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  • yeast
  • Perturbations of the spi1p GTPase system in fission yeast, caused by mutation or overexpression of several regulatory proteins, result in a unique terminal phenotype that includes condensed chromosomes, a wide medial septum, and a fragmented nuclear envelope. (genetics.org)
  • Previous experience with molecular genetics and cell biology of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae or with tissue cell cultures and cell biology of mammalian cells are welcome, but not required. (mpg.de)
  • Here, we show that under microtubule-destabilizing conditions, such as low temperature or the presence of the spindle-depolymerizing drug benomyl, meiotic budding yeast cells arrest in G 1 or G 2 , instead of metaphase. (asm.org)
  • Concurrent with the chromosomal events, cells progress through an intricate developmental program that culminates in the production of highly specialized cell types, such as sperm and egg, or spores in budding yeast. (asm.org)
  • Dicentric chromosomes are studied in model organisms such as yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). (wikipedia.org)
  • The G1 checkpoint, also known as the restriction point in mammalian cells and the start point in yeast, is the point at which the cell becomes committed to entering the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The yeast cells with defective rad9 failed to arrest following radiation, continued cell division and died rapidly while the cells with wild-type rad9 successfully arrested in late S/G2 phase and remained viable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clusters were present on all 16 yeast chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • The latter is essential because conventional DNA polymerases are unidirectional and cannot copy all bases at the 3′ end of a linear duplex ( 33 ), resulting in the slow loss of genetic material from the ends of chromosomes with each replication round. (rupress.org)
  • In most if not all normal somatic cells, telomerase is either not expressed or not capable of extending chromosome ends, and as a result, telomere repeats are lost with each replication round ( 10 , 13 , 16 , 19 ). (rupress.org)
  • Compared to the eukaryotic cell cycle, the prokaryotic cell cycle (known as binary fission) is relatively simple and quick: the chromosome replicates from the origin of replication, a new membrane is assembled, and the cell wall forms a septum which divides the cell into two. (wikipedia.org)
  • p21 interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in S phase DNA replication and DNA damage repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cell cycle, DNA is usually most vulnerable during replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Just as its name suggests, the Shugoshin protein guides chromosome cohesion during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinetochore protein H (Cenph) was originally identified as a protein specifically and constitutively localized in kinetochores throughout the cell cycle in mouse cells ( 12 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Background HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells differentiate in response to lactogenic hormone leading to expression of milk protein including -casein. (cancerdir.com)
  • The main mechanism of action of the cell cycle checkpoints is through the regulation of the activities of a family of protein kinases known as the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which bind to different classes of regulator proteins known as cyclins, with specific cyclin-CDK complexes being formed and activated at different phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is encoded by the CDKN1A gene located on chromosome 6 (6p21.2) in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • identified a protein p21 (WAF1) which was present in cells expressing wild type p53 but not those with mutant p53, moreover constitutive expression of p21 led to cell cycle arrest in a number of cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • A naturally occurring p73 mutation in a p73-p53 double-mutant lung cancer cell line encodes p73α protein with a dominant-negative function TP73 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Kaghad M, Bonnet H, Yang A, et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • The loss of normal CHK2 protein function leads to unregulated cell division, accumulated damage to DNA and in many cases, tumor development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autophagy protein 5 (ATG5) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATG5 gene located on Chromosome 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Programmed Cell Death Protein 4 (PDCD4) is known to inhibit ATG5 expression via inhibition of protein translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under cell stress conditions, the growth arrest and DNA damage 45 beta (Gadd45ß) protein will interact with MAPK/ERK kinase kinase 4 (MEKK4) to form the Gadd45ß-MEKK4 signaling complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is a component of a complex involved in the activation of serine/threonine kinase 11, a master kinase that regulates cell polarity and energy-generating metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Telomeres are specialized structures at the end of chromosomes composed of DNA and proteins that are essential for maintaining the stability of eukaryotic genomes (for review see references 4 , 34 ). (rupress.org)
  • Other proteins, such as Mad2, monitor the microtubule attachment as well as the tension between sister kinetochores and activate the spindle checkpoint to arrest the cell cycle when either of these is absent. (wikipedia.org)
  • This corona is formed by a dynamic network of resident and temporary proteins implicated in the spindle checkpoint, in MTs anchoring and in the regulation of chromosome behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin-depend
