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  • cyclin
  • Required for ubiquitination of cyclin E, and consequently, normal G1 cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, Runx2 controls the gene expression of cyclin D2, D3, and the CDK inhibitor p21(cip1) in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin D1 is expressed in all adult human tissues with the exception of cells derived from bone marrow stem cell lines (both lymphoid and myeloid). (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunohistochemical staining of cyclin D1 antibodies is used to diagnose mantle cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Independent of CDK, cyclin D1 binds to nuclear receptors (including estrogen receptor α, thyroid hormone receptor, PPARγ and AR ) to regulate cell proliferation, growth, and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increasing cyclin D1 levels during the G1 phase is induced by mitogenic growth factors primarily through Ras mediated pathways, and hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin D1 overexpression has been shown to correlate with early cancer onset and tumor progression and it can lead to oncogenesis by increasing anchorage-independent growth and angiogenesis via VEGF production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amplification of the CCND1 gene is present in: non-small cell lung cancers (30-46%) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (30-50%) pancreatic carcinomas (25%) bladder cancer (15%) pituitary adenomas (49-54%) breast carcinoma (13%) Cyclin D1 overexpression is strongly correlated to ER+ breast cancer and deregulation of cyclin D1 is associated with hormone therapy resistance in breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • MicroRNAs tightly control the cellular level of homologous recombination (HR) factors in the G1 phase, and failure of this control system results in an ectopic increase in HR proteins in G1 cells leading to impaired DNA repair. (elifesciences.org)
  • Hsp70 proteins can act to protect cells from thermal or oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like Raf-1 and B-Raf, A-Raf activates MEK proteins which causes the activation of ERK and ultimately leads to cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smads (or SMADs) comprise a family of structurally similar proteins that are the main signal transducers for receptors of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B) superfamily, which are critically important for regulating cell development and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • transition
  • Proliferating germ cells reside in the distal end and enter meiosis more proximally at a region of the germ line called the "transition zone," which corresponds to leptotene/zygotene of meiosis I ( Figure 1A ). (genetics.org)
  • At the transition zone (3), germ cells enter meiosis and proceed through meiotic prophase (4) to give rise to sperm in the L4 stage (6) and to oocytes during adulthood (5). (genetics.org)
  • His early work focused on the cell cycle and cancer biology, particularly the G1 to S phase transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • In knock out studies, it has been shown that Foxl2 may be responsible for the cuboidal transition of the pre-granulosa cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Observable
  • Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background, and a reference. (yeastgenome.org)
  • complexes
  • Macrophages can also endocytose IgG-bound latent TGF-β complexes that are secreted by plasma cells and then release active TGF-β into the extracellular fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • This is often controlled via oscillating levels of Runx2 within throughout cell cycle due to regulated degradation and transcriptional activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This step occurs very early when the cell is exiting the quiescent phase and thus is independent of Skp2 degradation of p27. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inactive
  • Akt resides in the cytosol in an inactive conformation, until the cell is stimulated and it translocates to the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumour
  • Susana and her research group at the Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, investigate how tumour progression is affected by the presence of extra centrosomes in a cancer cell, and how these cancer cells employ mechanisms to adapt to supernumerary centrosomes. (biologists.org)
  • miR-137 is embedded within a CpG island, a genomic region containing high frequency of CpG dinucleotides, and is reported to be frequently silenced by promoter hyper-methylation in many tumour types, including colorectal, gastric, breast and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major antagonist of PI3K activity is PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), a tumour suppressor which is often mutated or lost in cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • dysregulation
  • Here, we show that CTLA4 insufficiency initiates de novo tumorigenesis in the mouse stomach through inflammation triggered by host-intrinsic immune dysregulation rather than microbiota, with age-associated progression to malignancy accompanied by epigenetic dysregulation. (rupress.org)
  • On one end, the hypermethylation, mutation, or deletion of p16 leads to downregulation of the gene and can lead to cancer through the dysregulation of cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • Mucins, long associated with cancer aggression, remodel the cancer glycocalyx in a way that promotes proliferation in the metastatic site by enhancing integrin-mediated adhesion and thus driving cell cycle progression. (elifesciences.org)
  • METT-10 also promotes vulva, somatic gonad, and embryo development and ensures meiotic development of those germ cells that do differentiate. (genetics.org)
  • Because Runx2 promotes exit from the cell cycle, insufficient amounts of Runx2 are related to increased proliferation of osteoblasts observed in patients with cleodocranial disostosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitors
  • The androgen receptor (AR) is the most widely expressed steroid hormone receptor in human breast cancers and androgens including 5α-dihydrotestosterone are potent inhibitors of breast cancer cell proliferation. (springer.com)
  • cancers
  • Retinal cells are not sloughed off or replaced, and are subjected to high levels of mutagenic UV radiation, and thus most pRB knock-outs occur in retinal tissue (but it's also been documented in certain skin cancers in patients from New Zealand where the amount of UV radiation is significantly higher). (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, as one allele is already mutated in all other somatic cells, the future incidence of cancers in these individuals is observed with linear kinetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • further showed that miR-137 targets Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42), a well-known member of the Rho GTPase family found be upregulated in many human cancer types such as colorectal, testicular and breast cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations resulting in deletion or reduction of function of the CDKN2A gene are associated with increased risk of a wide range of cancers and alterations of the gene are frequently seen in cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Germ-line stem cells are unique because they either self-renew through mitosis or, at a certain frequency, switch to meiosis and produce gametes. (genetics.org)
