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  • antibodies
  • We now show that the antibodies produced by these B-cells react strongly with the core carbohydrate region of LPS. (pnas.org)
  • We now report that the antibodies produced by the B-cells within these clusters, as well as those in the serum of patients who were rejecting transplants, react strongly with the core carbohydrate epitopes of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (pnas.org)
  • The process of immunological B-cell maturation involves transformation from an undifferentiated B cell to one that secretes antibodies with particular specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In lymphocytic neoplastic diseases such as multiple myeloma and lymphoma, but also other illnesses, there can be a massive expansion of a single B-cell clone, detectable by measuring the excessively-produced antibodies, measured in a serum protein electrophoresis test or peripheral blood flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such an expansion is said to be "monoclonal", and monoclonal antibodies produced by such a group of B cells can cause illnesses such as amyloidosis and lupus, or can be indicative of an underlying malignancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anatomy and Development: images, fate maps, and videos Community Link --- jobs, labs which study Xenopus Protocol List- identify clones, antibodies, procedures Stock Centre- The National Xenopus Resource (maintains frog stocks, offers advanced research training) The Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology was awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka on October 8, 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • I am presently looking at cytokine mediated differential gene expression in T cells. (bio.net)
  • CML is a cancer initiated by a mutant gene called BCR-ABL in blood forming stem cells that leads to an expansion of white blood cells and their precursors. (labspaces.net)
  • T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAL1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome browser BLAST Expression Search and Clone Search (search by gene symbol, gene name, or Affymetrix id) Gene nomenclature guidelines Literature search: Textpresso- uses an algorithm to match your search to specific criteria or section of a paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammal
  • The resulting egg was implanted in the womb of a third sheep, and the result was Dolly, the first clone of a mammal. (wunc.org)
  • OPS is the first purpose-developed tool for mammalian embryo and oocyte vitrification that has resulted in many breakthroughs in human and animal cryobiology including the first baby born after vitrification of human oocytes, and the first cloned mammal born after cryopreservation of the reconstructed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • The B cells in the body have two important phenotypes (functional forms) -- the antibody secreting, terminally differentiated (that is, they cannot divide further) plasma cells, and the memory and the naive cells-both of which retain their proliferative potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently we prepared combinatorial antibody libraries from these infiltrating B-cell clusters and showed that they are clonal. (pnas.org)
  • This diminishes both B cell clone expansion and antibody synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • His research centers on a molecular and cellular understanding of CD4 T cell responsiveness in mice and man. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has been shown in transgenic mice with either increased or decreased sensitivity of T cell lineage to glucocorticoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Bax, Bak, and Bid expression in these clones was similar to that in wild-type cells, whereas Bcl-2 expression was higher in all the selected clones and, interestingly, Bcl-xL was markedly upregulated in the most death-resistant clones. (nih.gov)
  • GCs affect cells by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The activated GR complex, in turn, up-regulates the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins in the nucleus (a process known as transactivation) and represses the expression of proinflammatory proteins in the cytosol by preventing the translocation of other transcription factors from the cytosol into the nucleus (transrepression). (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • March 5, 2012 -- One of 11 patients facing death from treatment-resistant, late-stage melanoma is cancer free 3.5 years after experimental treatment with clones of his own immune cells. (webmd.com)
  • Successful treatment depended on isolating and cloning just the right kind of cancer -fighting immune cell. (webmd.com)
  • Rosenberg used immune cells taken from inside patients' melanoma tumors. (webmd.com)
  • Butler says that Yee's team showed that anti-tumor immune cells can survive when patients are given much less toxic chemotherapy and lower doses of the immune-boosting drugs. (webmd.com)
  • The expansion of a particular clone of immune B cells is usually interpreted by clinicians as evidence of unrestricted cell growth, the hallmark of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • By preventing the clonal expansion of lymphocytes in the induction phase of the immune response, it affects both the cell and the humoral immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is secreted by basophils and activated T cells to support growth and differentiation of T cells from the bone marrow in an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free (released) nickel that is able to penetrate the skin is taken up by scavenger (dendritic cells) and then presented to the immune system T-Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Ni-ACD other cells are involved including: Th17, Th22, Th1/IFN and the innate immune responses consistent with toll-like receptor 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists
