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  • protein
  • Ircinin-1 also induced cytochrome c release, cleavage activations of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and up-regulation Fas and Fas-L. Even though the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAPs) was expressed in ircinin-1-untreated or -treated SK-MEL-2 cells, only cIAP-1, but not XIAP or cIAP-2, was cleaved during ircinin-1-induced apoptosis at Western blot and RT-PCR studies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the mechanism of cell or organ damage is still poorly understood with respect to early signaling cascades including mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In all eukaryotic cells, ATR and ATM are protein kinases that detect DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the plasmid is not inherited, long-lived FlmA mRNA and protein will be highly toxic to the cell, possibly to the point of causing cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • phase
  • Telomere shortening with decreased telomerase activity was observed in senescent HDFs while the levels of damaged DNA and number of cells in G 0 /G 1 phase were increased and S phase cells were decreased. (hindawi.com)
  • Incubation with TRF reversed the morphology of senescent HDFs to resemble that of young cells with decreased activity of SA- β -gal, damaged DNA, and cells in G 0 /G 1 phase while cells in the S phase were increased. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been clear for a number of years that small DNA tumor viruses such as simian virus 40 (SV40) and papillomavirus interact with cell cycle control pathways during lytic replication in a way that promotes entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. (asm.org)
  • Further, numerous studies from several different herpesvirus systems have provided unifying evidence that these viruses encode factors that elicit a cell cycle block, thereby actively preventing entry into S phase. (asm.org)
  • MEK inhibition, however, interferes with adenovirus replication due to resulting G1-phase cell cycle arrest. (nih.gov)
  • C) Cell cycle phase was measured 1-3 days post treatment with CI1040 or DMSO through PI staining. (nih.gov)
  • During S phase the cell is more vulnerable to DNA damage than any other part of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pursuant to this, reprimo's expression during the G2 phase of the cell cycle ultimately results in the reduction of Cdc2 expression, and in the inhibition of the nuclear translocation of cyclin B1 which is necessary to its function. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the M (mitosis) phase, during which the duplicated chromosomes (known as the sister chromatids) separate into two daughter nuclei, and the cell divides into two daughter cells, each with a full copy of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This system acts like a timer, or a clock, which sets a fixed amount of time for the cell to spend in each phase of the cell cycle, while at the same time it also responds to information received from the processes it controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus p57KIP2 causes arrest of the cell cycle in G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDIs are involved in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Purpose: It was recently reported that the organic arsenic compound darinaparsin (DPS) is a cytotoxin and radiosensitizer of tumor cells in vitro and in subcutaneous xenograft tumors. (osti.gov)
  • The extent to which viruses infect targeted cells determines the efficacy of this approach but many tumors down-regulate the Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR), rendering them less susceptible to infection. (nih.gov)
  • ASPP2 importance in human malignancies is emphasized by studies that show that downregulation of ASPP2 is commonly found in tumors and carcinoma cells expressing wild type p53, and to a lesser extent mutant p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitors
  • Predictive understanding of how to attain and enhance therapeutic efficacy of combinatorial treatment is difficult since the effects of MEK inhibitors, in conjunction with adenovirus/cell interactions, are complex nonlinear dynamic processes. (nih.gov)
  • hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Nitidine chloride inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth in vivo through the suppression of the jak1/stat3 signaling pathway. (springer.com)
  • This study aimed to analyze the antitumoral effects of the purified pfaffosidic fraction or saponinic fraction on the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. (hindawi.com)
  • pathways
  • These cell cycle-promoting functions also appear to be important since inhibition of these pathways inhibits viral replication. (asm.org)
  • Although a scattering of publications prior to 1995 provided hints into the interaction between herpesviruses and cell cycle control pathways, accumulating interest from several different laboratories over the past 5 or 6 years has begun to provide general underlying themes into this issue as well as elucidate some of the details of these interactions. (asm.org)