  • The cell cycle culminates in mitosis, when replicated molecules of DNA compacted into chromosomes are equally partitioned between the two daughter cells. (biologists.org)
  • Considering that millions of cells undergo mitosis at any given time in an average human body, the overall fidelity of mitotic mechanisms becomes apparent. (biologists.org)
  • In the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cell line, Runx2 levels are a maximum during G1 and a minimum during G2, S, and mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • squamous
  • Analysis of promoter methylation in oral rinses of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck showed that miR-137 methylation is associated with female gender and inversely associated with body mass index. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • These results indicate that although ERK/MAPK hyperactivation in breast cancer cells is associated with reduced estrogen receptor (ERα) levels and antiestrogen resistance, AR levels are maintained and breast cancer cells remain susceptible to the growth inhibitory effects of androgens. (springer.com)
  • 2002) Testosterone and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone inhibit in vitro growth of human breast cancer cell lines. (springer.com)
  • 2001) Hyperactivation of MAPK induces loss of ERalpha expression in breast cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • Lents has published research reports in the area of cell and cancer biology, genetics, forensic science, as well as the teaching and learning of science, particularly evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • These functions are especially important when discussing bone cancer, particularly osteosarcoma development, that can be attributed to aberrant cell proliferation control. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cancer cells, the ratio between dimeric and tetrameric forms of PKM2 determines what happens to glucose carbons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In studies that compared fulvestrant plus abemaciclib to fulvestrant plus placebo in breast cancer patients, progression-free survival under abemaciclib therapy was 16.4 months on average, as compared to 9.3 months under the placebo regimen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In March 2017, Eli Lilly announced that it had met its primary endpoint of superior progression-free survival (PFS) over placebo plus fulvestrant in patients with estrogen receptor positive and HER2 negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reduction in the division and production of stem cells protects against cancer while increasing the risks associated with cellular senescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homozygous deletion of p16 are frequently found in esophageal cancer and gastric cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • We've recently published a special issue focussing on plant cell biology - check out the table of contents here , and a selection of the issue's highlights below. (biologists.org)
  • In this interview , our Special Issue's guest editor Jenny Russinova discusses her excitement for plant cell biology and what she hopes to achieve with the issue. (biologists.org)
  • Lents is noted for his work in cell biology, genetics, and forensic science, as well as his popular science writing and blogging on the evolution of human biology and behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdkn1b
  • Translation of CDKN1B reaches its maximum during quiescence and early G1. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTB acts by binding CDKN1b IRES to increase translation and when PTB levels decrease, G1 phase is shortened. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic cells
  • Communication between the oocytes and the surrounding somatic cells, such as the granulosa cells and the theca cells, is involved in the control of primordial follicle activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • As of early 2016, abemaciclib is involved in 3 Phase III clinical trials: The JUNIPER Study is comparing abemaciclib against erlotinib in patients with stage IV non-small-cell lung carcinoma Due to collect data until September 2017. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations
  • Mutations in this gene are associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, mast cell disease, acute myelogenous lukemia, and piebaldism. (openwetware.org)
  • cancerous
  • This distribution needs to be precise since the consequences of a single error are grim: aneuploid cells are either non-viable or, worse, they can become the first step on the road to cancerous transformation. (biologists.org)
  • In this case, should a cell sustain only one mutation in the other RB gene, all Rb in that cell would be ineffective at inhibiting cell cycle progression, allowing cells to divide uncontrollably and eventually become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the sporadic form, both alleles would need to sustain a mutation before the cell can become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • Therefore, if the oncogene or set of oncogenes contributing maximally to a tumor cell's survival can be identified, such oncogene(s) are the most appropriate target(s) for maximizing tumor cell kill. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, the combination treatment produced therapeutic benefits over either individual modality in two mouse models bearing orthotopic tumors, showing reduced tumor progression and significant prolonged mouse survival. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In metastatic colorectal cancer, chemotherapy combined with bevacizumab improves progression free and overall survival in 1st and 2nd line treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 15-d-Δ12,14-PGJ2, Δ12-PGJ2, and PGJ2 share a common mono-unsaturated cyclopentenone structure as well as a set of similar biological activities including the ability to suppress inflammation responses and the growth as well as survival of cells, particularly those of cancerous or neurological origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cells
  • This study will also look at specific substances called biomarkers in your blood, and in the tumor tissue which are involved in the growth of tumor cells, and determine if the levels of these biomarkers are related to your response to treatment or development of side effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This work illustrates the behavior of the interstitial pressure and of the interstitial fluid motion in tumor cords (cylindrical arrangements of tumor cells growing around blood vessels of the tumor) by means of numerical simulations on the basis of a mathematical model previously developed. (aimsciences.org)