  • Hct1 is phosphorylated in vivo at multiple CDK consensus sites during cell cycle stages when activity of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28 is high and APC activity is low. (sdbonline.org)
  • For example, cells that fail to decrease cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity cannot disassemble the meiosis I spindle, but other aspects of the meiotic cell cycle and the developmental program (spore production) continue, leading to the formation of defective gametes ( 5 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • meiosis
  • In the course of gamete production, a specialized cell division called meiosis creates four haploid cells from one diploid progenitor. (asm.org)
  • Many aspects of cell cycle regulation are similar during proliferative mitotic growth and meiosis, but the different division pattern of meiosis requires modification of the mitotic cell cycle machinery to fit the needs of the meiotic differentiation program. (asm.org)
  • During the meiotic cell cycle, DNA is replicated once and then separated twice during meiosis I and meiosis II without an intervening S phase. (asm.org)
  • tumor
  • Nevertheless, like in human cells, measurable telomerase activity is upregulated in mouse tumors ( 3 , 6 , 7 , 9 ), suggesting a role for telomerase in murine tumor formation after all. (rupress.org)
  • Downregulation of telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA expression by wild type p53 in human tumor cells. (springer.com)
  • tumor cells resulted in decreased amounts of HER3 and it is downstream signaling through the Ras/Raf/ERK and PI3E/AKT paths. (cancerdir.com)
  • However, in some cancer types KLF4 may act as a tumor promoter where increased KLF4 expression has been reported, such as in oral squamous cell carcinoma and in primary breast ductal carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDKN1C is a tumor suppressor human gene on chromosome 11 (11p15) and belongs to the cip/kip gene family. (wikipedia.org)
  • telomeres
  • On average, telomeres are 5-10 times longer in murine cells than in human cells, and yet murine cells show much more rapid senescence in culture. (rupress.org)
  • The fact that the KO mice were born alive and apparently normal was the first surprise, since it indicates that telomerase is not essential for maintaining telomeres in somatic (stem) cells of renewing tissues such as skin, gut, and blood during development and normal steady-state tissue homeostasis. (rupress.org)
  • Telomeres When telomeres of chromosomes shorten with continued cell divisions, the chromosome ends may also fuse, forming dicentric chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • checkpoint
  • The DNA damage checkpoint senses DNA lesions using the ATM and ATR apical sensors to effect transient cell cycle arrest and efficient DNA repair. (g3journal.org)
  • During the mitotic cell cycle, microtubule depolymerization leads to a cell cycle arrest in metaphase, due to activation of the spindle checkpoint. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, kinetochores play essential roles in sister chromatin adhesion and separation, connection of chromosome and microtubules, chromatid movement, and mitotic checkpoint control ( 3 , 4 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Working in mouse models, it was also shown that whilst mice lacking p21 were healthy, spontaneous tumours developed and G1 checkpoint control was compromised in cells derived from these mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) commonly report the nonfunctional p53-p21 axis of the G1/S checkpoint pathway, and its relevance for cell cycle regulation and the DNA damage response (DDR). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are hotspots in the genome where DNA sequences are prone to gaps and breaks after inhibition of DNA synthesis such as in the aforementioned checkpoint arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • defects
  • However, detailed analysis of chromosomes in telomerase null cells has revealed multiple defects that point to the role of telomerase in normal biology and raise well-defined questions for future research. (rupress.org)
  • When DNA damage occurs, or when the cell detects any defects which necessitate it to delay or halt the cell cycle in G1, arrest occurs through several mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Here, we made use of chromosomally stable human RPE-1 cells (retinal pigment epithelial cells) in which micronuclei were induced by the co-inhibition of CENP-E and MPS1 (also known as TTK). (biologists.org)
  • Inhibition of telomerase activity in endometrial cancer cells by selenium-cisplatin conjugate despite suppression of DNA-damaging activity by sodium ascorbate. (springer.com)
  • Pursuant to this, reprimo's expression during the G2 phase of the cell cycle ultimately results in the reduction of Cdc2 expression, and in the inhibition of the nuclear translocation of cyclin B1 which is necessary to its function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, CHK2's inhibition of the CDC25 phosphatases prevents entry of the cell into mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vinca alkaloids work by causing the inhibition of the polymerization of tubulin into microtubules, resulting in the G2/M arrest within the cell cycle and eventually cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • We speculate that BUB-3 is involved in the DNA damage response through regulation of cell cycle timing. (g3journal.org)
  • KLF4 is expressed in the cells that are non-dividing and are terminally differentiated in the intestinal epithelium, where KLF4 is important in the regulation of intestinal epithelium homeostasis (terminal cell differentiation and proper localization of the different intestinal epithelium cell types). (wikipedia.org)
  • embryos
  • Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4-5 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50-150 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolating the embryoblast or inner cell mass (ICM) results in destruction of the blastocyst, which raises ethical issues, including whether or not embryos at the pre-implantation stage should be considered to have the same moral or legal status as embryos in the post-implantation stage of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Cells arrest in G 1 if microtubule perturbation occurs as they enter the meiotic cell cycle and in G 2 if cells are already undergoing premeiotic S phase. (asm.org)
  • The decision to commit to a new round of cell division occurs when the cell activates cyclin-CDK-dependent transcription which promotes entry into S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Most living cells have a defined number of chromosomes: Human cells, for example, have 23 pairs. (technologynetworks.com)
  • To verify the results and to uncover the involved mechanisms, we will knock down promising candidates either in chromosomally unstable cancer cell lines or in our recently established model of human aneuploid cells with defined karyotype changes. (mpg.de)
  • Test selected candidates in cancer cells lines and in model human aneuploids. (mpg.de)
  • Specific association of human telomerase activity with immortal cells and cancer. (springer.com)
  • Telomerase activity is associated with cell cycle deregulation in human breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • KLF4 is an anti-tumorigenic factor and its expression is often lost in various human cancer types, such as Colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, intestinal cancer, prostate cancer, bladder cancer and lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assignment of NEK6, a NIMA-related gene, to human chromosome 9q33. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human ES cells measure approximately 14 μm while mouse ES cells are closer to 8 μm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other potential uses of embryonic stem cells include investigation of early human development, study of genetic disease and as in vitro systems for toxicology testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 2002 article in PNAS, "Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • fail
  • Similar to the spoT8-1 mutant, mum2 deletion strains do not undergo premeiotic DNA synthesis, arrest prior to the first meiotic division and fail to sporulate. (genetics.org)
  • genetically
  • For the first time, MIT biologists have now identified a mechanism that the immune system uses to eliminate these genetically imbalanced cells from the body. (technologynetworks.com)
  • differentiation
  • Telomerase activity is downregulated via decreases in hTERT mRNA but not TEP1 mRNA or hTERT during the differentiation of leukemic cells. (springer.com)
  • the kidneys where it is involved in the differentiation of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to renal lineage in vitro and its dysregulation has been linked to some renal pathologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the pluripotent differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells could be harnessed in vitro, it might be a means of deriving cell or tissue types virtually to order. (wikipedia.org)
  • replicate
  • Before a cell divides, its chromosomes replicate and then line up in the middle of the cell. (technologynetworks.com)
  • As the expression of reprimo is controlled by p53, which is in turn controlled by a wide array of convergent signal pathways pertaining to DNA damage or nutrient depravity, its presence is expected within cells which would cause damage should they be freely allowed to replicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • divisions
  • Despite the growing interest in micronuclei, little is known about their fate in subsequent cell divisions, which will be key to understand their contribution to cancer development. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we investigated how chromatids from micronuclei confront subsequent divisions, and how cells can prevent the propagation of such potential harmful structures. (biologists.org)
  • gsg1 diploids are reduced in their ability to complete premeiotic DNA synthesis and the meiotic divisions, and a small percentage of cells produce spores. (genetics.org)
  • sequences
  • Ran-GTPases lack consensus membrane attachment sequences, are predominantly nuclear localized ( B ischoff and P onstingl 1991b ), and are very abundant, with an estimated 10 7 molecules per HeLa cell ( B ischoff and P onstingl 1991b ). (genetics.org)
  • meiotic cell
  • For gamete formation to occur successfully, it is essential that the meiotic cell cycle and the developmental program are tightly coupled via molecular interactions that we are only beginning to understand. (asm.org)
  • The complex transcriptional program that underlies gametogenesis appears to be one key level of control that couples the meiotic cell cycle to gamete development. (asm.org)
  • nuclear
  • Dicentric chromosomes were first detected in lymphocytes from blood smears of civil and military personnel who were assigned to deal with the aftermath of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster (liquidators). (wikipedia.org)
  • This structure is assembled in the surface of the chromosomes when the nuclear envelope breaks down. (wikipedia.org)
  • unstable
  • As genetic errors accumulate, aneuploid cells eventually become too unstable to keep dividing. (technologynetworks.com)
  • After identifications of pathways required for survival of aneuploid and chromosomally unstable cells, we will test known inhibitors of these pathways for selective killing of chromosomally unstable cancer cell lines. (mpg.de)
  • The resulting dicentric chromosomes are highly unstable, giving rise to chromosomal translocations, deletions and amplifications, such as the Robertsonian translocation. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • Truly endothelial, BOEC are progeny of a transplantable cell that originates in bone marrow, a putative endothelial progenitor. (jci.org)
