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  • induce
  • Live, attenuated vaccines, such as smallpox and polio vaccines, are able to induce killer T-cell (TC or CTL) responses, helper T-cell (TH) responses and antibody immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • P-selectin is a member of the selectin family of cell adhesion molecules that mediate binding to specific carbohydrate-containing ligands. (bloodjournal.org)
  • They exert their effect by activating the complement cascade, stimulating phagocytic cells into endocytosis through adhesion to an external surface of the antigenic substances, thus 'marking' it as offensive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore these cells express a number of molecules important for the mediation of the cell adhesion, such as cadherin-11, VCAM-1, various integrins and their receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Cell microencapsulation technology involves immobilization of the cells within a polymeric semi-permeable membrane that permits the bidirectional diffusion of molecules such as the influx of oxygen, nutrients, growth factors etc. essential for cell metabolism and the outward diffusion of waste products and therapeutic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Questions could arise as to why the technique of encapsulation of cells is even required when therapeutic products could just be injected at the site. (wikipedia.org)
  • An important reason for this is that the encapsulated cells would provide a source of sustained continuous release of therapeutic products for longer durations at the site of implantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • Smaller fragments can represent up to seventy percent of the total cell free DNA in the maternal blood sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian
  • Phagocytosis in mammalian immune cells is activated by attachment to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS), which leads to NF-κB activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • polystyrene
  • Polystyrene microspheres are typically used in biomedical applications due to their ability to facilitate procedures such as cell sorting and immunoprecipitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • Microparticles as regulators of inflammation: novel players of cellular crosstalk in the rheumatic diseases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In addition, these cells can produce a number of pro-inflammatory signalling molecules, especially Il-6 and IL-8, prostanoids and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which may directly affect other cells and also participate in the inflammation enhancement. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • The inner layer is mainly composed of two cell types, specialized macrophages (macrophage-like synovial cells) and fibroblast-like synoviocytes, which are important in maintaining the internal joint homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • AgLDL increased TF antigen release (agLDL 5.64±0.4 versus nLDL 3.28±0.22 AU) and TF MP release (agLDL 89.85±8.51 versus nLDL 19.69±4.59 TF MP/10 3 cells). (ahajournals.org)
  • Active transport Antigen presentation Antigen presenting cell Emperipolesis Endosymbionts in protists Paracytophagy Phagoptosis Residual body Cell wall Ambrose, Charles T. (2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, the prospect of implanting artificial cells with similar chemical composition in several patients irrespective of their leukocyte antigen could again allow reduction in costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA vaccination is a technique for protecting against disease by injection with genetically engineered DNA so cells directly produce an antigen, producing a protective immunological response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocytes
  • The process includes the following steps: Following damage to the blood vessel, FVII leaves the circulation and comes into contact with tissue factor (TF) expressed on tissue-factor-bearing cells (stromal fibroblasts and leukocytes), forming an activated complex (TF-FVIIa). (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Numerous diseases, recently reported to associate with elevated microvesicle/microparticle (MP) counts, have also long been known to be characterized by accelerated immune complex (IC) formation. (izon.com)
  • These cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • While killed vaccines do not have this risk, they cannot generate specific killer T cell responses and may not work at all for some diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • diameter
  • Neutrophil microparticles were characterized as structures bounded by lipid bilayers and were less than 1 μm in diameter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This work focuses on fabrication of polyimide aerogel microparticles of diameter 200-1000 µm from a surfactant-free, two-phase, silicone oil/dimethylformamide (DMF) oil-in-oil (O/O) system using a si. (bioportfolio.com)
  • tissue factor
  • Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane cell surface glycoprotein of 45 to 50 kDa that forms a complex with activated factor VII, initiating blood coagulation and leading to the focal production of thrombin via the successive activation of factor IX, factor X, and prothrombin. (ahajournals.org)
