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  • cellular
  • Here, systems pharmacodynamic (PD) models that integrate cellular response data and extend a prototype model framework were developed to characterize dynamic changes in cell cycle phases of cancer cell subpopulations in response to gemcitabine and trabectedin as single agents and in combination. (frontiersin.org)
  • lines
  • For cells, cell lines and tissues in culture till half confluency. (gentaur.com)
  • Combinations of gemcitabine and trabectedin exert modest synergistic cytotoxic effects on two pancreatic cancer cell lines. (frontiersin.org)
  • PharmaMar S.A.U., Madrid, Spain) is a promising anticancer agent that has demonstrated clinical activity in many drug-resistant cancer cell lines, and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for advanced soft tissue sarcoma. (frontiersin.org)
  • genes
  • A representative sample of cyclical unknown genes (16 total) was epitope tagged in T. gondii tachyzoites yielding the discovery of new protein constituents of the parasite inner membrane complex, key mitotic structures and invasion organelles. (usf.edu)
  • Instead, the outermost cells in these embryos are hyperproliferative and fail to turn on critical epidermal genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the formation of 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitin chains and, to a lower extent, the formation of 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains. (uniprot.org)
  • Proteins are tagged for degradation with a small protein called ubiquitin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The degradation process yields peptides of about seven to eight amino acids long, which can then be further degraded into shorter amino acid sequences and used in synthesizing new proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • These α subunits are controlled by binding to "cap" structures or regulatory particles that recognize polyubiquitin tags attached to protein substrates and initiate the degradation process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The importance of proteolytic degradation inside cells and the role of ubiquitin in proteolytic pathways was acknowledged in the award of the 2004 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the discovery of the ubiquitin proteasome system, protein degradation in cells was thought to rely mainly on lysosomes, membrane-bound organelles with acidic and protease-filled interiors that can degrade and then recycle exogenous proteins and aged or damaged organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, work by Alfred Goldberg in 1977 on ATP-dependent protein degradation in reticulocytes, which lack lysosomes, suggested the presence of a second intracellular degradation mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was then discovered that a previously identified protein associated with proteolytic degradation, known as ATP-dependent proteolysis factor 1 (APF-1), was the same protein as ubiquitin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, the ATP-dependent proteolytic complex that was responsible for ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation was discovered and was called the 26S proteasome. (wikipedia.org)
  • IKK-α and IKK-β phosphorylate the IκB proteins, marking them for degradation via ubiquitination and allowing NF-κB transcription factors to go into the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • From 1989 to 1994 he was a Postdoctoral Fellow in the laboratory of Chris Sander at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg, studying the evolution of protein function using sequence- and structure-based approaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new class of peptide-derived inhibitors, based on sequence homology with the protein substrate, can be developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • S. cerevisiae is currently the only yeast cell known to have Berkeley bodies present, which are involved in particular secretory pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian
  • p70 S6 kinase, a target of PI 3-kinase and the mammalian target of rapamycin, was rapidly activated on growth factor stimulation of quiescent coronary artery smooth muscle cells and after balloon injury of rat carotid arteries. (ahajournals.org)
  • The complex functions upstream of ATM in mammalian cells and induces conformational changes that facilitate an increase in the affinity of ATM towards its substrates, such as CHK2 and p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • It is now accepted that cancer is more accurately described as being the product of malfunctions within the regulation of the cell cycle, such that injured or mutated cells which are normally killed, are allowed to progress through the cell cycle, accumulating mutations. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Because the two proteins, Cdc7 and Dbf4, must form a complex before activating the MCM complex, the regulation of one protein is sufficient for both. (wikipedia.org)
  • CKS1B and CKS2 proteins have demonstrated principal roles in cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdc14
  • Cdc14 was defined by Hartwell in his famous screen for loci that control the cell cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdc14 was later shown to encode a protein phosphatase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional data in support of this theory was later obtained from studies in zebrafish, where its Cdc14 proteins were also found to localize to the basal body and play roles in the formation of cilia, which are short forms of flagella. (wikipedia.org)
  • microtubules
  • Control dividing cells separate their duplicated chromosomes normally to the two daughter cells (left, blue arrows) as compared to cells expressing a mutated form of Cdt1 that is defective in binding to microtubules and exhibit severe delays in accomplishing this task (right, yellow arrows). (northwestern.edu)
  • These microtubules manipulate the chromosomes using another protein complex called Ndc80 as a connecting structure. (northwestern.edu)
  • Cells expressing a mutated form of CDT1 are defective in binding to microtubules and exhibit severe delays in accomplishing this task (right, yellow arrows). (nm.org)
  • Microtubules project from opposite ends of the cell, attach to the centromeres, and align the chromosomes centrally within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Saccharomyces
  • For example, Leucosporidium frigidum grows at −2 to 20 °C (28 to 68 °F), Saccharomyces telluris at 5 to 35 °C (41 to 95 °F), and Candida slooffi at 28 to 45 °C (82 to 113 °F). The cells can survive freezing under certain conditions, with viability decreasing over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Butler, Carrie, "Novel Cell Cycle Proteins In Apicomplexan Parasites" (2014). (usf.edu)
  • The main research goals are to analyse the function and interactions of cancer-related proteins and to develop novel computational methods to analyse, represent and interpret cancer genome information. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central role of Cdc25s in the cell cycle has garnered them considerable attention from the pharmaceutical industry as potential targets for novel chemotherapeutic (anti-cancer) agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • In one experiment, human T-ALL cells were infused into mice that then developed the disease. (medindia.net)
