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  • cellular
  • Here, systems pharmacodynamic (PD) models that integrate cellular response data and extend a prototype model framework were developed to characterize dynamic changes in cell cycle phases of cancer cell subpopulations in response to gemcitabine and trabectedin as single agents and in combination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pluripotency and the capability for self-renewal are essential characteristics of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which hold great potential as a cellular source for tissue replacement. (bio-protocol.org)
  • tissue
  • PharmaMar S.A.U., Madrid, Spain) is a promising anticancer agent that has demonstrated clinical activity in many drug-resistant cancer cell lines, and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for advanced soft tissue sarcoma. (frontiersin.org)
  • time
  • For example, the G2-M DNA damage checkpoint ensures the fidelity of DNA replication, and arrests the cell cycle to allow time for replication error correction and DNA damage repair. (qiagen.com)
  • mitotic
  • After the mitotic phase, the daughter cells re-enter the G1 phase or go into the quiescent state. (springer.com)
  • In animal cells, cytokinesis commences before mitotic chromosome segregation is completed, and hence the two events overlap. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The duplicated organelles are concentrated in the posterior end of the cell (although their relative positioning differs in different parasite life cycle stages), imposing constraints on cytokinesis, which occurs after mitotic chromosome segregation via the unidirectional ingression of a cleavage furrow along the helical axis of the cell from the anterior to the posterior end. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Genetic screens for cell division cycle mutants in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans led to the discovery of never-in-mitosis A (NIMA), a serine/threonine kinase that is required for mitotic entry. (biologists.org)
  • Although there is no evidence that human NEKs are essential for mitotic entry, it is clear that several NEK family members have important roles in cell cycle control. (biologists.org)
  • Though Wee1 is a fairly conserved negative regulator of mitotic entry, no general mechanism of cell size control in G2 has yet been elucidated. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrate cells, the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint consists of an arrest of the cell in G2 just before mitotic entry in response to genotoxic stress (such as UV radiation, oxidative stress, DNA intercalating agents, etc.) in both a p53-dependent and p53-independent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The importance of such aberrations in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has not been fully clarified. (diva-portal.org)
  • 2010. A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals determinants of human embryonic stem cell identity. (springer.com)
  • Here, we review the functions of the human NEKs, with particular emphasis on those family members that are involved in cell cycle control, and consider their potential as therapeutic targets in cancer. (biologists.org)
  • The vast majority of human cancer cells are aneuploid, meaning they have too few or, more commonly, too many chromosomes. (biologists.org)
  • Another study demonstrated that AC extracts may be used as an adjuvant anti-tumor agent for human hepatoma cells (C3A and PLC/PRF/5), which are resistant to most other anti-tumor agents. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, when H2A.Z was studied in human and yeast cells, it was used to promote RNA polymerase II recruitment. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in terms of signalling outputs and disease relevance, both kinases and pseudokinases are important signalling modulators in human cells, making kinases very important drug targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis
  • In contrast, MeHg did not affect DNA synthesis or cell number in cerebellum, though blood flow and Hg content were similar in both regions. (epa.gov)
  • Because DNA synthesis in isolated cerebellar granule precursors was inhibited 25 percent by MeHg, reflecting a sensitivity to the metal comparable to other cell types, we conclude that the in vivo cerebellar environment offers a neuroprotective effect, which may possibly reflect effects of local glia, a direction for future studies. (epa.gov)
  • At 6 hours, however, DNA synthesis was reduced 49 percent at 3 and 98 percent at 10µM MeHg, with no change in cell number, suggesting that reduced DNA synthesis was a result of a G1/S block. (epa.gov)
  • interphase
  • Cells that are not in a quiescent state exist in either 1 of the 4 known stages of cell duplication: G1, S, G2, or M. The first 3 stages (G1, S, G2) together form the so-called "Interphase" during which the cell increases in size, accumulates required nutrients, and replicates the DNA in the cell nucleus. (axonmedchem.com)
  • division
  • In this end, stem cells undergo an asymmetric cell division during which only one of the two daughter cells differentiates. (springer.com)
  • At this point, the cell is growing and preparing for cell division. (springer.com)
  • Although the cell division cycle in Trypanosoma brucei broadly follows this scheme, it possesses unique features and complexities [1,. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • T. brucei contains a number of single copy organelles and structures (e.g. nucleus, mitochondrion whose DNA is concentrated into a disc-like structure termed the kinetoplast, Golgi and basal body/flagellum complex), which must be accurately duplicated and segregated if cell division is to generate viable progeny. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, many cancers exhibit chromosome instability, whereby there is frequent loss or gain of chromosomes at each cell division. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we review our current knowledge of how NEKs contribute to the process of cell division. (biologists.org)
