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  • mitotic
  • The concurrent measurement of cellular DNA and RNA content, or DNA susceptibility to denaturation at low pH using the metachromatic dye acridine orange, reveals the G1Q, G1A, and G1B cell cycle compartments and also makes it possible to discriminate between S, G2 and mitotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cells with a nucleus, as in eukaryotes, the cell cycle is also divided into three periods: interphase, the mitotic (M) phase, and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "post-mitotic" is sometimes used to refer to both quiescent and senescent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cells enter the G0 phase semi-permanently and are considered post-mitotic, e.g., some liver, kidney, and stomach cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Together with Garret Hampton, Meinhold-Heerlein performed oligonucleotide array analyses and identified novel molecular markers suitable as therapeutic targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors regulate the CDK-cyclin complex activities in endoreduplicating cells of developing. (ugent.be)
  • Here, we show that 40% of elf(+/-) mice spontaneously develop hepatocellular cancer (HCC) with markedly increased cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), c-Myc and MDM2 expression. (nih.gov)
  • Restoration of ELF and TBRII in SNU-398 cells markedly decreases cyclin D1 as well as hyperphosphorylated-retinoblastoma (hyperphosphorylated-pRb). (nih.gov)
  • Increased cyclin D1 expression in human HCC tissue and cell lines and the effect of ectopic ELF expression. (nih.gov)
  • Depending on the cyclin, various portions of the cell cycle are affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • While levels of CDKs remain fairly constant throughout the cell cycle, cyclin levels fluctuate. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the cell is ready to transition into the next phase, CDKCs, cyclin D1-Cdk4 and cyclin D1-Cdk6 phosphorylate pRB, followed by additional phosphorylation from the cyclin E-Cdk2 CDKC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only are cyclin B-Cdk1 complexes important for the transition into M phase, but these CDKCs play a role in the following regulatory and structural processes: Chromosomal condensation Fragmentation of Golgi network Breakdown of nuclear lamina Inactivation of the cyclin B-Cdk1 complex through the degradation of cyclin B is necessary for exit out of the M phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, cyclin H-Cdk7 complexes may play a role in meiosis in male germ cells, and has been shown to be involved in transcriptional activities as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • phases
  • Thus, to understand the genetic network that controls growth and the role of cell cycle-regulating genes therein, we need to investigate the changes that occur as cells progress through these growth phases. (plantphysiol.org)
  • As the DNA content doubles during the S phase, the DNA content (and thereby intensity of fluorescence) of cells in the G0 phase and G1 phase (before S), in the S phase, and in the G2 phase and M phase (after S) identifies the cell cycle phase position in the major phases (G0/G1 versus S versus G2/M phase) of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of this gene is elevated with the onset of DNA synthesis and remains elevated during G2 and M phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 phase, S phase (synthesis), G2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • CDKCs Associated with Cell Cycle Phases in Mammalian Cells During late G1 phase, CDKCs bind and phosphorylate members of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein family. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • They have singled-stranded DNA genomes that are transcribed, replicated, and encapsidated in the nuclei of infected cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • proteins
  • Interactions between geminivirus proteins and other host factors are also likely to impact plant gene expression mechanisms. (plantphysiol.org)
  • These translocations fuse a breakpoint cluster region (BCR) derived from chromosome 22 to a portion of the c- ABL protooncogene from chromosome 9, thereby leading to formation of alternative BCR-ABL fusion proteins p210 BCR-ABL and p185 BCR-ABL (hereafter p210 and p185), which are typically detected in CML and Ph + ALL cells, respectively ( 3 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Both proteins encode a constitutive tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity that is essential for cell transformation ( 4 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • characterize
  • With Helios™ mass cytometry you can identify and characterize changes in multiple cell populations simultaneously, obtaining maximal information from every precious sample. (fluidigm.com)
  • interphase
  • Haferlach C, Dicker F, Schnittger S, Kern W, Haferlach T. Comprehensive genetic characterization of CLL: a study on 506 cases analysed with chromosome banding analysis, interphase FISH, IgV(H) status and immunophenotyping. (springer.com)
