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  • Measures
  • Using a repeated-measures design on a large study sample, our purpose was to determine whether ovarian cycle-phase affects maximal exercise performance (V̇ O 2 max ) in women who had lived at an altitude of 3600 m since birth or early childhood. (biologists.org)
  • Methods
  • Practical and comprehensive, Cell Cycle Synchronization: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition is a valuable resource for PhD students and postdoctoral fellows, and researchers interested in general science, pharmacy, medicine and public health, computer science, and life sciences. (springer.com)
  • regulate cell
  • Since the most important change in an organism through time is the chemical reactions that result in a single cell developing into a multicellular organism, whatever controls these chemical reactions that regulate cell growth, development, and death, is believed to control aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • senescence
  • to cell-cycle, what the factors could be to induce senescence? (bio.net)
  • I am interested in learing senescence, apoptosos and cell-cycle. (bio.net)
  • When the HPG axis becomes unbalanced, cellular growth and development is dysregulated, and cell death and dysfunction can occur, both of which can initiate senescence, the accumulated damage to cells, tissues, and organs that occurs with the passage of time and that is associated with functional loss during aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reduction in the division and production of stem cells protects against cancer while increasing the risks associated with cellular senescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, activation of p16 through the ROS pathway, DNA damage, or senescence leads to the buildup of p16 in tissues and is implicated in aging of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • quiescent
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • As the cell progresses through G1, depending on internal and external conditions, it can either delay G1, enter a quiescent state known as G0, or proceed past the restriction point. (wikipedia.org)
  • flow cytometry
  • Similar cell cycle compartments are also recognized by multiparameter analysis that includes measurement of expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin B1, each in relation to DNA content Concurrent measurement of DNA content and of incorporation of DNA precursor 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) by flow cytometry is an especially useful assay, that has been widely used in analysis of the cell cycle in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Unfortunately, several difficulties have prevented realiza- tion of the early promise of cell cycle analysis: Proliferative patterns of the normal and malignant tissues have been found to be substantially more complex than originally an- ticipated, and synchronization of human tumors has proved remarkably difficult. (springer.com)
  • By contrast, miR-200 has been shown to promote the last step of metastasis in which migrating cancer cells undergo MET during their colonization at distant tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • The Cignal E2F Reporter Assay Kit is designed to monitor the activity of E2F-regulated signaling pathways in cultured cells. (qiagen.com)
  • Cdc42 in turn regulates signaling pathways that control diverse cellular functions including morphology, migration, endocytosis and cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • First, a growth factor must bind to its receptor on the cell membrane . (britannica.com)
  • Most fluorescent DNA dyes (one of exceptions is Hoechst 33342) are not plasma membrane permeant, that is, unable to pass through an intact cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lower-temperature fuel cell types such as the proton exchange membrane fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell, and alkaline fuel cell require pure hydrogen as fuel, typically produced from external reforming of natural gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • phase of the cell cycle
  • This system acts like a timer, or a clock, which sets a fixed amount of time for the cell to spend in each phase of the cell cycle, while at the same time it also responds to information received from the processes it controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons typically remain in G0, a nondividing, nonreplicating phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • DNA methylation of the mir-200c/mir-141 promoter occurs aberrantly in certain aggressive carcinoma cells that are of epithelial origin, but have undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition and have the mir-200 family silenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Although beneficial for the viral life cycle, virus-mediated alterations in normal cell cycle control mechanisms could have detrimental effects on cellular physiology and may ultimately contribute to pathologies associated with the viral infection, including cell transformation and cancer progression and maintenance. (springer.com)
  • Multiparameter analysis of the cell cycle includes, in addition to measurement of cellular DNA content, other cell cycle related constituents/features. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • For a stimulatory signal to reach the nucleus and "turn on" cell division, four main steps must occur. (britannica.com)
  • Third, this activation must stimulate a signal to be transmitted, or transduced, from the receptor at the cell surface to the nucleus within the cell. (britannica.com)
  • In bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • division
  • Cell cycle , the ordered sequence of events that occur in a cell in preparation for cell division . (britannica.com)
  • All organisms must control their cell division. (springer.com)
  • Unicellular organisms have to coordinate nuclear division, cytokinesis (cell separation) and DNA synthesis so that the correct order of events is maintained (1, 2). (springer.com)
  • Nurse P (1975) Genetic control of cell size and cell division in yeast. (springer.com)
  • cell-division and let the cells become senescent? (bio.net)
  • Precise activation and inactivation of CDKs at specific points in the cell cycle are required for orderly cell division. (genome.jp)