  • CDC34 was originally discovered by work in baker's yeast as a gene that has a role in the cell division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is highly conserved during evolution and it plays a key role in the regulation of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancerous cells
  • One approach, as explored in this study, seeks to identify medicinal agents that are capable of arresting the cell cycle and/or activating the cellular apoptotic response in cancerous cells. (hindawi.com)
  • In numerous kinds of cancerous cells, GADD45G is down regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Extensive studies have demonstrated that cell cycle states determine cell fates, because cells in different cell cycle states are characterized by distinct molecular features and functional outputs. (springer.com)
  • Cell Cycle Control: Methods in Molecular Biology (Methods and Protocols), Vol. 1170. (springer.com)
  • Molecular regulation of stem cell quiescence. (springer.com)
  • She was a postdoctoral fellow at the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in the Laboratory of Immunology, discovering the first functional evidence for the T cell-antigen-MHC-Ia tri-molecular complex anticipating the crystal structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Cell cycle activity is an intrinsic component of cardiac differentiation and morphogenesis, as evidenced by traditional tritiated thymidine incorporation studies. (ahajournals.org)
  • The stem/progenitor cell has long been regarded as a central cell type in development, homeostasis, and regeneration, largely owing to its robust self-renewal and multilineage differentiation abilities. (springer.com)
  • differentiate
  • ESCs are pluripotent and therefore have the capacity to differentiate into all the possible cell types of the three germ layers. (springer.com)
  • Somatic stem cells, however, are multipotent and can only differentiate into cell types of the specific tissue or organ from which they originate. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, high doses of mezerein have been used to terminally differentiate cancer cells, preventing their growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • GADD45G and GADD45A act redundantly to control cell growth, allow the cells to move from pluripotentcy helping cells differentiate. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • Fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) has been previously shown to employ such a mechanism, via Cdr2-mediated spatial regulation of Wee1 activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of gene expression. (springer.com)
  • This "A/5R experiment" confirmed the Determinant Selection Hypothesis concerning the spatial relationships between the histocompatibility I-A and I-E molecules on the surface of antigen- presenting cells, the bound antigen and the recognition structure of the T-cell receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • We continue to characterize changes in specific neuronal populations and define underlying cell cycle mechanisms, showing region-specific effects. (epa.gov)
  • precursor
  • 5 Recent studies have elegantly identified several growth factors that regulate cardiomyogenic induction of the precursor cells in the anterior mesoderm. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6-9 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ The failure of these growth factors to promote cardiomyogenic induction in more primitive precursor cells indicates that additional as of yet unidentified factors participate in the process. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cellular
  • Polyamines are ubiquitous small molecules involved in many normal cellular functions, including transcribing and translating genes, regulating ion channels and cell-to-cell interactions, and powering cell growth and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • O-GlcNAc couples metabolic status to the regulation of a wide variety of cellular signaling pathways by acting as a nutrient sensor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinase
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA-binding activity of the ubiquitously expressed ABL1 tyrosine kinase is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting a cell cycle function for ABL1. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such inhibitor is imatinib mesylate, which occupies the tyrosine kinase domain and inhibits BCR-ABL's influence on the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Media conditions that support fast growth in bacteria also couples with shorter inter-initiation time in them, i.e. the doubling time in fast growing cells is less as compared to the slow growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study of the genomes of a set of bacteria and archaea suggests that the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of all cells was using the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway in a hydrothermal setting. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • The regulation of genetic engineering aims to assess and manage the risks of developing genetically modified organisms (GMO), including commercial food crops and fish. (lafayettecollege.org)
  • dormancy
