ cells that can be detected in a small cluster of 6-10 cells in the proximal epiblast at E6.5 of murine embryonic development (Ohinata et al. (stembook.org)
  • mammalian
  • 1994) Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM/CD31): alternatively spliced, functionally distinct isoforms expressed during mammalian cardiovascular development. (springer.com)
  • Many of the Drosophila germ plasm components are conserved and play an essential role in mammalian germ cell formation as well, but it is interesting to note that the key factor in Drosophila, Oskar, has no known orthologs in any other species. (stembook.org)
  • 2002 ). Mammalian germ cell specification is a plastic process and occurs after the embryo has implanted into the uterus. (stembook.org)
  • Biology
  • The means by which cells first come to differ from one another during animal development has interested humans for nearly 2,000 years, and it still constitutes one of the major unsolved problems of biology. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Signaling
  • The stimulation of macrophages by certain ligands, as well as pathogen-induced signaling also contribute to the formation of foam cells from macrophages. (news-medical.net)
  • This signaling changes the metabolic state of macrophages resulting in decreased cholesterol efflux, which causes increased foam cell formation. (news-medical.net)
  • Hence, in this review, we have highlighted and interlinked molecular signaling from cytokines, surface receptors, transcription factors, ubiquitin ligase, and microRNA as positive and negative regulators for Tfh differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Molecular Mechanisms
  • Molecular mechanisms regulating myeloid-derived suppressor cell differentiation and function. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we discuss recent findings that describe the molecular mechanisms that regulate the expansion and function of MDSCs, as well as recent attempts to use MDSCs in cell therapy for different pathologic conditions. (nih.gov)
  • developmental
  • An application is discussed that should aid in elucidating teleost B cell development and activation, by using transcription factors as developmental markers in flow cytometric analysis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs. (umassmed.edu)
  • tissue
  • The term undifferentiated is used to describe a cell (or a tissue) that has not yet acquired a special structure and function. (biology-online.org)
  • Pathology
  • Because of association of Tfh cell with pathogenic as well as autoimmune diseases, attempts were made to increase or decrease Tfh cell number in order to reduce disease severity, pathology, and infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • iPSC
  • One apparent application of this work might be to employ these same techniques to assess how completely an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) has been reprogrammed. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The Core will develop differentiation protocols to generate defined cell lineages form iPSC based on published literature. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Processes
  • As with most animal eggs, the early events of amphibian development are largely independent of the environment, and the processes leading to cell differentiation must involve a redistribution and interaction of constituents already present in the fertilized egg. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Because the data seem to indicate discreet stages of cell differentiation characterized by waves of changes in one direction and subsequent waves in another, cell types conceivably could be redefined according to epigenetic marks that will provide new insights into both normal development and disease processes. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • germ cells
  • With the commencement of meiosis, germ cells are called spermatocytes, and subsequent to meiosis, haploid cells are called spermatids. (jax.org)
  • Finally, with the release of the morphologically mature product, the germ cells are called spermatozoa or, more simply, just sperm. (jax.org)
  • Endowed with the task of transmitting the genetic information to the next generation, germ cells are without doubt critical cells for any species that multiplies through sexual reproduction. (stembook.org)
  • Recognizing the vital importance of germ cells to species survival, in many lower organisms including Drosophila Melanogaster , Xenopus Laevis and the Zebrafish ( Danio Rerio ) germ cell formation is rigidly programmed. (stembook.org)
  • In egg-laying species, which have limited control over the embryo's extra-embryonic milieu, the specification of germ cells through pre-localized germ-plasm may protect the germline against environmental influences. (stembook.org)
  • membrane
  • Binding analyses in cell-free systems and on the cell membrane demonstrate that C1q and its collagen tail associate with LAIR-1 and LAIR-2 (CD306), a soluble inhibitor of LAIR-1. (nih.gov)
  • severity
  • On the other hand, AHR activation by 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole interfered with T reg cell development, boosted T H 17 cell differentiation and increased the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. (nature.com)
  • zygote
  • The organism changes from a single zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, only the zygote and early embryonic cells are totipotent, while in plants many differentiated cells can become totipotent with simple laboratory techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of cell differentiation is the development of a single-celled zygote into a multicellular embryo that further develops into a more complex multisystem of distinct cell types of a fetus . (biology-online.org)