• These results represent the first demonstration of adult stem cells with the potential to be differentiated into different types of ECs in vitro and in vivo and provide a useful human model to study arteriovenous specification. (cun.es)
  • In an effort for XEN cells to adopt visceral endoderm character different aspects of the in vivo environment were mimicked. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Generation of visceral endoderm from XEN cells uncovers the true potential of these blastocyst-derived cells and is a significant step towards modelling early developmental events ex vivo. (ed.ac.uk)
  • For example, Matrigel matrix , coupled with a variety of culture media, has been widely accepted as an alternative substrate to feeder-dependent culture of hESCs, and it has been used to culture induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (corning.com)
  • Serotonergic neurons are concentrated in the raphe nuclei of the brain We aimed at directing the differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into an enriched population of serotonin producing cells to identify novel genes that are essential for the development and function of serotonergic system. (hu-berlin.de)
  • One way to circumvent the dearth of primary human hepatocytes is to generate them from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (clontech.com)
  • As an alternative and desirable approach for regenerative medicine, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology raises the possibility of developing patient-tailored cell therapies to treat intractable degenerative diseases in the future. (molvis.org)
  • The clinical translation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) techniques to cell-based regenerative therapies in human degenerative diseases has been made a priority worldwide. (molvis.org)
  • 8-12 The "induced" pluripotent stem (iPS) cells created from both mouse and human somatic cells appear similar to ESCs in terms of both self-renewal and differentiation capacity. (wiley.com)
  • Human stem cells, both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, offer exciting opportunities for cell-based therapies in injured or diseased human brains or spinal cords. (ca.gov)
  • It's not surprising, then, that miRNAs play an important role in gene regulation that controls embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency and differentiation, as well as induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming. (abcam.com)
  • The means by which cells first come to differ from one another during animal development has interested humans for nearly 2,000 years, and it still constitutes one of the major unsolved problems of biology. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Scientists have known for many years that changing which genes are turned on in a particular cell can lead to birth defects and cancer," explains Stephen Small, a professor in New York University's Department of Biology and the senior author of the paper, which appears in the journal Molecular Cell . (nyu.edu)
  • We found Klu to be expressed specifically in EBs to regulate cellular differentiation towards the enterocyte lineage", tells Dr. Korzelius, who is currently working at the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing in Cologne, Germany. (innovations-report.com)
  • In this five-part online course you will explore the history and basic biology of stem cells, learn about new research techniques, and find out how stem cells could lead to cures for diseases and to individualized medicine. (coursera.org)
  • Adapted from an open access image attributed to ZooFari and Mikael Häggström ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Mikael_H%C3%A4ggstr%C3%B6m/Gallery#Medical_collaborations ) and augmented from literature and NHLBI Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium (PCBC) collaborators. (wikipathways.org)
  • Overall, NSCs cultured in DM for at least 14 days resulted in the most neuronal differentiation and neurite growth. (mit.edu)
  • Although SHED are a desirable type of stem cells for transplantation therapy and for the study of neurological diseases, a large part of the neuronal differentiation machinery of SHED remains unclear. (go.jp)
  • In the present work, we investigated the neuronal differentiation machinery of SHED by focusing on mitochondrial activity. (go.jp)
  • During neuronal differentiation of SHED, we observed increased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased mitochondrial DNA, and elongated mitochondria. (go.jp)
  • Furthermore, to examine the demand for mitochondrial activity in neuronal differentiation, we then differentiated SHED into neuronal cells in the presence of rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP), a mitochondrial uncoupler, and found that neuronal differentiation was inhibited by treatment with rotenone and CCCP. (go.jp)
  • These results indicated that increased mitochondrial activity was crucial for the neuronal differentiation of SHED. (go.jp)
  • CXCL12 binds to receptors such as C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and CXCR7, which allows it to regulate cell migration, adhesion, and survival. (news-medical.net)
  • The first T cell fate decision occurs in the thymus, where CD4 + CD8 + (double positive) T cells selectively and stably down-regulate CD4 or CD8 before exiting the thymus as mature, single positive (CD4 + or CD8 + ), naïve T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • It acts by binding to heteromeric serine/threonine kinase receptors on the cell surface that transmit a signal to nucleus via Smad proteins to ultimately regulate changes in gene expression. (els.net)
  • TGFβs regulate many basic biological processes including cell proliferation, shape, adhesion, migration and differentiation. (els.net)
  • Discover how these can be incorporated into your cell culture systems to support advanced cell growth and cell differentiation applications. (corning.com)
  • Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that plays a prominent role in mediating many of the central features associated with mesenchymal differentiation. (mdpi.com)