  • tumour cells
  • Tumour heterogeneity describes the observation that different tumour cells can show distinct morphological and phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression, metabolism, motility, proliferation, and metastatic potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two models used to explain the heterogeneity of tumour cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cancer stem cell model asserts that within a population of tumour cells, there is only a small subset of cells that are tumourigenic (able to form tumours). (wikipedia.org)
  • The CSC model posits that the heterogeneity observed between tumour cells is the result of differences in the stem cells from which they originated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolution of the initial tumour cell may occur by two methods: Sequentially ordered mutations accumulate in driver genes, tumour suppressor genes, and DNA repair enzymes, resulting in clonal expansion of tumour cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tumour microenvironment may also contribute to tumour expansion, as it is capable of altering the selective pressures that the tumour cells are exposed to. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple types of heterogeneity have been observed between tumour cells, stemming from both genetic and non-genetic variability. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Apelin Caveolae Cellular dewetting Endothelial activation Endothelial microparticle Endothelial progenitor cell Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) Robert F. Furchgott (1998 Nobel prize for discovery of EDRF) Platelet activation Susac's syndrome Tunica intima VE-cadherin Weibel-Palade body Angiocrine growth factors "Endothelium" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Eskin, S.G. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory
  • Some researchers believe that alginates with high-M content could produce an inflammatory response and an abnormal cell growth while some have demonstrated that alginate with high-G content lead to an even higher cell overgrowth and inflammatory reaction in vivo as compared to intermediate-G alginates. (wikipedia.org)
  • both these phenomena contribute to the increase in the number of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in the inflammatory tissue and are also typical for example for the growth of cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO): Evidence suggests that podoconiosis is the result of a genetically determined abnormal inflammatory reaction to mineral particles in irritant red clay soils derived from volcanic deposits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical
  • These data may necessitate reevaluation of certain published data on patient-derived MPs and contribute to correct the clinical laboratory assessment of the presence and biologic functions of MPs in health and disease. (izon.com)
  • I]n a 2015 phase Ib/IIa clinical trial, MIS416 was shown to suppress the development of proinflammatory T helper (Th)1, Th2, and Th17 cells in EAE, and to increase the serum levels of IFN-γ and IFN-γ-associated proteins in 19 patients with SPMS . (wikipedia.org)
  • variability
  • Stem cell variability is often caused by epigenetic changes, but can also result from clonal evolution of the CSC population where advantageous genetic mutations can accumulate in CSCs and their progeny (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The DNA is injected into cells, whose "inner machinery" uses the DNA to synthesize the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these proteins are recognised as foreign, when they are processed by the host cells and displayed on their surface, the immune system is alerted, which then triggers immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) is fetal DNA which circulates freely in the maternal blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 11 to 13.4 percent of the cell-free DNA in maternal blood is of fetal origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymer
  • He demonstrated that tumor cells in a polymer structure transplanted into pig abdominal cavity remained viable for a long period without being rejected by the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thirty years later in 1964, the idea of encapsulating cells within ultra thin polymer membrane microcapsules so as to provide immunoprotection to the cells was then proposed by Thomas Chang who introduced the term "artificial cells" to define this concept of bioencapsulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • activate
  • Encapsulated cells expressing a cytochrome P450 enzyme to locally activate an anti-tumour prodrug were used in a trial for advanced, non-resectable pancreatic cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphatidylserine
  • These molecules are recognised by receptors on the cell surface of the macrophage such as the phosphatidylserine receptor or by soluble (free-floating) receptors such as thrombospondin 1, GAS6, and MFGE8, which themselves then bind to other receptors on the macrophage such as CD36 and alpha-v beta-3 integrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • The molecular interactions regulating these effects involve specific receptor activation, proteolytic enzymes, reactive oxygen species, or delivery of genetic information to target cells. (mendeley.com)