  • Eighteen years ago, scientists in Scotland took the nuclear DNA from the cell of an adult sheep and put it into another sheep's egg cell that had been emptied of its own nucleus. (wunc.org)
  • So ideally scientists would like to be able to extract DNA from the cells of older people - not just cells from infants - to create therapies for adult diseases. (wunc.org)
  • In principle, scientists could produce a series of cell lines that would allow a close match for the majority of would-be cell recipients - just as transplant surgeons currently seek a close match for organ donors. (wunc.org)
  • Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policy makers began to take the prospect seriously in the mid-1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many nations outlawed it, while a few scientists promised to make a clone within the next few years. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, scientists at the New York Stem Cell Foundation announced that they had succeeded in generating embryonic stem cell lines, but their process involved leaving the oocyte's nucleus in place, resulting in triploid cells, which would not be useful for cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetic
  • This could lead to diabetic patients being able to produce their own cells that make insulin to replace their non-functioning cells. (empr.com)
  • patient
  • The technique could potentially be used to take skin cells from a patient to create "personalised" stem cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Each of these treatments captures a patient's own tumor-fighting cells, grows them to high numbers in the lab, and infuses them back into the patient. (webmd.com)
  • Physicians could also extract DNA from the person who is going to receive the cellular transplant - creating a patient-specific treatment - though that would end up being far more expensive than drawing from a library of ready-made cells. (wunc.org)
  • The next step would be a better assessment of sensitivity/resistance of leukaemia cells from patients which could guide clinicians to better tailor treatments to each individual patient. (rsc.org)
  • clonal
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a disorder of bone marrow cells resulting in shortened life of red blood cells, which is also a result of clonal expansion, i.e., all the altered cells are originally derived from a single cell, which also somewhat compromises the functioning of other "normal" bone marrow cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When ultimately many cells are produced by a single cell, clonal expansion is said to have taken place. (wikipedia.org)
  • A somewhat similar concept is that of clonal colony (also called a genet), wherein the cells (usually unicellular) also share a common ancestry, but which also requires the products of clonal expansion to reside at "one place", or in close proximity. (wikipedia.org)
  • One feature of chronic rejection is the infiltration of ectopic B-cell clusters that are clonal into the transplanted kidney. (pnas.org)
  • induced MALT lymphomas as a precedent because studies of their pathogenesis has taught us that the sustained interaction between bacteria and/or their products and immunocompent cells in a confined space can lead to clonal proliferation of B-cells and even malignancy. (pnas.org)
  • The latter would confirm that the spectral differences between the so-called resistant clonal cells prior to and after adding a drug might reside on those more or less sensitive cells that have been able to remain alive when they were collected to be studied with S-FTIR or Raman microspectroscopies. (rsc.org)
  • Another Nobel Laureate, James D. Watson, publicized the potential and the perils of cloning in his Atlantic Monthly essay, "Moving Toward the Clonal Man", in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • possibility
  • Things have moved to the next stage with the stem cell issue, with the Senate agreeing today to set up a Committee Inquiry into the possibility of amending the laws governing research in this area. (andrewbartlett.com)
  • Since LPS is a costimulatory immunogen that can react with both the B-cell receptor (BCR) and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), these results suggest a mechanism for the selective pressure that leads to clonality of these B-cell clusters and opens the possibility that infection and the attendant exposure to LPS plays a role in the chronic rejection of human kidney transplants. (pnas.org)
  • The technology promises a new possibility for automation of the somatic cell nuclear transfer procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The possibility of human cloning has raised controversies. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • SCNT involved taking the nucleus (the part of a cell containing most of the genetic information) from a person's skin cells, inserting its cells into a donor's unfertilised egg cell that had its nucleus removed. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The skin cell nucleus was then fused with the donor egg cell. (www.nhs.uk)
