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  • cdk2
  • This cyclin forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK2, whose activity is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with a key role for CDK6 as a D-cyclin partner in thymocytes, knockout (KO) of CDK4 or CDK2 was shown to have no significant effect on T-cell development ( 11 , 12 ), but significantly decreased thymic cellularity was observed in a CDK6 KO animal ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • P27 can also be regulated by changing its subcellular location Both mechanisms act to reduce levels of p27, allowing for the activation of Cdk1 and Cdk2, and for the cell to begin progressing through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments looking at CDK2 activity within single cells have also shown p21 to be responsible for a bifurcation in CDK2 activity following mitosis, cells with high p21 enter a G0/quiescent state, whilst those with low p21 continue to proliferate. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogene
  • Consistent with this, urothelium-specific expression of a constitutively active Ha-ras oncogene in transgenic mice elicits urothelial hyperplasia, approximately half of which evolves, over a 28-month period, to low-grade, superficial papillary carcinomas that bear strong resemblance to the human counterparts ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1994
  • 1994) reproduced the human-derived LNCaP tumors in immunocompromised mice by co-injection of LNCaP cells with MS human bone fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • His 1994 research in collaboration with Arnold J. Levine was one of the first examples of how mutations in the gene which regulates the tumor suppressor p53 can lead to cancer by inactivating all the normal p53, thus allowing cancer cells to grow uncontrollably. (wikipedia.org)
  • endometrial cancer
  • Inhibition of telomerase activity in endometrial cancer cells by selenium-cisplatin conjugate despite suppression of DNA-damaging activity by sodium ascorbate. (springer.com)
  • proliferating cell nu
  • p21 interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in S phase DNA replication and DNA damage repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • response to DNA damage
  • Recent work exploring p21 activation in response to DNA damage at a single-cell level have demonstrated that pulsatile p53 activity leads to subsequent pulses of p21, and that the strength of p21 activation is cell cycle phase dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • p21 is negatively regulated by ubiquitin ligases both over the course of the cell cycle and in response to DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • LNCaP
  • Prostate cancer LNCaP cells were continuously exposed to either hydroxyflutamide (HFM) or bicalutamide (Bic) and novel sublines LNCaP-HFM and LNCaP-Bic were generated after more than 20 passages. (aacrjournals.org)
  • LNCaP cells are a cell line of human cells commonly used in the field of oncology. (wikipedia.org)
  • LNCaP cells are androgen-sensitive human prostate adenocarcinoma cells derived from the left supraclavicular lymph node metastasis from a 50-year-old caucasian male in 1977. (wikipedia.org)
  • To develop an AI-PCa cell model that more closely mimics clinical disease, LNCaP sublines have been generated to provide the most clinically relevant tissue culture tools to date. (wikipedia.org)
  • The LNCaP cell line was established from a metastatic lesion of human prostatic adenocarcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • LNCaP cells have a modal chromosome number of 76 to 91, indicative of a human male karyotype with several marker chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The malignant properties of LNCaP cells are maintained in athymic nude mice which develop tumors at the injection site and show a similar doubling time in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • To replicate the hallmark shift of PCa cells to AI, LNCaP host mice were castrated by way of midscrotal incision at approximately 8 weeks post injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Karyotype comparisons indicate that LNCaP cells grown in intact hosts (M subline) have a modal chromosomal distribution number of 83, C4 and C5 sublines with 85, and the C4-2 subline with 83. (wikipedia.org)
  • The M, C4, C5, and C4-2 sublines contained most of the marker chromosomes, with the M subline being most similar to the parental LNCaP cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DHT treatment elicited markedly reduced growth in C4 and C5 cells and no growth in C4-2 cells when compared to the high rate of growth seen in LNCaP cells, suggesting reduced androgen sensitivity in C4 and C5 and AI in C4-2 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whole-cell AR assay also indicated that LNCaP cells have a much higher affinity form of AR (Kd = 159 pM) when compared to C4-2 (Kd = 267 pM). (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Androgen receptor expression in selected sublines did not change and novel receptor mutations were not detected. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This suggests that overexpressed Gli1 alone is probably sufficient for tumour development Mutations leading to the expression of Gli1 in basal cells are thus predicted to induce BCC formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • In the present study, we have established novel tumor models for analysis of cell growth and signal transduction after long-term treatment with antiandrogens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These are all important cell cycle regulators and their expression could mediate SOX9-related alteration in cancer cell growth. (bmj.com)
  • Cells were subcutaneously injected at multiple sites into the mouse flank and after approximately 4 weeks of growth, tumors were easily detectable by physical examination and had a high rate of growth (17-33 mm3/day). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell Growth Differ. (wikipedia.org)
  • an increase in expression of TGF-β often correlates with the malignancy of many cancers and a defect in the cellular growth inhibition response to TGF-β. (wikipedia.org)
  • Androgen play an important role in maintenance and growth of prostate cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of this gene was found to be dramatically induced by TGF beta, which suggested its role in the TGF beta induced growth inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, Gli1 in primary keratinocytes upregulates FOXM1 whereas in mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells it has been shown to upregulate platelet-derived growth factor receptor PDGFRa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the cells reach a critical cell size (and if no mating partner is present in yeast) and if growth factors and mitogens (for multicellular organism) or nutrients (for unicellular organism) are present, cells enter the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the members of the pathways, MAPK activates a transcription factor Myc, which alters transcription of genes important in cell cycle, among which is cyclin D. In this way, cyclin D is synthesized as long as the growth factor is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • Multipotent T-cell precursors from the bone marrow (BM) commit to the T-cell lineage following stimulation of Notch on entry to the thymus ( 2 , 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyclin D1 is expressed in all adult human tissues with the exception of cells derived from bone marrow stem cell lines (both lymphoid and myeloid). (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Using the Lgr5 knock-in mouse line we show that loss of LGR5 function increases Wnt/β-catenin activity in the embryonic cochlea, resulting in a mild overproduction of inner and outer hair cells (OHC). (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression of Gli1 in the embryonic frog epidermis results in the development of tumours that express endogenous Gli1. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • The essential response regulator CtrA binds to five sites in the origin and represses inappropriate initiation events ( 28 ). (asm.org)
  • pancreatic
  • The goals of this study are to identify optimal condition for preparing frankincense essential oil that possesses potent anti-tumor activity, and to evaluate the activity in both cultured human pancreatic cancer cells and a xenograft mouse cancer model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Frankincense essential oil-modulated pancreatic tumor cell viability and cytotoxicity were determined by colorimetric assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human pancreatic cancer cells were sensitive to Fractions III and IV (containing higher molecular weight compounds) treatment with suppressed cell viability and increased cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although chemical component(s) responsible for tumor cell cytotoxicity remains undefined, crude essential oil prepared from hydrodistillation of Boswellia sacra gum resins might be a useful alternative therapeutic agent for treating patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • P27 transcription has also been linked to another tumor suppressor gene, MEN1, in pancreatic islet cells where it promotes CDKN1B expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal
  • Temsirolimus, interferon alfa, or both for advanced renal-cell carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • Efficacy of everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase III trial. (springer.com)
  • antitumor activity
  • Therefore, the properties of triptolide and the recent approval of its water-soluble form (PG490-88) for entry into Phase I clinical trials suggested that this drug was a promising candidate to test for antitumor activity against prostate cells. (aacrjournals.org)