  • tissues
  • Fibroblast-like synoviocytes that are present in the synovium during rheumatoid artritis display altered phenotype compared to the cells present in normal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • autoimmune
  • Synovial hyperplasia (an increase in cell number) is a typical feature of the autoimmune disease called rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • Bacteria, dead tissue cells, and small mineral particles are all examples of objects that may be phagocytized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Twenty years later, this approach was successfully put into practice in small animal models when alginate-polylysine-alginate (APA) microcapsules immobilizing xenograft islet cells were developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • 4 In HIT, multimolecular complexes composed of PF4, heparin, and anti-PF4/heparin IgG cross-link platelet FcγIIa receptors, 5 triggering platelet activation, microparticle formation, and thrombin generation, with ∼50% of affected patients developing thrombosis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Furthermore these cells express a number of molecules important for the mediation of the cell adhesion, such as cadherin-11, VCAM-1, various integrins and their receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • These molecules are recognised by receptors on the cell surface of the macrophage such as the phosphatidylserine receptor or by soluble (free-floating) receptors such as thrombospondin 1, GAS6, and MFGE8, which themselves then bind to other receptors on the macrophage such as CD36 and alpha-v beta-3 integrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Therefore, scientists that are actively researching the role that exosomes may play in cell-to-cell signaling, often hypothesize that delivery of their cargo RNA molecules can explain biological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • convenient
  • NucleoSpin Blood, Blood L, Blood XL, and Blood QuickPure kits are designed for isolating genomic DNA from whole blood, serum, plasma, buffy coats, and cultured cells in a convenient silica membrane-based spin column format. (clontech.com)
  • Inflammation
  • In addition, these cells can produce a number of pro-inflammatory signalling molecules, especially Il-6 and IL-8, prostanoids and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which may directly affect other cells and also participate in the inflammation enhancement. (wikipedia.org)
  • bloodstream
  • Endothelial cells are involved in many aspects of vascular biology, including: Barrier function - the endothelium acts as a semi-selective barrier between the vessel lumen and surrounding tissue, controlling the passage of materials and the transit of white blood cells into and out of the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • First discovered in the maturing mammalian reticulocyte (immature red blood cell) , exosomes were shown to participate in selective removal of many plasma membrane proteins as the reticulocyte becomes a mature red blood cell (erythrocyte). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the reticulocyte, as in most mammalian cells, portions of the plasma membrane are regularly internalized as endosomes, with 50 to 180% of the plasma membrane being recycled every hour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phagocytosis in mammalian immune cells is activated by attachment to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS), which leads to NF-κB activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • Between 2003 and 2007 he was a Fellow of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Liverpool, in the Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology, and he was visiting professor at the School of Biomedical Sciences until his retirement in 2012 University of Ulster. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells have unique functions in vascular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cell biology, phagocytosis (from Ancient Greek φαγεῖν (phagein) , meaning 'to devour', κύτος, (kytos) , meaning 'cell', and -osis, meaning 'process') is the process by which a cell-often a phagocyte or a protist-engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • Compared to the neutral condition, the depressed mood and separately the anxiety recall tasks will acutely impair endothelium-dependent arterial vasodilation, increase circulating levels of EMPs, and reduce circulating levels of bone marrow-derived EPCs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • apoptotic
  • Due to the changes in proliferative and apoptotic processes the total number of cells increases in the synovium, and significantly increases also the number of fibroblast-like synoviocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the features of an apoptotic cell is the presentation of a variety of intracellular molecules on the cell surface, such as calreticulin, phosphatidylserine (from the inner layer of the plasma membrane), annexin A1, oxidised LDL and altered glycans. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • The EF-1 alpha promoter in these systems is derived from the human EEF1A1 gene that expresses the alpha subunit of eukaryotic elongation factor 1. (clontech.com)
  • cultures