  • In somatic cell nuclear transfer ("SCNT"), the nucleus of a somatic cell is taken from a donor and transplanted into a host egg cell, which had its own genetic material removed previously, making it an enucleated egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importance: Gurdon's experiments challenged the dogma of the time which suggested that the nucleus of a differentiated cell is committed to their fate (Example: a liver cell nucleus remains a liver cell nucleus and cannot return to an undifferentiated state). (wikipedia.org)
  • sensitivity
  • The cell clones that most consistently demonstrated resistance or sensitivity to injury were further studied for their response to azide treatment. (nih.gov)
  • However, cancer is a mixture of cells with different sensitivity/resistance to drugs. (rsc.org)
  • dendritic
  • In addition, IL-3 stimulates proliferation of all cells in the myeloid lineage (granulocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells), in conjunction with other cytokines, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Robert Lanza
  • Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer at Advanced Cell Technology , says that was an important step, but not ideal for medical purposes. (wunc.org)
  • genetic material
  • SCNT involves taking donated egg cells from women and removing their genetic material. (www.nhs.uk)
  • They repeated the process - this time starting with the genetic material extracted from the skin cells of a much older man. (wunc.org)
  • The genetic material, in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), continues to shorten with each cell division, and cells eventually stop dividing when they sense that their DNA is critically shortened. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethical concerns
  • However, there remain ethical concerns over the implications of using SCNT to develop stem cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • There are ethical concerns surrounding nuclear transfer, particularly regarding recruitment and compensation for egg donors needed for stem cell research. (empr.com)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)
  • identical cells
  • A clone is a group of identical cells that share a common ancestry, meaning they are derived from the same cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mitotic division of a cell - resulting in two identical cells - is an example of a prototype that plays an active role in copying itself and thus, demonstrates the Prototype pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer stem
  • Despite the emergence of new therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, CML and other leukemias remain problematic because some cancer stem cells avoid destruction and eventually regenerate themselves, a stem cell process known as self-renewal that can result in a return and spread (metastasis) of the disease. (labspaces.net)
  • resistance
  • People normally think about DNA instability in cancer, but in this case, it's how the RNA is edited by enzymes that really matters in terms of cancer stem cell generation and resistance to conventional therapy. (labspaces.net)
  • Despite tremendous advances in BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapies, the majority of patients relapse if therapy is discontinued, in part as a result of dormant cancer stem cell resistance. (labspaces.net)
  • This work suggests a novel mechanism for overcoming cancer stem cell resistance to therapy that may prevent relapse and progression. (labspaces.net)
  • Compared with the wild-type cells, the isolated clones showed a general resistance to apoptosis: 13 were extremely resistant to azide-induced apoptosis, 10 to staurosporine, and 9 to cisplatin. (nih.gov)
  • Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) was upregulated in several clones, but the upregulation did not correlate with cell death resistance. (nih.gov)
  • The results suggest that apoptotic resistance of the selected clones is not determined by a single factor or molecule but, rather, by various alterations at the core apoptotic pathway. (nih.gov)
  • humans
  • It also means that finally getting the sheep technology to work with cells from adult humans may not turn out to be a turning point for this technology, after all. (wunc.org)
  • experiment
  • Furthermore, pancreatic sections from a disease transfer experiment with one of the clones showed a pronounced cellular infiltration and degranulation of islets in nondiabetic (CBA x NOD)F1 recipients. (pnas.org)
  • the original HEK 293 cell clone was from his 293rd experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • This shows chronic myeloid leukemia blood cells. (labspaces.net)
  • Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is a condition that resembles chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but does not meet the criteria for CLL, and does not require treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • artificial
  • Chemists have engineered a plastic artificial cell containing organelles capable of producing the various steps in a chemical reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • The process has been difficult to do with human cells. (wunc.org)
  • What we show for the first time is that you can actually take skin cells, from a middle-aged 35-year-old male, but also from an elderly, 75-year-old male" and use the DNA from those cells in this cloning process, Lanza says. (wunc.org)
  • This process (transfer of nuclei from cloned cells) is referred to as serial transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunological
  • Another interesting immunological feature of transplanted kidneys is the appearance of highly organized ectopic B-cell clusters in the transplant ( 3 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • The clinical course is determined by an immunological interplay between two diverse types of T cells (Th1 and Th2 responses). (wikipedia.org)