  • As the expression of reprimo is controlled by p53, which is in turn controlled by a wide array of convergent signal pathways pertaining to DNA damage or nutrient depravity, its presence is expected within cells which would cause damage should they be freely allowed to replicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Comparison of in vitro activities of camptothecin and nitidine derivatives against fungal and cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the increase in percentage of cells positive for SA- β -gal with cumulative population doublings (CPDs) and age [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Purified CdtB had DNase activity, i.e. caused DNA double strand damage, in vitro and in vivo prior to cell arrest and apoptosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • inhibits
  • Wang Z, Jiang W, Zhang Z, Qian M, Du B. Nitidine chloride inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines production via MAPK and NF-kappab pathway in raw 264.7 cells. (springer.com)
  • Nitidine chloride inhibits renal cancer cell metastasis via suppressing akt signaling pathway. (springer.com)
  • It inhibits activation of T cells and B cells by reducing the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2). (wikipedia.org)
  • anterior-posterior axis
  • They are involved in a multitude of cellular functions including osteogenesis, cell differentiation, anterior/posterior axis specification, growth, and homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • induction
  • Apoptosis induction by NC treatment was confirmed by JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential, annexin V-positive cell, and TUNEL staining. (springer.com)
  • Together these studies indicate that induction of G2 arrest, but not necessarily continued arrest in G2, was required for Vpr-induced apoptosis to occur. (asm.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Nevertheless, the mechanisms that are responsible for the continuous cell growth and increased in SA- β -gal expression in senescent cells have not been well elucidated [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • When DNA damage occurs, or when the cell detects any defects which necessitate it to delay or halt the cell cycle in G1, arrest occurs through several mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • As discussed here, regulation of the cell cycle during herpesvirus DNA replication has evolved as a complex series of interactions involving multiple viral factors, further implying an important role for this function in the life cycle of the virus. (asm.org)
  • ASPP2 plays a central role in regulation of apoptosis and cell growth via its interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin
  • These changes were associated with decreased cyclin D1 and increased p27Kip1levels, leading to a G1 cell-cycle arrest as assessed by Western blotting and flow cytometry. (harvard.edu)
  • The formation of the cyclin E-CDK2 complex then promotes a positive feedback loop which creates an "all or nothing" switch from which the cell can not return. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Since these viruses do not code for their own DNA polymerase or other accessory factors that support DNA replication, this strategy is a means of subverting the cell cycle control machinery to support viral DNA replication. (asm.org)
  • The purpose of this review is to bridge the current understanding of virus-cell cycle interactions for these three herpesvirus lytic replication systems. (asm.org)
  • At the end of this review, I have commented on some of the common strategies utilized by these viruses to achieve efficient cell synchronization during lytic replication. (asm.org)
  • In replicating cells, such as cells lining the colon, errors occur upon replication of past damages in the template strand of DNA or during repair of DNA damages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to the eukaryotic cell cycle, the prokaryotic cell cycle (known as binary fission) is relatively simple and quick: the chromosome replicates from the origin of replication, a new membrane is assembled, and the cell wall forms a septum which divides the cell into two. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • MicroRNA-140-5p suppresses retinoblastoma cell growth via inhibiting c-Met/AKT/mTOR pathway. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In addition, NC exhibited a synergistic effect with doxorubicin on the growth inhibition of the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. (springer.com)
  • Ageing cells accumulate DNA damage which may consequently lead to an irreversible growth arrest [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Approximately 10 years later, Dargan and Subak-Sharpe ( 14 ) showed that infection of cells with L particles (naturally produced HSV virions that do not contain any viral DNA) blocks cell growth without inducing apoptosis. (asm.org)
  • All living organisms are products of repeated rounds of cell growth and division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulate
  • Senescent cells have been shown to accumulate with age in human tissues and, thus, have been suggested to contribute to organismal ageing [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Un-repaired DNA damages accumulate in non-replicating cells, such as cells in the brains or muscles of adult mammals and can cause aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • These methylation events commonly cause aberrant DNA splicing which may cause one of many potential errors within the resulting mutant reprimo that ultimately undermine its ability to be expressed, have its intended effects, or to accumulate in sufficient quantities to produce the expected arrest reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxin
  • Haemophilus parasuis cytolethal distending toxin induces cell cycle arrest and p53-dependent apoptosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Chromosomal toxin-antitoxin systems also exist, some of which perform cell functions such as responding to stresses, causing cell cycle arrest and bringing about programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxin-antitoxin systems have several biotechnological applications, such as a method of maintaining plasmids in cell lines, targets for antibiotics, and as positive selection vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the toxin-antitoxin system confers an advantage to the host DNA by eliminating competing plasmids in cell progeny. (wikipedia.org)
  • MazEF, a toxin-antitoxin locus found in E. coli and other bacteria, induces programmed cell death in response to starvation, specifically a lack of amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a daughter cell does not inherit the par locus, the unstable RNAII will quickly degrade leaving the long-lived fst toxin to damage or kill the daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • Upon entering the state of senescence, cells undergo dramatic changes in morphology. (hindawi.com)
  • These regulatory actions help to render the afflicted cell into an arrested state which is less immediately threatening to the whole organism due to the inability of afflicted cells to replicate with damaged DNA, among other potential circumstances, giving the cell an opportunity to undergo DNA repair or apoptosis as the level of damage will dictate. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Chromosome mis-segregation leads to aneuploidy, a condition in which cells harbor an imbalanced chromosome number. (jove.com)
  • membrane
  • Although the precise mechanism by which osmotic stress is sensed by the cell is unclear, it has been suggested that Brx, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) localized near the plasma membrane, is activated by osmotic stress through changes in the cytoskeleton structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, Brx may also be activated through changes in its interactions with possible osmosensor molecules at the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemotherapy
  • The term chemotherapy has come to connote non-specific usage of intracellular poisons to inhibit mitosis, or cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • To a large extent, chemotherapy can be thought of as a way to damage or stress cells, which may then lead to cell death if apoptosis is initiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the side effects of chemotherapy can be traced to damage to normal cells that divide rapidly and are thus sensitive to anti-mitotic drugs: cells in the bone marrow, digestive tract and hair follicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in the most common side-effects of chemotherapy: myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells, hence also immunosuppression), mucositis (inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract), and alopecia (hair loss). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the effect on immune cells (especially lymphocytes), chemotherapy drugs often find use in a host of diseases that result from harmful overactivity of the immune system against self (so-called autoimmunity). (wikipedia.org)
  • These micrometastases can be treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and can reduce relapse rates caused by these disseminated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • death
  • Therefore, we hypothesized that changes in the early signaling cascades are critically important in ethanol-mediated cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ethanol-induced cell death was accompanied by increased cytochrome C release and caspase 3 activity observed at 12 h in a successive manner. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these results strongly indicate that ethanol causes apoptosis of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells by stimulating p53-related cell cycle arrest and apoptosis possibly mediated through activation of the JNK-related cell death pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • DPS decreased post-IR DNA damage and cell death, suggesting that the radioprotective effect was mediated by enhanced DNA damage repair. (osti.gov)
  • Further analysis revealed that a CAR-independent mechanism may be responsible for amplified virus production and cell death. (nih.gov)
  • This releases the cell's contents for absorption by neighbouring cells, potentially preventing the death of close relatives, and thereby increasing the inclusive fitness of the cell that perished. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism by which TxpA induces cell lysis and death is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Although the Brx-mediated activation of NFAT5 has only been examined in lymphocyte response to osmotic stress, it is hypothesized that this mechanism is a common one in other cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Traditional chemotherapeutic agents are cytotoxic by means of interfering with cell division (mitosis) but cancer cells vary widely in their susceptibility to these agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • These findings confirmed the ability of tocotrienol-rich fraction in preventing HDFs cellular ageing by restoring telomere length and telomerase activity, reducing damaged DNA, and reversing cell cycle arrest associated with senescence. (hindawi.com)