  • It is when the loose DNA starts to gather to form chromatid, the DNA copies itself, the spindle fibers start to form, and the cell prepares itself for cell division. (mixbook.com)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before a cell can enter cell division, it needs to take in nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • All living organisms are products of repeated rounds of cell growth and division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next, the absence of cyclin A1 commits the neuron to division, but the cell lacks the ability to re-differentiate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle hypothesis of AD proposes that the disease is caused by aberrant re-entry of different neuronal populations into the cell division cycle, following a 2-hit hypothesis (Nagy et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shugoshin is a crucial target of Bub1 kinase that plays a central role in the cohesion of chromosomes during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • In this chapter, I will attempt to describe these fundamental mechanisms that control the cell cycle, and to relate them to the etiology of cancer development. (springer.com)
  • Quantification of the proliferative characteristics of normal and malignant cells has been of interest to oncolo- gists and cancer biologists for almost three decades. (springer.com)
  • I experienced a sense of wholeness that the extraordinary diversity of life was built on common principles, and that this advance in understanding of how the cell-cycle was regulated would have many implications for the reproduction, growth and development of all living organisms, and for diseases like cancer. (springer.com)
  • Homozygous deletion of p16 are frequently found in esophageal cancer and gastric cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a series of mouse mammary isogenic cancer cell lines, the miR-200 family is highly expressed only in the cells that are able to form metastases (4T1 cells) but not in other cells which are unable to colonize (4TO7 cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • motility
  • During EMT, cells lose adhesion and increase in motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockdown of miR-141 and miR200b has been shown to reduce E-cadherin expression thus increasing cell motility and inducing EMT. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • for example, by allowing identi- fication of rapidly proliferating tumors against which cell cycle-specific agents could be used with maximum effec- tiveness and by allowing rational scheduling of cell cyc- specific therapeutic agents to maximize the therapeutic ratio. (springer.com)
  • Human tumors of the same type have proved highly variable, and the cytokinetic tools available for cell cycle analysis have been labor intensive, as well as somewhat subjective and in many cases inapplicable to humans. (springer.com)
  • spindle fibers
  • The duplicated chromosomes become aligned in the center of the cell, spindle fibers attach themselves to the centromere of the chromosomes. (mixbook.com)
  • tumor cell
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • She discovered that overexpression of ODC and c-Raf activation is sufficient to convert a normal primary keratinocyte into a malignant, invasive tumor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative
  • Air pollutants like particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and lead (Pb) can affect the lung in numerous ways like inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell cycle death. (indianexpress.com)
  • Ferroptosis is a kind of regulated cell loss of life driven by oxidative damage promoting lipid peroxidation, although detailed molecular regulators are largely unknown. (biomasswars.com)
  • binding protein
  • Background Cardiac stress may trigger production of the 40\kDa peptide fragment produced from the amino terminus from the cardiac myosin\binding protein C. function, cell viability, hypertrophy, or possibility of success. (biomasswars.com)
  • bacterial cells
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • requires the medium to be formulated for this purpose), or the appearance of turbidity (cloudiness indicating light scattering by bacterial cells) indicates that sterilization was not achieved and the sterilization cycle may need revision or improvement. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Glycine-induced activation of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors may also result in hyper- or depolarising reactions of the prospective cells with regards to the intracellular Cl? (biomasswars.com)
  • First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a protein complex in adherens junctions that helps cells maintain epithelial layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citric
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Junctions
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-catenin participates in the formation and stabilization of adherens junctions by binding to β-catenin-cadherin complexes in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem
  • Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. (lafayettecollege.org)
  • Gilmour provided the first evidence that elevated epidermal levels of polyamines alone can positively affect the recruitment of bulge stem cells in the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This finding is significant with regard to the stem cell origin of skin cancer, since carcinogen-targeted stem cells can remain dormant for many years until recruited to develop into a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • George wrote the House bill establishing the Umbilical Cord Blood Bank, which provides medical researchers an ethical alternative to stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • scarce
  • When nutrients are scarce, myxobacterial cells aggregate into fruiting bodies (not to be confused with those in fungi), a process long-thought to be mediated by chemotaxis but now considered to be a function of a form of contact-mediated signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • It has been associated with heterochromatin and PML-NBs (Promyelocytic Leukaemia nuclear bodies) and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • This study will also look at specific substances called biomarkers in your blood, and in the tumor tissue which are involved in the growth of tumor cells, and determine if the levels of these biomarkers are related to your response to treatment or development of side effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • G1 phase together with the S phase and G2 phase comprise the long growth period of the cell cycle called interphase that takes place before cell division in mitosis (M phase). (wikipedia.org)