  • NucleoBond CB kits are designed for the purification of genomic DNA from blood, serum, or cell cultures using NucleoBond AXG anion exchange columns, which yield ultra-pure high molecular weight genomic DNA. (clontech.com)
  • facilitate
  • Polystyrene microspheres are typically used in biomedical applications due to their ability to facilitate procedures such as cell sorting and immunoprecipitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • As evidence for this hypothesis, tumor cells exposed to hypoxia secrete exosomes with enhanced angiogenic and metastatic potential, suggesting that tumor cells adapt to a hypoxic microenvironment by secreting exosomes to stimulate angiogenesis or facilitate metastasis to more favorable environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibroblasts
  • The process includes the following steps: Following damage to the blood vessel, FVII leaves the circulation and comes into contact with tissue factor (TF) expressed on tissue-factor-bearing cells (stromal fibroblasts and leukocytes), forming an activated complex (TF-FVIIa). (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • The initial work, published in the JCI in 2000, described the method enabling successful attainment of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC). (jci.org)
  • Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both blood and lymphatic capillaries are composed of a single layer of endothelial cells called a monolayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reported diameter of exosomes is between 30 and 100 nm, which is larger than low-density lipoproteins (LDL) but much smaller than, for example, red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exosomes from red blood cells contain the transferrin receptor which is absent in mature erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the amoebozoan entamoeba histolytica can phagocytose red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • both these phenomena contribute to the increase in the number of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in the inflammatory tissue and are also typical for example for the growth of cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, bacteria, and fungi, with significantly differing physicochemical properties dependent on source. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-glucans form a natural component of the cell walls of bacteria, fungi, yeast, and cereals such as oat and barley. (wikipedia.org)
  • consequence
  • This leads to suggestions for how one might exploit the corollaries of the recognition that serum ferritin levels mainly represent a consequence of cell stress and damage. (rsc.org)
  • often
  • in the latter cases, each oxygenase often resides in a different cell type with one cell passing along the intermediate metabolite that it forms to the other cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • helper
  • I]n a 2015 phase Ib/IIa clinical trial, MIS416 was shown to suppress the development of proinflammatory T helper (Th)1, Th2, and Th17 cells in EAE, and to increase the serum levels of IFN-γ and IFN-γ-associated proteins in 19 patients with SPMS . (wikipedia.org)
  • radiation
  • Furthermore, it was established in 1906 (The Law of Bergonié and Tribondeau) that cells in the G2 Phase are more resistant to radiation than cells in the M Phase (Radiosensitivity and Cell cycle). (wikipedia.org)
  • Electromagnetic radiation from radioactive decay of atomic nuclei is referred to as "gamma rays" no matter its energy, so that there is no lower limit to gamma energy derived from radioactive decay. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Overall, this systems approach serves to explain a number of apparent paradoxes of serum ferritin, including (i) why it correlates with biomarkers of cell damage, (ii) why it correlates with biomarkers of hydroxyl radical formation (and oxidative stress) and (iii) therefore why it correlates with the presence and/or severity of numerous diseases. (rsc.org)
  • production
  • The Adeno-X 293 Cell Line is a low-passage transformed human embryonic kidney cell line for the production of adenovirus stocks. (clontech.com)
  • Compared to most laboratory strains of HEK 293, Adeno-X 293 exhibits a slower growth rate and are more strongly adherent, features that lead to reduced cell death due to overconfluence, hence more efficient rescue and amplification during adenovirus production. (clontech.com)
  • Conversely, exosome production and content may be influenced by molecular signals received by the cell of origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • these complexes are responsible for regulating cell growth and survival in response to nutrient and hormonal signals. (clontech.com)
  • ability
  • These findings indicate that the fluorosilicate/phosphorus oxide composite microparticles have sufficient ability as the photoelectric conversion materials. (scientific.net)
  • types
  • EF-1 alpha promoter versions of the Tet-On 3G Tetracycline Inducible Expression System provide for consistent long-term expression of the Tet-On 3G transactivator, even in cell types known for their tendency to silence a CMV promoter over time, such as hematopoietic cells and stem cells. (clontech.com)
  • This means that in these cell types long term tetracycline inducible expression can be achieved. (clontech.com)