  • Normally after about 50 cell divisions, HDFs enter a state of irreversible proliferative arrest, termed as replicative senescence or cellular senescence [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • kidney
  • MKP-4 is another MKP that belongs to Type I and, is distinct from other MKPs in this subgoup because it is only found in placenta, kidney and embryonic liver cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • MKP-5 is only located in the heart, lung, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DAMAGES
  • Naturally occurring oxidative DNA damages arise at least 10,000 times per cell per day in humans and 50,000 times or more per cell per day in rats, as documented below. (wikipedia.org)
  • 50,000
  • When nutrients become limiting in this swarming bacteria, a group of 50,000 cells converge into a fruiting body structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • MKP-5 is a type III MKP that binds specifically to p38 and SPK/JNK and is found both in the cytoplasmic and nuclear regions of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • P53 is at the core of the tumor suppression mechanism and an important protein for regulating cell life, according to a paper she co-authored in the September 2016 edition of the journal Oncogene. (utexas.edu)
  • As a result, DNA damage accumulates in cells, which can allow them to grow and divide in an uncontrolled way to form a cancerous tumor. (utexas.edu)
  • Cardiac arrest Cytokine release syndrome Tumor lysis syndrome, causing acute renal failure Infections Hepatitis B reactivation Other viral infections Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) Immune toxicity, with depletion of B cells in 70% to 80% of lymphoma patients Pulmonary toxicity Bowel obstruction and perforation Two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus died of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) after being treated with rituximab. (wikipedia.org)
  • p16 plays an important role in cell cycle regulation by decelerating cells progression from G1 phase to S phase, and therefore acts as a tumor suppressor that is implicated in the prevention of cancers, notably melanoma, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, cervical cancer, and esophageal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • p16 acts as a tumor suppressor by binding to CDK4/6 and preventing its interaction with cyclin D. This interaction ultimately inhibits the downstream activities of transcription factors, such as E2F1, and arrests cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • senescent cells
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "post-mitotic" is sometimes used to refer to both quiescent and senescent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • checkpoint
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The absence of microtubule attachment to kinetochores activates the spindle assembly checkpoint, causing the cell to arrest in prometaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • Cells had been transfected with hCOX2 by Lipofectamine 2000. (cancercurehere.com)
  • The initial work, published in the JCI in 2000, described the method enabling successful attainment of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC). (jci.org)
  • Gene
  • In contrast to the pacemaker neurons, in which the circadian oscillations of clock gene expression what time should you take spironolactone self-sustained for many days in DD, oscillations in the peripheral clocks decline after several cycles in DD. (luxbar-starway.ru)
  • compounds
  • The modification of isoCA-4 by introduction of difluoromethoxy group at the para-position (3i) and substitution of the two protons of the linker by two fluorine atoms (3m), produced the most active compounds in the series, with IC50 values of 0.15-2.2 nM (3i) and 0.1-2 nM (3m) respectively, against a panel of six cancer cell lines. (deepdyve.com)
  • Evaluation of cytotoxicity in Human noncancer cells indicated that the compounds 3i and 3m were practically ineffective in quiescent peripheral blood lymphocytes, and may have a selective antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • peripheral
  • In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • progeny
  • Mondal S, Heidelberger C. In vitro malignant transformation by methylcholanthrene of the progeny of single cells derived from C3H mouse prostate. (springer.com)
  • Truly endothelial, BOEC are progeny of a transplantable cell that originates in bone marrow, a putative endothelial progenitor. (jci.org)
  • grows in size
  • During G1 phase, the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins (Known as histones) that are required for DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • This deterioration is due to the death of the muscle cells and muscle tissues and leads to ongoing muscle wasting and muscle weakness. (blogspot.com)
  • Conversely, activation of p16 through the ROS pathway, DNA damage, or senescence leads to the buildup of p16 in tissues and is implicated in aging of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • Altered DNA methylation at various CpG sites was associated with exposure to mercury, lead or BPA, providing candidates to be investigated using a larger study sample, as the results may reflect an independently associated predictor (e.g. socioeconomic status, diet, genetic variants, altered blood cell composition). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • deficient