  • Moreover, both the intrinsic changes within mesenchymal GBM cells and the microenvironmental factors that modify the overall NF-κB response are detailed. (mdpi.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Mesenchymal stem cells" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Amniotic fluid as a novel source of mesenchymal stem cells for therapeutic transplantation," Blood , vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 1548-1549, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Role of amniotic fluid mesenchymal cells engineered on MgHA/collagen-based scaffold allotransplanted on an experimental animal study of sinus augmentation," Clinical Oral Investigations , vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1661-1675, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, investigating the regulatory network that modulates Th17 differentiation may yield important therapeutic insights. (jci.org)
  • miR-146a has emerged as a critical modulator of immune reactions, but its role in regulating autoreactive Th17 cells and organ-specific autoimmunity remains largely unknown. (jci.org)
  • Further study showed that miR-146a inhibited the production of autocrine IL-6 and IL-21 in 2D2 T cells, which in turn reduced their Th17 differentiation. (jci.org)
  • The effect of IFN-β-1a on Th17 cells, which play a critical role in the development of the autoimmune response, has not been extensively studied in humans. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have investigated the effect of IFN-β-1a on dendritic cells (DCs) and naive CD4 + CD45RA + T cells derived from untreated MS patients and healthy controls in the context of Th17 cell differentiation. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD4 + CD45RA + naive T cells cocultured with supernatants from IFN-β-1a-treated DCs exhibited decreased gene expression of the Th17 cell markers retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear hormone receptor c ( RORc ), IL-17A , and IL-23R . (jimmunol.org)
  • A direct IFN-β-1a treatment of CD45RA + T cells cultured in Th17-polarizing conditions also down-regulated RORc , IL-17A , and IL-23R , but up-regulated IL-10 gene expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • IFN-β's suppression of Th17 cell differentiation may represent its most relevant mechanism of selective suppression of the autoimmune response in MS. (jimmunol.org)
  • The Th17 cell lineage is thought to play a critical role in the development of the autoimmune response in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, juvenile diabetes, and autoimmune uveitis ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Several studies have documented the accumulation of Th17 cells in CNS MS lesions, suggesting that Th17 cells play a central role in the immunopathogenesis of MS ( 6 , 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 8 ). Our recent study has identified an accumulation of Th17 cells in MS lesions, as evidenced by the increased expression of IL-17 , retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear hormone receptor c (RORc) transcription factor, and multiple cytokines that mediate Th17 cell expansion ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells serve as a subset of CD4+ T cells involved in epithelial cell- and neutrophil mediated immune responses against extracellular microbes and in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. (genome.jp)
  • In contrast, the differentiation of Th17 cells and their IL-17 expression are negatively regulated by IL-2, Th2 cytokine IL-4, IL-27 and Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma through STAT5, STAT6 and STAT1 activation, respectively. (genome.jp)
  • Follicular helper T cell (Tfh), a subset of helper CD4 + T cells, is involved in providing critical help for antibody maturation and germinal center (GC) formation ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Robust regulation of Tfh cell response and subsequent antibody maturation are critical for infection clearance ( 2 , 3 ), whereas aberrancy in controlling Tfh immune response is implicated in progression of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), arthritis, and type I/II diabetes ( 4 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Lithium administration to inhibit GSK3β is able to rescue Schwann cell differentiation and maturation in the absence of plasmalogens. (jci.org)
  • For instance, CD4 + T cells that adopt the Th2 phenotype secrete IL-4, which elicits maturation of the B cell-mediated antibody response while regulatory T cells (Tregs) function to maintain immune homeostasis through the secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines, including IL-10 and TGF-β. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using two different methods to induce PC differentiation, we found that human basophils enhance B cell proliferation, class switching, differentiation into PC, maturation of PC, and production of Igs, especially IgG. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cell differentiation refers to the normal process by which a less specialized cell goes through development and maturation in order to become more distinct in terms of form and function . (biology-online.org)
  • So-called shadow cell differentiation (SCD) is typical for pilomatrixoma and other skin lesions with follicular differentiation, but it was rarely described also in some visceral carcinomas. (hindawi.com)
  • The architecture and functioning of the mammalian nervous system are partly based on the complexity of combinatorial gene expression in the developing brain that results in a tremendous diversity of neural cells. (nih.gov)
  • Many of the Drosophila germ plasm components are conserved and play an essential role in mammalian germ cell formation as well, but it is interesting to note that the key factor in Drosophila, Oskar, has no known orthologs in any other species. (stembook.org)
  • 2002 ). Mammalian germ cell specification is a plastic process and occurs after the embryo has implanted into the uterus. (stembook.org)
