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  • proteins
  • Identifying the messengers -- a large family of proteins that carry genetic signals and switch genes on and off -- and their roles in communicating at a distance has implications for the development of new strategies to treat diseases caused by malfunctioning genes or disrupted pathways of communication. (eurekalert.org)
  • The discovery came after Desiderio and his team used biochemical "bait" to fish for candidate proteins that physically bind to TFII-I. The fishing expedition returned one protein known to control when and how much calcium a cell takes in. (medindia.net)
  • A cell might change its shape (the cellular skeleton does this), move, make new proteins, or change some part of its metabolism or cycle (such as entering into the next part of its mitotic or meiotic-cell multiplication -cycle). (everything2.com)
  • That chance comes, under careful regulation, when cells open channel proteins in their outer membranes, enabling say calcium ions to enter. (eurekalert.org)
  • Outside a certain pH range, the proteins that make up human cells and tissues break down and the body fails. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition, GJA1 can be found in the Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules between Sertoli cells and spermatogonia or primary spermatocytes, where it plays a key role in spermatogenesis and testis development through controlling the tight junction proteins in the blood-testis barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • By providing a platform to host a wide array of interactions from extracellular inputs to intracellular pathways, GAB proteins can act as a gatekeeper to the cell, modulating and integrating signals as they pass them along, to control the functional state within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of all the pathways activated by GAB proteins are not known, but it is easy to see that amplification of signal can progress quickly and these proteins can have large effects on the state of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical genetics is the investigation of the function of proteins and signal transduction pathways in cells by the screening of chemical libraries of small molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although cell walls are permeable to small soluble proteins and other solutes, plasmodesmata enable direct, regulated, symplastic transport of substances between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • If this is the case these proteins could be used in the selective transport of large molecules between the two cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodesmata have been shown to transport proteins (including transcription factors), short interfering RNA, messenger RNA, viroids, and viral genomes from cell to cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial cells
  • The figure shows bacterial cells that are not induced in cyan and those that are induced in purple. (nih.gov)
  • Another occurs at the bottom of a deep cavity in the antibiotic peptide vancomycin which binds a key carboxylate group utilized during the final stages of bacterial cell wall synthesis, thereby preventing bacterial cells from multiplying. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dental plaque is the material that adheres to the teeth and consists of bacterial cells (mainly S. mutans and S. sanguis), salivary polymers and bacterial extracellular products. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Binding of a neurotransmitter to a receptor in turn causes excitation or inhibition in the other nerve cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • Such receptor transmits information from the extracellular environment to the inside of the cell by changing shape or aggregating when a specific ligand binds to it. (ukessays.com)
  • One other kind of receptor is a ligand-gated ion-channel receptor, which is like a closed tunnel that opens when a signal molecule binds to it, letting ions from outside the cell go into the cell to make changes. (everything2.com)
  • genetic
  • Another team won in 2006 for the discovery in C. elegans of an ancient defense mechanism against attempts by viruses to disrupt cells' genetic machinery. (eurekalert.org)
  • the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developmental biologists suggest that complex interactions in genetic networks and communication among cells can lead to heritable variations that may underlie some of the mechanics in developmental plasticity and canalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac
  • Dialysis of Ang II (10 −8 mol/L) into the myopathic cell reduced gj by 48±4.2%, an effect abolished by losartan (10 −8 mol/L). The results indicate that the decline in gj seen in the ventricle of cardiomyopathic hamsters is in part due to activation of the cardiac renin-angiotensin system. (ahajournals.org)
  • embryonic
  • He has also published on public policy and participated in the development of United States research guidelines for stem cell research, particularly embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, GJA1 is expressed in many immune cells, such as eosinophils and T cells, where its gap junction function promotes the maturation and activation of these cells and, by extension, the cross-communication necessary to mount an inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • triggers
  • By revealing the terminus of the pathway by which cells send and receive messages, the find promises a rational basis for the future treatment of some diseases and, more immediately, gives science a new grasp of a process that triggers decisive events in cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Under normal conditions, calcium does not flow freely into and out of cells until a demand for it - such as a muscle contraction or nerve function -- triggers cells to take up the free floating element from their surroundings. (medindia.net)
  • mitochondria
  • GJA1 has also been observed to localize to the mitochondria, where it promotes cell survival by downregulating the intrinsic apoptotic pathway during conditions of oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract
  • Abstract The influence of heart failure on the process of cell communication was investigated in cell pairs isolated from the ventricle of cardiomyopathic hamsters (11 months old) and the results compared with age-matched normal hamsters. (ahajournals.org)
  • another
  • Epileptic seizures are customarily regarded to reflect an imbalance between the ability of nerve cells to excite one another, on the one hand, and to inhibit one another, on the other hand. (scienceblog.com)
  • Application of the electron microscope to examine tiny structures in nerve cells is a special interest of Dr. Patrick Hof of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, another of the PNAS authors. (scienceblog.com)
  • Unless they've got additional material they've developed to facilitate direct transmission of DNA from one cell to another or mastered a process whereby continual production can be done without threat to the host or in a manner that can be easily extinguished I don't see what it is that they've added other than a term "Bi-Fi" (which is a cute term, I admit). (slashdot.org)
  • The cell responds, just as a person responds when he receives a communication from another person. (everything2.com)
  • When the fixed network equipment (FNE) detects that a particular communication unit ( 128 ) has entered another cell and/or needs to hand-off its communication to another cell site but has been denied, the cell site ( 114 ) sends the communication unit the neighbor cell list related to the new cell. (google.com)
  • At the same time, when this thin layer of dividing cells reaches the dorsal lip of the blastopore, another process occurs termed convergent extension. (wikipedia.org)
  • adjacent cells
  • Pits normally pair up between adjacent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodesmata can also be inserted into existing cell walls between non-dividing cells (secondary plasmodesmata) A typical plant cell may have between 103 and 105 plasmodesmata connecting it with adjacent cells equating to between 1 and 10 per µm2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The desmotubule is a tube of appressed (flattened) endoplasmic reticulum that runs between two adjacent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • ODIN was further analyzed and found to contain substantially less pY upon inhibition of SFK activity in SW620 cells, indicating that it is a formerly unknown SFK target in colorectal carcinoma cells. (wikipedia.org)