  • Tumor cells arise from two distinct classes of genomic instability: mutational instability arising from changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA and chromosomal instability arising from improper rearrangement of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fraction of Ki-67-positive tumor cells (the Ki-67 labeling index) is often correlated with the clinical course of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Mondal S, Heidelberger C. In vitro malignant transformation by methylcholanthrene of the progeny of single cells derived from C3H mouse prostate. (springer.com)
  • Thus, the in vitro study of cell behavior towards material surface properties turns a prerequisite to assess both biocompatibility and bioactivity of any material intended to be used for clinical purposes. (mdpi.com)
  • stabilization
  • suggest that the accumulation of H19 RNA in skeletal muscle cells is solely due to the stabilization of that RNA in the muscle cells during differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • The initial work, published in the JCI in 2000, described the method enabling successful attainment of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC). (jci.org)
  • cytokinesis
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • phase
  • In human somatic cells, the cell cycle lasts about 18 hours, and the G1 phase takes up about 1/3 of that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, temperature, and room for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the normal physiological temperature is around 37 °C (98.6 °F). G1 phase is particularly important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell commits to division or to leaving the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a cell is signaled to remain undivided, instead of moving onto the S phase, it will leave the G1 phase and move into a state of dormancy called the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • and a high concentration of Cdk inhibitors is found during G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters a restriction point in which it is decided whether the cell will move forward with the G1 phase or move into the dormant G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • After R and before S, the cell is known as being in G1-ps, or the pre S phase interval of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reasons the cell would not move into the S phase include insufficient cell growth, damaged DNA, or other preparations have not been completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of each phase is dependent on the proper progression and completion of the previous one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that have temporarily or reversibly stopped dividing are said to have entered a state of quiescence called G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • G0 is a resting phase where the cell has left the cycle and has stopped dividing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle starts with this phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this phase, the biosynthetic activities of the cell, which are considerably slowed down during M phase, resume at a high rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In G1 phase, a cell has three options. (wikipedia.org)
  • In spite of their structural and functional differences, the CDK inhibitor isoforms and the ARF product encoded by this gene, through the regulatory roles of CDK4 and p53 in cell cycle G1 progression, share a common functionality in control of the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), the precursor whose detection offers certain advantages over BrdU, has now become the preferred methodology do detect DNA replicating (S-phase) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • arrest
  • An arrest of cells in G0 or G1 is often seen as a result of lack of nutrients (growth factors), for example after serum deprivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • compartments
  • These models predict that malignant cells in the marrow and peripheral blood exhibit the tendency to evolve toward population levels that enable them to replace normal cells in these compartments in the untreated case. (aimsciences.org)
  • Melanoma
  • Melanoma cells secrete a variety of angiogenic molecules, e.g. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • Constitutive expression of IL-8 directly correlated with the metastatic potential of the human melanoma cell lines tested. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • Since IL-8 expression in melanocytes and melanoma cells can be induced by inflammatory signals, the question of whether specific organ microenvironments could influence the expression of IL-8 was analyzed. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • Melanoma cells were implanted into the subcutis, the spleen. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • embryonic
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma is a warm tissue tumor that on the whole arises from the embryonic mesenchymal cells that would routinely mode striated muscle. (wgc2010.sk)
  • membranes
  • Both morphological changes and cytoskeletal reorganization, together with the focal adhesion development observed in HOB osteoblasts, significantly related to TiO 2 treated PLGA in which the Ti deposition method described has revealed to be a valuable tool to increase bioactivity of PLGA membranes, by combining cell nanotopography cues with the incorporation of bioactive factors. (mdpi.com)
  • The first step in preparing cells for cell cycle analysis is permeabilisation of the cells' plasma membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • However, loss of Gli3 leads to abnormal patterning and loss of Gli2 affects the development of ventral cell types, most significantly in the floor plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • These factors vary by cell type and gestational age and can be affected by changes to the in utero environment and maternal immunity. (jci.org)
  • progeny
  • Truly endothelial, BOEC are progeny of a transplantable cell that originates in bone marrow, a putative endothelial progenitor. (jci.org)
  • peripheral blood
  • In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • tissues
  • In addition, antiquitin plays a role in protecting cells and tissues from the damaging effects of osmotic stress, presumably through the generation of osmolytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Found
  • this is supported by the results of the XENDOS study, which found that 36% of people had gastrointestinal adverse effects during their fourth year of taking orlistat, whereas 91% of study subjects had experienced at least one GI-related side effect during the first year of treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • This is important because a doublet of two G0/G1 cells has the same total content of DNA and thus the same fluorescence intensity as a single G2/M cell. (wikipedia.org)