  • If a cell is signaled to remain undivided, instead of moving onto the S phase, it will leave the G1 phase and move into a state of dormancy called the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • Gilmour provided the first evidence that elevated epidermal levels of polyamines alone can positively affect the recruitment of bulge stem cells in the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This finding is significant with regard to the stem cell origin of skin cancer, since carcinogen-targeted stem cells can remain dormant for many years until recruited to develop into a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Between the beginning of the G1 phase (which is also after mitosis has occurred) and R, the cell is known as being in the G1-pm subphase, or the post-mitotic phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogene
  • Therefore, if the oncogene or set of oncogenes contributing maximally to a tumor cell's survival can be identified, such oncogene(s) are the most appropriate target(s) for maximizing tumor cell kill. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and thereby, to predict which oncogene(s) are the most appropriate target(s) for maximizing tumor cell kill. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cytoplasm
  • As a result, its levels in the cell are stabilized as it builds up in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • selective
  • Evaluation of cytotoxicity in Human noncancer cells indicated that the compounds 3i and 3m were practically ineffective in quiescent peripheral blood lymphocytes, and may have a selective antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • complexes
  • Complexes of cyclin that are active during other phases of the cell cycle are kept inactivated to prevent any cell-cycle events from occurring out of order. (wikipedia.org)
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-catenin participates in the formation and stabilization of adherens junctions by binding to β-catenin-cadherin complexes in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Coat colour in mammals is determined by the presence, distribution and biochemical activity of the melanocytes, which are specialized cells where eumelanins (black/brown pigments) and pheomelanins (yellow/red pigments) are synthesized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biochemical triggers known as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) switch on cell cycles events at the corrected time and in the correct order to prevent any mistakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • She discovered that overexpression of ODC and c-Raf activation is sufficient to convert a normal primary keratinocyte into a malignant, invasive tumor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Outcomes had been gathered from 3 different batches of MCF-7 cells. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Different cell stressors have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. (scripps.edu)
  • Interestingly, palmitate exerts its effect on fat cells at different levels. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The duration of each phase, including the G1 phase, is different in many different types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration of G1 is highly variable, even among different cells of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, temperature, and room for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiological temperatures are optimal for cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reasons the cell would not move into the S phase include insufficient cell growth, damaged DNA, or other preparations have not been completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Division
  • In humans, the normal physiological temperature is around 37 °C (98.6 °F). G1 phase is particularly important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell commits to division or to leaving the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is highly conserved during evolution and it plays a key role in the regulation of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before a cell can enter cell division, it needs to take in nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organisms of some taxonomic groups, including some animals, experience chronological decrease in mortality, for all or part of their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • In agreement with this hypothesis, we have found that palmitate inhibits adiponectin production by adipocytes in a cell-autonomous fashion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • cell's
  • We hypothesize that a cell's phenotypic entropy is determined as a function of the survival fraction or proliferation rate of a tumor ;and also, the number of transformed and differentiated states that arise within a particular cell population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The transformed states are the phenotypes that a cell can access which provide a hyperproliferative advantage over the cell's normal counterpart. (biomedcentral.com)
  • serum
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • In the study, Wahlestedt and his colleagues exposed cells to a number of them including hyperthermia, serum starvation, and two forms of amyloid β, hydrogen peroxide and high glucose. (scripps.edu)
  • represents
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • expression
  • Gilmour continued her research at The Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, first as postdoctoral fellow (1984 to 1987) and then as research associate (1988 to 1990 While at Wistar, she began her work in characterizing the regulation and expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in both normal and tumor tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • No expression of Daxx leads to malfunction of S phase and cells with two nuclei are formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • After R and before S, the cell is known as being in G1-ps, or the pre S phase interval of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • They bind to DnaA-ADP and DnaA-ATP with equal affinities and are bound by DnaA throughout most of the cell cycle and forms a scaffold on which rest of the orisome assembles. (wikipedia.org)