  • During interphase, the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis, preparing it for cell division and duplicating its DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • After cell division, each of the daughter cells begin the interphase of a new cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interphase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly formed cell and its nucleus, before it becomes capable of division again. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously it was called resting stage because there is no apparent activity related to cell division.Typically interphase lasts for at least 90% of the total time required for the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • CSCs, as defined by the American Association for Cancer Research, are a small minority of cells with the capability of self-renewal and differentiation into the heterogeneous lineages that proliferate extensively and constitute the tumor mass ( 12 , 13 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This minority of cancer cells is believed to be responsible for formation of the bundle of a tumor that consists of cells at varying stages of differentiation ( 14 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 1) To continue cell cycle and enter S phase (2) Stop cell cycle and enter G0 phase for undergoing differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • It interacts with components of the cytoskeleton such as the formin Dia1 (mDia1), with cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and with several signaling molecules to regulate cell morphology and motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • actin
  • As such it has many binding partners, many of which have essential roles in control of the cell cycle and actin cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • TBRII is localized in cell membrane in normal liver ( c , arrows), but ectopically accumulated in cytoplasm in HCC ( d , HCC Sample 6, arrow), Smad4 expression is decreased in HCC ( f , HCC Sample 2, arrows) compared with normal liver ( e , arrows). (nih.gov)
  • Most fluorescent DNA dyes (one of exceptions is Hoechst 33342) are not plasma membrane permeant, that is, unable to pass through an intact cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • In normal liver, there is strong cytoplasmic and nuclear ELF expression ( a , arrow), whereas there is a significant decrease in nuclear expression of ELF in HCC tissue ( b , HCC Sample 2, arrows). (nih.gov)
  • In this respect, the hierarchy of a tumor is similar to the tissue from which it originates, and CSCs are considered neoplastic counterparts of normal stem cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In other words it is found throughout the cell as well as throughout tissue types. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoforms
  • Mouse bone marrow cells transduced with retroviral vectors encoding either of two oncogenic Bcr-Abl isoforms (p210 Bcr-Abl and p185 Bcr-Abl ) induce B cell lympholeukemias when transplanted into lethally irradiated mice. (pnas.org)
  • kinase
  • Although cells expressing the Bcr-Abl kinase can proliferate in the absence of IL-7, they remain responsive to this cytokine, which can reduce their sensitivity to imatinib. (pnas.org)
  • Even though the majority of the known CDKCs are involved in the cell cycle, not all kinase complexes function in this manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • Fluorescence-activated cell sorting of nuclei from infected leaves revealed a depletion of the 4C population and an increase in 8C, 16C, and 32C nuclei. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The fluorescence intensity of the stained cells correlates with the amount of DNA they contain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is important because a doublet of two G0/G1 cells has the same total content of DNA and thus the same fluorescence intensity as a single G2/M cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor suppressor
  • If the activity of the Arf tumor suppressor is compromised, these donor cells initiate a much more highly aggressive and rapidly fatal disease. (pnas.org)
  • vitro
  • Furthermore, the essential function of calretinin in mesothelioma cell lines has been demonstrated in vitro and may be an interesting target for therapeutical approaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • ovarian
  • Expression analysis has also indicated that IQGAP1 is overexpressed in many cancers, and in more aggressive colorectal and ovarian cancers, IQGAP1 is localized at the invasive front of the neoplasm, indicating a role in mobilization of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • outgrowth
  • When mouse bone marrow cells expressing Bcr-Abl are placed in short-term cultures selectively designed to support the outgrowth of pre-B cells, only those lacking one or two Arf alleles can initiate lympholeukemias when inoculated into immunocompetent, syngeneic recipient mice. (pnas.org)
  • quiescent
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)