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  • mitotic
  • After the mitotic phase, the daughter cells re-enter the G1 phase or go into the quiescent state. (springer.com)
  • In animal cells, cytokinesis commences before mitotic chromosome segregation is completed, and hence the two events overlap. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The duplicated organelles are concentrated in the posterior end of the cell (although their relative positioning differs in different parasite life cycle stages), imposing constraints on cytokinesis, which occurs after mitotic chromosome segregation via the unidirectional ingression of a cleavage furrow along the helical axis of the cell from the anterior to the posterior end. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Genetic screens for cell division cycle mutants in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans led to the discovery of never-in-mitosis A (NIMA), a serine/threonine kinase that is required for mitotic entry. (biologists.org)
  • Although there is no evidence that human NEKs are essential for mitotic entry, it is clear that several NEK family members have important roles in cell cycle control. (biologists.org)
  • Though Wee1 is a fairly conserved negative regulator of mitotic entry, no general mechanism of cell size control in G2 has yet been elucidated. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrate cells, the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint consists of an arrest of the cell in G2 just before mitotic entry in response to genotoxic stress (such as UV radiation, oxidative stress, DNA intercalating agents, etc.) in both a p53-dependent and p53-independent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The importance of such aberrations in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has not been fully clarified. (diva-portal.org)
  • 2010. A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals determinants of human embryonic stem cell identity. (springer.com)
  • Here, we review the functions of the human NEKs, with particular emphasis on those family members that are involved in cell cycle control, and consider their potential as therapeutic targets in cancer. (biologists.org)
  • The vast majority of human cancer cells are aneuploid, meaning they have too few or, more commonly, too many chromosomes. (biologists.org)
  • Another study demonstrated that AC extracts may be used as an adjuvant anti-tumor agent for human hepatoma cells (C3A and PLC/PRF/5), which are resistant to most other anti-tumor agents. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, when H2A.Z was studied in human and yeast cells, it was used to promote RNA polymerase II recruitment. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in terms of signalling outputs and disease relevance, both kinases and pseudokinases are important signalling modulators in human cells, making kinases very important drug targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis
  • In contrast, MeHg did not affect DNA synthesis or cell number in cerebellum, though blood flow and Hg content were similar in both regions. (epa.gov)
  • Because DNA synthesis in isolated cerebellar granule precursors was inhibited 25 percent by MeHg, reflecting a sensitivity to the metal comparable to other cell types, we conclude that the in vivo cerebellar environment offers a neuroprotective effect, which may possibly reflect effects of local glia, a direction for future studies. (epa.gov)
  • At 6 hours, however, DNA synthesis was reduced 49 percent at 3 and 98 percent at 10µM MeHg, with no change in cell number, suggesting that reduced DNA synthesis was a result of a G1/S block. (epa.gov)
  • interphase
  • Cells that are not in a quiescent state exist in either 1 of the 4 known stages of cell duplication: G1, S, G2, or M. The first 3 stages (G1, S, G2) together form the so-called "Interphase" during which the cell increases in size, accumulates required nutrients, and replicates the DNA in the cell nucleus. (axonmedchem.com)
  • division
  • In this end, stem cells undergo an asymmetric cell division during which only one of the two daughter cells differentiates. (springer.com)
  • At this point, the cell is growing and preparing for cell division. (springer.com)
  • Although the cell division cycle in Trypanosoma brucei broadly follows this scheme, it possesses unique features and complexities [1,. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • T. brucei contains a number of single copy organelles and structures (e.g. nucleus, mitochondrion whose DNA is concentrated into a disc-like structure termed the kinetoplast, Golgi and basal body/flagellum complex), which must be accurately duplicated and segregated if cell division is to generate viable progeny. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, many cancers exhibit chromosome instability, whereby there is frequent loss or gain of chromosomes at each cell division. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we review our current knowledge of how NEKs contribute to the process of cell division. (biologists.org)
  • CDC34 was originally discovered by work in baker's yeast as a gene that has a role in the cell division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is highly conserved during evolution and it plays a key role in the regulation of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancerous cells
  • One approach, as explored in this study, seeks to identify medicinal agents that are capable of arresting the cell cycle and/or activating the cellular apoptotic response in cancerous cells. (hindawi.com)
  • In numerous kinds of cancerous cells, GADD45G is down regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Extensive studies have demonstrated that cell cycle states determine cell fates, because cells in different cell cycle states are characterized by distinct molecular features and functional outputs. (springer.com)
  • Cell Cycle Control: Methods in Molecular Biology (Methods and Protocols), Vol. 1170. (springer.com)
  • Molecular regulation of stem cell quiescence. (springer.com)
  • She was a postdoctoral fellow at the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in the Laboratory of Immunology, discovering the first functional evidence for the T cell-antigen-MHC-Ia tri-molecular complex anticipating the crystal structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Cell cycle activity is an intrinsic component of cardiac differentiation and morphogenesis, as evidenced by traditional tritiated thymidine incorporation studies. (ahajournals.org)
  • The stem/progenitor cell has long been regarded as a central cell type in development, homeostasis, and regeneration, largely owing to its robust self-renewal and multilineage differentiation abilities. (springer.com)
  • differentiate
  • ESCs are pluripotent and therefore have the capacity to differentiate into all the possible cell types of the three germ layers. (springer.com)
  • Somatic stem cells, however, are multipotent and can only differentiate into cell types of the specific tissue or organ from which they originate. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, high doses of mezerein have been used to terminally differentiate cancer cells, preventing their growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • GADD45G and GADD45A act redundantly to control cell growth, allow the cells to move from pluripotentcy helping cells differentiate. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • Fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) has been previously shown to employ such a mechanism, via Cdr2-mediated spatial regulation of Wee1 activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of gene expression. (springer.com)
  • This "A/5R experiment" confirmed the Determinant Selection Hypothesis concerning the spatial relationships between the histocompatibility I-A and I-E molecules on the surface of antigen- presenting cells, the bound antigen and the recognition structure of the T-cell receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • We continue to characterize changes in specific neuronal populations and define underlying cell cycle mechanisms, showing region-specific effects. (epa.gov)
  • precursor
  • 5 Recent studies have elegantly identified several growth factors that regulate cardiomyogenic induction of the precursor cells in the anterior mesoderm. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6-9 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ The failure of these growth factors to promote cardiomyogenic induction in more primitive precursor cells indicates that additional as of yet unidentified factors participate in the process. (ahajournals.org)