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  • mammalian
  • The G1 checkpoint, also known as the restriction point in mammalian cells and the start point in yeast, is the point at which the cell becomes committed to entering the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • University of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine researchers in the UI Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center have been awarded a five-year, $1.5 million grant from the National Cancer Institute to investigate a new hypothesis about how the mammalian cell cycle is regulated. (uiowa.edu)
  • regulation
  • Expansion of the Nek family throughout evolution has been accompanied by their broader involvement in checkpoint regulation and cilia biology. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Thus, the regulation of Cdc6p is tightly correlated to the activity of Cdk2 and since Cdk2-activity is oscillating once per cell cycle, the accumulation and degradation of Cdc6p also oscillates. (wikipedia.org)
  • defective
  • MA-11 cells did not show radiation-induced expression of the G 1 cell cycle inhibitor p21, indicative of a defective G 1 checkpoint and consistent with a point mutation detected in the tumor suppressor TP53 gene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because a defective G1/S checkpoint in BRCA1 heterozygotes could lead to a greater proportion of S-phase cells with unrepaired DNA damage (strand breaks) and a resultant increase in chromosomal instability, the frequency of micronuclei induced by UVA was examined. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Conclusion Our data suggest a defective G1/S checkpoint in cells from BRCA1 heterozygotes in response to UVA although this is not reflected in genomic instability as measured by micronuclei induction after oxidative stress or MMC treatment. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • activates
  • The decision to commit to a new round of cell division occurs when the cell activates cyclin-CDK-dependent transcription which promotes entry into S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • Zetterberg A and Larsson O (1985) Kinetic analysis of regulatory events in G1 leading to proliferation or quiescence of Swiss 3T3 cells. (els.net)
  • This presents a regulatory problem for the cell: switching the checkpoint to an inactive state after it has performed its function. (harvard.edu)
  • the feedback circuit provides an example of a simple mechanism the cell can use to help solve this regulatory problem. (harvard.edu)
  • As in the mitotic cycle, these transitions are regulated by combinations of gene regulatory factors, cyclin-Cdk complex and the APC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absence of cdc25 arrests cells in G2, but still allows activation of the G2-M checkpoint, implicating activation of wee1 and deactivation of cdc25 as important regulatory steps in the checkpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • The tumor cell defense response to ionizing radiation involves activation of cell cycle checkpoint signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In another, completely different model of mitotic catastrophe, namely 14.3.3 -deficient HCT116 colon carcinoma cells treated with doxorubicin, Chk2 activation was also found to be deficient as compared to 14.3.3 -sufficient controls. (uu.nl)
  • In addition, Cdc6p overexpression in primary cells may promote DNA hyperreplication and induce a senescence response similar to that caused by oncogene activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The export of Whi5 results in the partial activation of the transcription factors SBF and MBF, which ultimately promote cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • These transcription factors promote Cln1/2 expression, and enhance the cell cycle response by forming a positive feedback loop, as Cln1/2 promotes SBF activation and Whi5 export. (wikipedia.org)
  • CHK2
  • No. R1536 shows detection of a predominant band at ~60 kDa corresponding to phosphorylated CHK2 (arrowhead) in MCF-7 whole cell lysates after treatment with doxorubicin. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • defects
  • In contrast, cancer cells with defects in redox-sensitive checkpoints will continue to proliferate,' explained Goswami, who also is a co-director of the Free Radical Research Core in the Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center at the UI. (uiowa.edu)
  • initiation of cell
  • Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • Pardee AB (1974) A restriction point for control of normal animal cell proliferation. (els.net)
  • The p53 tumor-suppressor gene integrates numerous signals that control cell life and death. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The research team, led by Prabhat Goswami, Ph.D., UI assistant professor of radiation oncology in the Free Radical and Radiation Biology Graduate Program, will test the idea that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by cells control the progression from the G1 phase of the cell cycle to the S phase, in which DNA is synthesized. (uiowa.edu)
  • These results suggest that the redox environment regulates cell cycle progression, and that redox control of the cell cycle could be different in normal cell and in cancer cells. (uiowa.edu)
  • If redox control of the cell cycle is different in normal cells than in cancer cells, that difference potentially could be exploited to develop new redox-based cancer therapies. (uiowa.edu)
  • Purpose There is evidence to suggest that the breast cancer predisposing gene, BRCA1, is involved in cell cycle control and the response to damage but mouse brca1+/− heterozygotes have no distinctive phenotype. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The physiological factors that control passage through the Start checkpoint include external nutrient concentrations, presence of mating factor/ pheromone, forms of stress, and size control. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin
  • The formation of the cyclin E-CDK2 complex then promotes a positive feedback loop which creates an "all or nothing" switch from which the cell can not return. (wikipedia.org)
  • activate
  • When cells are ready to divide, because cell size is big enough or because they receive the appropriate stimulus, they activate the mechanism to enter into the cell cycle, and they duplicate most organelles during S (synthesis) phase, including their centrosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • radiation
  • From the relapsed and refractory establishing, salvage radiation treatment and car originate-cell transplantation outcomes are exceedingly weak for clients with MYC sickness (CORAL study: Team up Trial offer in Relapsed Competitive Lymphoma), where by 75Percent sufferers had Species of fish evidence of DHL. (immune-source.com)
  • In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 1 million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gemcitabine progresses through a similar mechanism, causing cells in the S-phase to disrepair DNA damage caused by the radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore the unsynapsed chromosomes in Spo11 cells can be a target of checkpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, haploinsufficient mammary epithelial cells illustrated misaligned chromosomes and abnormal segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to preserve the cell's identity and proper function, it is necessary to maintain the appropriate number of chromosomes after each cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • An error in generating daughter cells with fewer or greater number of chromosomes than expected (a situation termed aneuploidy), may lead in best case to cell death, or alternatively it may generate catastrophic phenotypic results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microtubules (MTs) are long proteic filaments, with asymmetric extremities: one end termed "minus" (-) end, relatively stable and close to the centrosome, and an end termed "plus" (+) end, with alternating phases of growth and retraction, exploring the center of the cell searching the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the equator of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome segregation
  • Examples include: In cancer cells, aneuploidy is a frequent event, indicating that these cells present a defect in the machinery involved in chromosome segregation, as well as in the mechanism ensuring that segregation is correctly performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, Down syndrome appears in children carrying in their cells one extra copy of chromosome 21, as a result of a defect in chromosome segregation during meiosis in one of the progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism responsible for the correct distribution of sister chromatids during cell division is named chromosome segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • To ensure that chromosome segregation takes place correctly, cells have developed a precise and complex mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • This system acts like a timer, or a clock, which sets a fixed amount of time for the cell to spend in each phase of the cell cycle, while at the same time it also responds to information received from the processes it controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • volume
  • This second edition volume provides detailed protocols on the theoretical background of cell cycle synchronization procedures and instructions on how to implement these techniques. (springer.com)
  • Mammalian
  • The G1 checkpoint, also known as the restriction point in mammalian cells and the start point in yeast, is the point at which the cell becomes committed to entering the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • University of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine researchers in the UI Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center have been awarded a five-year, $1.5 million grant from the National Cancer Institute to investigate a new hypothesis about how the mammalian cell cycle is regulated. (uiowa.edu)
  • phosphorylation
  • Furthermore, xanthatin blocked phosphorylation of NF-κB (p65) and IκBa, which might also contribute to its pro-apoptotic effects on A549 cells. (mdpi.com)
  • The most common function is found during the cell cycle when mutations occur because it becomes activated without phosphorylation and turns on Cds1. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Examples include: In cancer cells, aneuploidy is a frequent event, indicating that these cells present a defect in the machinery involved in chromosome segregation, as well as in the mechanism ensuring that segregation is correctly performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, Down syndrome appears in children carrying in their cells one extra copy of chromosome 21, as a result of a defect in chromosome segregation during meiosis in one of the progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only this pattern of attachment will ensure that each daughter cell receives one copy of the chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism responsible for the correct distribution of sister chromatids during cell division is named chromosome segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • To ensure that chromosome segregation takes place correctly, cells have developed a precise and complex mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first place, cells must coordinate centrosome duplication with DNA replication, and a failure in this coordination will generate monopolar or multipolar mitotic spindles, which generally will produce abnormal chromosome segregation, because in this case, chromosome distribution will not take place in a balanced way. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, if by chance a microtubule exploring the center of the cell encounters a kinetochore, it may happen that the kinetochore will capture it, so that the chromosome will become attached to the spindle via the kinetochore of one of its sister chromatids. (wikipedia.org)