  • G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, temperature, and room for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiological temperatures are optimal for cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for the cell to continue through the G1-pm, there must be a high amount of growth factors and a steady rate of protein synthesis, otherwise the cell will move into G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fruiting process is thought to benefit myxobacteria by ensuring that cell growth is resumed with a group (swarm) of myxobacteria, rather than as isolated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Media conditions that support fast growth in bacteria also couples with shorter inter-initiation time in them, i.e. the doubling time in fast growing cells is less as compared to the slow growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Dr. Chao will highlight previously announced laboratory and animal data that demonstrates the potential for L-DOS47 to bind to and debilitate and destroy human lung adenocarcinoma cells. (drugs.com)
  • Background Human being fetal midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) might deliver a cells source for medication testing and regenerative cell therapy to take care of Parkinsons disease. (biomasswars.com)
  • Evaluation of cytotoxicity in Human noncancer cells indicated that the compounds 3i and 3m were practically ineffective in quiescent peripheral blood lymphocytes, and may have a selective antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Gorczyca W, Traganos F, Jesionowska H, Darzynkiewicz Z. Presence of DNA strand breaks and increased sensitivity of DNA in situ to denaturation in abnormal human sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • spores
  • Any surviving spores from the first treatment, or incidentally formed spores during the first incubation period, are killed in a third steaming cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • No expression of Daxx leads to malfunction of S phase and cells with two nuclei are formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The principle metabolic pathways are a glycolytic pathway, a pentose phosphate pathway, and the TCA cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • While a micropropagated plant may contain dozens of microbial species living in and around its cells, a plant growing in a healthy soil may contain hundreds of thousands of associated microbes. (blogspot.com)
  • detect
  • Atsatt and Whiteside have reported features of plant associated fungi that make them particularly difficult to detect and separate from plant cells. (blogspot.com)
  • reactions
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Components
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • signals
  • They typically travel in swarms (also known as wolf packs), containing many cells kept together by intercellular molecular signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • determines
  • In humans, the normal physiological temperature is around 37 °C (98.6 °F). G1 phase is particularly important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell commits to division or to leaving the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • respectively
  • The modification of isoCA-4 by introduction of difluoromethoxy group at the para-position (3i) and substitution of the two protons of the linker by two fluorine atoms (3m), produced the most active compounds in the series, with IC50 values of 0.15-2.2 nM (3i) and 0.1-2 nM (3m) respectively, against a panel of six cancer cell lines. (deepdyve.com)
  • different
  • Outcomes had been gathered from 3 different batches of MCF-7 cells. (cancercurehere.com)
  • The duration of each phase, including the G1 phase, is different in many different types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some authors will say that the restriction point and the G1/S checkpoint are one and the same, but more recent studies have argued that there are two different points in the G1 phase that check the progression of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • They bind to DnaA-ADP and DnaA-ATP with equal affinities and are bound by DnaA throughout most of the cell cycle and forms a scaffold on which rest of the orisome assembles. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • Biochemical triggers known as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) switch on cell cycles events at the corrected time and in the correct order to prevent any mistakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Within the cell cycle, there is a stringent set of regulations known as the cell cycle control system that controls the timing and coordination of the phases to ensure a correct order of events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between the beginning of the G1 phase (which is also after mitosis has occurred) and R, the cell is known as being in the G1-pm subphase, or the post-mitotic phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • After R and before S, the cell is known as being in G1-ps, or the pre S phase interval of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • line
  • Overlay histogram showing HeLA cells stained with ab11055 (red line). (abcam.cn)
  • The use of a helper phage can be eliminated by using 'bacterial packaging cell line' technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • life
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • phase
  • G1 phase ends when the cell moves into the S phase of interphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a cell is signaled to remain undivided, instead of moving onto the S phase, it will leave the G1 phase and move into a state of dormancy called the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most nonproliferating vertebrate cells will enter the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters a restriction point in which it is decided whether the cell will move forward with the G1 phase or move into the dormant G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G1/S checkpoint is the point between G1 phase and the S phase in which the cell is cleared for progression into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fluorochrome-based TUNEL assay applicable for flow cytometry, combining the detection of DNA strand breaks with respect to the cell cycle-phase position, was originally developed by Gorczyca et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • steps
  • The repeated cycling of these steps is referred to as 'panning', in reference to the enrichment of a sample of gold by removing undesirable materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Main
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)