  • For mammalian cells, the maintenance of cytosine methylation is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases and any disruption to these methyltransferases will cause a lethal phenotype to the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study reveals that Pax6 is pivotal for initiation of the lens fiber differentiation program in the mammalian eye. (biologists.org)
  • Apoptosis is a cell death process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histide™ is a biotech intellectual property platform company pioneering a new class of nonmutagenic extracellular therapeutic agents called Cell Recoding Molecules™ (CRMs). (businesswire.com)
  • Bioengineers at the University of California, San Diego have proven that when it comes to guiding stem cells into a specific cell type, the stiffness of the extracellular matrix used to culture them really does matter. (eurekalert.org)
  • Vice versa, cell surface molecules are suggested to mediate extracellular signals to the genome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In vitro, an apelin receptor agonist analog elicited endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation to promote endothelial monolayer wound repair, and reduce immune cell adhesion. (jci.org)
  • 24 EB differentiation begins with the formation of an aggregate of ESCs, the size of which is dependent on the number of cells which initially self-assemble via cell-cell adhesion receptors. (wiley.com)
  • Projects responsive to this solicitation must aim to establish a robust and reproducible set of differentiation design rules, predictive models, real-time sensing, control, and quality assurance methods, and integrate them into a workable differentiation strategy. (nsf.gov)
  • Such control of differentiation will enable the realization of individualized medicine in areas such as regenerative medicine, cancer treatment with engineered killer cells, the development of functional cells and tissues to treat disease, environmental control and monitoring, adaptive sensing, as well as the scalable and reproducible application of 3D organoids in drug testing. (nsf.gov)
  • Kits include buffers, cytokines and optimized protocols for easy and reproducible cell culture. (rndsystems.com)
  • Metabolites offer an important unexplored complementary approach to understanding the pluripotency of stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • Panel C. iPS cells cultured in DEF-CS highly express pluripotency markers OCT4 (green, top panel) and SSEA-4 (green, bottom panel). (clontech.com)
  • This process takes 7 days, during which the pluripotency transcription factor OCT4 is downregulated and several markers of DE cells ( SOX17 , FOXA2 , CXCR4 , and HHEX ) are upregulated (5). (clontech.com)
  • A functional test of pluripotency is whether introduction of the cells into a blastocyst stage embryo results in a chimera with ESCs (or iPS cells) contributing to all tissues of the organism. (wiley.com)
  • The process of differentiation involves a multiplex combination of signaling molecules, receptors, promoters, markers, and regulators that dynamically interact to direct cell development and behavior. (nsf.gov)
  • SCHINDELLEGI, Switzerland--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Histide AG, a biotech intellectual property platform company focused on developing Cell Recoding Molecules TM , announced today that the results from a collaboration study with Prof. Alan E. Rowan (Radboud University, The Netherlands) were published in the current online edition of Nature Materials . (businesswire.com)
  • pathogen recognition results in the differentiation of naïve, quiescent T cells to short-lived effector cells that have gained the capacity to express the effector molecules required to clear the infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most of these molecules integrated in the cell membrane have been proven to be glycoconjugates. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Since lectins, like monoclonal antibodies, make it possible to study functionally important molecules that are associated with differentiation and malignancy, they might be of value for diagnostic purposes and, moreover, for analyzing malignant transformation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In order to calibrate the RNA -seq expression levels in terms of molecules of mRNA per cell, we have intregrated the RNA -seq data with single molecule mRNA-FISH experiments. (cam.ac.uk)
  • TGFβ regulates differentiation through Smads by mediating changes in chromatin structure and binding to master transcriptional regulators. (els.net)
  • Based on the histone code hypothesis, distinct covalent histone modifications can lead to functionally distinct chromatin structures that influence the fate of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase signals resulting from the activation of nuclease CAD indicate that the cell differentiation is due to a CAD modification in chromatin structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Core will develop differentiation protocols to generate defined cell lineages form iPSC based on published literature. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Loss of Notch in ISC lineages leads to the development of tumors, likely because of impaired EB differentiation that leads to an increased frequency of symmetric divisions and excess EE differentiation. (innovations-report.com)
  • See More Our specialized microwell plates allow users to control the size and shape of the EBs allowing for reproducibility, optimization of differentiation protocols to specific lineages, standardization of the production of EBs and reduction of variability associated with mouse iPS cell and ES cell differentiation. (stemcell.com)
  • I've learned then that the upshot is that successfully keeping PC12 cells going relies entirely on a qualitative 'feel' for the look of the plate and the cells. (bio.net)
  • Throughout this stepwise differentiation process, changes in primitive neuroectodermal, eye field, and RGC marker expression were monitored with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), immunocytochemistry, and/or flow cytometry. (molvis.org)
  • The cell size, shape, polarity , metabolism and responsiveness to signals change dramatically such that a less specialized cell becomes more specialized and acquires a more specific role. (biology-online.org)