  • Cells were isolated from the bone marrow of CML-BC patients and were treated with 1 μM ATO and 5 nM nilotinib, either alone or in combination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By expressing a dominant negative form of PTPkappa or by using short-hairpin RNA for PTPkappa in bone-marrow derived stem cells, Erdenbayer and colleagues demonstrated that CD4(+) T cells development was inhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor
  • Tumor cells arise from two distinct classes of genomic instability: mutational instability arising from changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA and chromosomal instability arising from improper rearrangement of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human PTPRK gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 6, a putative tumor suppressor region of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the presence of PTPkappa at the cell membrane was shown to sequester β-catenin to the plasma membrane, these data suggest that one mechanism whereby PTPkappa functions as a tumor suppressor is by regulating the intracellular localization of free-β-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • The anthrax toxin is a tripartite toxin, where the two enzymatic subunits require the third subunit, the protective antigen (PA), to interact with cells and be escorted to their cytoplasmic targets. (prolekare.cz)
  • melanoma cells
  • Melanoma cells secrete a variety of angiogenic molecules, e.g. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • Since IL-8 expression in melanocytes and melanoma cells can be induced by inflammatory signals, the question of whether specific organ microenvironments could influence the expression of IL-8 was analyzed. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • Melanoma cells were implanted into the subcutis, the spleen. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • The authors suggest that the presence of PTPkappa at the plasma membrane in association with the cadherin/catenin complex is important for the maintenance of adherens junction in pancreatic acinar cells, much as it was suggested above in melanoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • The initial work, published in the JCI in 2000, described the method enabling successful attainment of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC). (jci.org)
  • progenitor
  • When the melanocyte progenitor cells start to migrate up from the bottom of the follicle into the barbs where they will make pigment, they further divide until a sufficient number of pigment cells is achieved. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • PA 7mer -EF/LF and receptors-is then internalized by the cell and delivered to early endosomes, where PA 7mer undergoes a conformational change that leads to its membrane insertion and pore-formation (pPA 7mer ) . (prolekare.cz)
  • dependent
  • In cell signaling, HEPACAM directly interacts with F-actin and calveolin 1, and is capable of inducing senescence-like growth arrest via a p53/p21-dependent pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the extracellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • degrades
  • Due to the short half-life of the sok antitoxin, daughter cells inherit only small amounts and it quickly degrades. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • In cells with a nucleus, as in eukaryotes, the cell cycle is also divided into three periods: interphase, the mitotic (M) phase, and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • transcript
  • So much so that in an R1-positive cell, Sok transcript exists in considerable molar excess over Hok mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daughter cells without a copy of the R1 plasmid die because they do not have the means to produce more sok antitoxin transcript to inhibit translation of the inherited hok mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some DNA damage may remain in any cell despite the action of repair processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This system acts like a timer, or a clock, which sets a fixed amount of time for the cell to spend in each phase of the cell cycle, while at the same time it also responds to information received from the processes it controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Altered DNA methylation at various CpG sites was associated with exposure to mercury, lead or BPA, providing candidates to be investigated using a larger study sample, as the results may reflect an independently associated predictor (e.g. socioeconomic status, diet, genetic variants, altered blood cell composition). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In previous research, it has been observed the involvement of an imprinted gene within TNDM, is only expressed by the father's genetic material or chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • Key to this chromosome-wide activation is a regulatory complex containing long, non-coding RNA and three enzymes. (lmu.de)
  • predominant
  • The predominant cell types are fibroblasts and fibrous astro- proscar po jakim czasie efekty, with some myofibroblasts and macrophages. (anigroup.ru)
  • morphology
  • Cell morphology and the content of hemoglobin were examined with Wright-Giemsa staining and benzidine staining, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • No abnormalities were observed on the cellular morphology of these cell lines both at low and high densities of cultures by microscopy according to the guideline from ATCC ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We monitored the cell morphology of these cell lines by microscopy, and confirmed to maintain their morphologic images in comparison with the original morphologic images from the above affiliation. (aacrjournals.org)