  • Further characterization revealed that these patients were neutropenic and NK cell deficient. (jci.org)
  • processes
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some DNA damage may remain in any cell despite the action of repair processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] Slight injury of cells may play a role in the mechanism of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The injury is associated with the inhibition of catalase, which in turn stimulates the pentose phosphate cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In estimates made for mice, DNA lesions occur on average 25 to 115 times per minute in each cell, or about 36,000 to 160,000 per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcript
  • Transcript cleavage by RNA polymerase II arrested by a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer in the DNA template. (springer.com)
  • The shorter 1.8 kb transcript seems to be the major transcript in EB1 colon cancer cells. (abcam.com)
  • malignant
  • Relationship between X-ray exposure and malignant transformation in C3H 10T1/2 cells. (springer.com)
  • Rituximab destroys both normal and malignant B cells that have CD20 on their surfaces and is therefore used to treat diseases which are characterized by having too many B cells, overactive B cells, or dysfunctional B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondrial
  • Probable oxidoreductase that acts as a caspase-independent mitochondrial effector of apoptotic cell death. (abcam.com)
  • duration
  • The duration of each phase, including the G1 phase, is different in many different types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration of G1 is highly variable, even among different cells of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • For cell synchronization experiments, nocodazole is usually used at a concentration of 40-100 ng/mL of culture medium for a duration of 12-18 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulates
  • Specifically, hydrogen cyanamide stimulates cell division and growth in dormant plants, causing budbreak when the plant is on the edge of breaking dormancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer cells
  • MAJOR CANCER BREAKTHROUGH: Scientists Find Plant That Kills 98% Of Cancer Cells In Just 16 Hours! (unews.top)
  • The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other area of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • phases
  • Within the cell cycle, there is a stringent set of regulations known as the cell cycle control system that controls the timing and coordination of the phases to ensure a correct order of events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complexes of cyclin that are active during other phases of the cell cycle are kept inactivated to prevent any cell-cycle events from occurring out of order. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • These factors vary by cell type and gestational age and can be affected by changes to the in utero environment and maternal immunity. (jci.org)
  • dormancy
  • If a cell is signaled to remain undivided, instead of moving onto the S phase, it will leave the G1 phase and move into a state of dormancy called the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • The researchers found that these two primates showed a much higher response to the vaccine in the second round of experiments, indicating that their antibody-producing cells held a "memory" of the vaccine. (theinfluence.org)
  • As nocodazole affects the cytoskeleton, it is often used in cell biology experiments as a control: for example, some dominant negative Rho small GTPases cause a similar effect as nocodazole, and constitutively activated mutants often reverse or negate the effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • Study scientists found that when there is damage to a normally functioning cell, p53 senses the damage and engages the elements in other molecules that control things like cell death or cell cycle arrest. (utexas.edu)
  • role
  • Shugoshin is a crucial target of Bub1 kinase that plays a central role in the cohesion of chromosomes during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • In humans, the normal physiological temperature is around 37 °C (98.6 °F). G1 phase is particularly important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell commits to division or to leaving the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tail fibres are also important in recognizing host cell surface receptors, so they determine if a bacterium is within the phage's host range. (wikipedia.org)
  • slowly
  • Given these properties of DNA damage and mutation, it can be seen that DNA damages are a special problem in non-dividing or slowly dividing cells, where unrepaired damages will tend to accumulate over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • life cycle
  • Organisms of some taxonomic groups, including some animals, experience chronological decrease in mortality, for all or part of their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the zoospore reaches its host, it forms a cyst underneath the surface of the skin, and initiates the reproductive portion of its life cycle. (wikipedia.org)