  • In addition to these tests with mouse cancers, the scientists found that the cyclin-D-inhibiting drug had similar effects on human blood cancer cells in the laboratory. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers from Germany and the United States describe an important step in how these NETs are released and how they stop a fungus from establishing an infection in mice and human cells in the journal Developmental Cell . (eurekalert.org)
  • Then, they observed human brains with fungal infections and confirmed that our neutrophils are also using cell cycle proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • The crystal structure of human cyclin B". Cell Cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most human cells are produced by mitotic cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decreased IKK-α activity has been reported in a large percentage of human squamous cell carcinomas, and restoring IKK-α in mouse models of skin cancer has been shown to have an anti-tumorigenic effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdk1
  • On the other hand, if cyclin B levels are depleted the cyclin B/CDK1 complex cannot form, cells cannot enter M phase and cell division slows down. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some anti-cancer therapies have been designed to prevent cyclin B/CDK1 complex formation in cancer cells to slow or prevent cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdk1 expression, which is crucial for M phase entry, is drastically diminished by Cks1 depletion, and that restoration of cdk1 reduces G(2)-M accumulation in Cks1-depleted cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • 2003. Protein-protein interactions involved in the recognition of p27 by E3 ubiquitin ligase. (wikipedia.org)
  • IKK-α is sulfenylated at a conserved cysteine residue in the kinase domain, which correlated with derepression of EGF promoter activity and increased EGF expression, indicating that IKK-α stimulatea migration through dynamic interactions with the EGF promoter depending on the redox state within cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • Even though the investigators genetically silenced the proteins or blocked them with a drug in normal as well as cancerous tissues, the animals remained healthy, they report in the Oct. 16 issue of the journal Cancer Cell . (medindia.net)
  • Coat-protein modification This method involves genetically modifying the fiber knob domain of the viral coat protein to alter its specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Although expressed widely in epithelial cells, CAR expression in tumours is extremely variable, leading to resistance to Ad5 infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • And due to the activity of the microfilaments around the cell membrane, the equatorial zone is narrowed and the cells are dumb bell-shaped. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Additionally, we selected one of these newly identified membrane proteins to further characterize in both T. gondii and P. falciparum. (usf.edu)
  • IMC16's membrane association cannot be attributed to an alveolin domain and its partial solubility suggests this protein may need more than post-translational modifications to anchor it into the membrane. (usf.edu)
  • In animal cells, a cell membrane pinches inward between the two developing nuclei to produce two new cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • The fiber protein also contains an HI-loop structure, which can tolerate peptide insertions of up to 100 residues without any negative effects on adenovirus integrity. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode
  • 4 We hypothesized that in addition to the generalized increases in protein synthesis necessary for cell growth, there is a highly regulated increase in the translation of certain mRNA species, including those that encode cell cycle proteins, and we also hypothesized that the molecular machinery regulating this translation represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention. (ahajournals.org)
  • functional
  • It has also been observed that decreasing cyclin B levels in cells increases the levels of functional p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the highly conserved nature of the Cdc25s implies an important role in cell physiology, Cdc25B and Cdc25C knockout mice (both single and double mutants) are viable and display no major alterations in their cell cycles, suggesting some functional compensation either via other Cdk regulatory enzymes (such as Wee1 and Myt1) or from the activity of the third member of the family, Cdc25A. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • Chromatid gradually helixes, chromatin and nucleoli are reappeared, endoplasmic reticulum vesicle combined to form nuclear envelope, the cell equatorial zone is narrowing, and finally completely split into two daughter cells. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Mutations
  • An earlier name for the protein that is still widely used, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated, reflected that the disorder ataxia-telangiectasia is caused by mutations of ATM. (wikipedia.org)
  • arrest
  • Activated CHK2 phosphorylates phosphatase CDC25A, which is degraded thereupon and can no longer dephosphorylate CDK2-Cyclin, resulting in cell-cycle arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • replicative
  • A conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAd) with a 24 base pair deletion in the retinoblastoma-binding domain of the E1A protein (Ad5- Δ24E3), is unable to silence retinoblastoma, and therefore unable to induce S-phase in host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitor
  • The new results shown that the cancers' addiction to these proteins is an Achilles' heel that can be safely targeted with an inhibitor drug that halts cancer growth or causes cancer cells to die. (medindia.net)
  • In contrast to findings in other cell types, growth factor- or balloon injury-induced downregulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27 Kip1 was not affected by rapamycin treatment. (ahajournals.org)
  • Incubation with 5% FCS reduced expression of the cdk-inhibitor protein p27Kip1 on monomer but not on polymerized type I collagen. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CDT1
  • According to Varma, cancer drugs targeting CDT1 could improve on current therapies because CDT1 is active in two separate phases of the cell cycle. (northwestern.edu)
  • If we can target CDT1, we can target two different mechanisms that cause genomic instability and eventually cell death. (northwestern.edu)
  • chromosomes
  • The chromosomes are all moved to the equatorial plane of the cell. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Dividing cells separate their duplicated chromosomes normally to two daughter cells (left, blue arrow). (nm.org)
  • The genome is composed of a number of chromosomes-complexes of tightly coiled DNA that contain genetic information vital for proper cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the cell elongates, corresponding daughter chromosomes are pulled toward opposite ends of the cell and condense maximally in late anaphase. (wikipedia.org)