  • sheep
  • In 2018, the first successful cloning of primates using somatic cell nuclear transfer, the same method as Dolly the sheep, with the birth of two live female clones (crab-eating macaques named Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua) was reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimental
  • Her experimental procedure required 929 iterations to find a combination of environmental and cell conditions that induced cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses offer an efficient means of delivering genes into cells, which they evolved to do, and are thus of great use as experimental tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • LPS is an immunogen that can react with both the B-cell receptor (BCR) and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). (pnas.org)
  • ultimately
  • This combined engagement of the BCR and the TLR4 can lead to selective replication of members of the B-cell repertoire and ultimately to clonality ( 15 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • SCNT
  • SCNT has been used to clone animals before, and is thought to have potential applications in the study and treatment of human diseases. (www.nhs.uk)
  • genes
  • He'd like to see a library of cells created with those carefully chosen genes. (wunc.org)
  • Viruses offer an efficient means of delivering genes into cells, which they evolved to do, and are thus of great use as experimental tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • This danger can be avoided by the use of viruses which lack key genes, and which are thus unable to replicate after entering a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to propagate such viral vectors, a cell line that expresses the missing genes is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since HEK 293 cells express a number of adenoviral genes, they can be used to propagate adenoviral vectors in which these genes (typically, E1 and E3) are deleted, such as AdEasy. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor-fight
  • Each of these treatments captures a patient's own tumor-fighting cells, grows them to high numbers in the lab, and infuses them back into the patient. (webmd.com)
  • antigen-specific
  • MHC multimers allow for a previously unattainable level of specificity in antigen-specific T-cell detection and isolation. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC pentamers have been used in the detection of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in flow cytometry, and are cited in over 750 peer reviewed publications , including several in the journals Nature and Science. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • MHC multimers can also be used to eliminate graft-originating T-cells on transplant organs, ex vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC multimers may also be used to eliminate harmful or unwanted T-cells in vivo, such as those that target self cells and lead to autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody
  • The B cells in the body have two important phenotypes (functional forms) -- the antibody secreting, terminally differentiated (that is, they cannot divide further) plasma cells, and the memory and the naive cells-both of which retain their proliferative potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently we prepared combinatorial antibody libraries from these infiltrating B-cell clusters and showed that they are clonal. (pnas.org)
  • This diminishes both B cell clone expansion and antibody synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear transfer
  • These headlines are based on newly published research into the use of a technique known as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) as part of embryonic stem cell research. (www.nhs.uk)
  • There are ethical concerns surrounding nuclear transfer, particularly regarding recruitment and compensation for egg donors needed for stem cell research. (empr.com)
  • Cloning is based on nuclear transfer. (essaypride.com)
  • Gábor Vajta publications indexed by Google Scholar "Website of Reproductive Biomedicine Online (journal)" "Website of Cryobiology (journal)" "Website of Reproduction, Nutrition, Development (journal)" "Website of Theriogenology (journal)" "Website of Animal Reproduction Science (journal)" "Website of Cellular Reprogramming (journal)" "Cell Nuclear Transfer" patent no. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2004 and 2005, Hwang Woo-suk, a professor at Seoul National University, published two separate articles in the journal Science claiming to have successfully harvested pluripotent, embryonic stem cells from a cloned human blastocyst using somatic-cell nuclear transfer techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • In somatic cell nuclear transfer ("SCNT"), the nucleus of a somatic cell is taken from a donor and transplanted into a host egg cell, which had its own genetic material removed previously, making it an enucleated egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • The genetic material, in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), continues to shorten with each cell division, and cells eventually stop dividing when they sense that their DNA is critically shortened. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCNT involved taking the nucleus (the part of a cell containing most of the genetic information) from a person's skin cells, inserting its cells into a donor's unfertilised egg cell that had its nucleus removed. (www.nhs.uk)
  • They repeated the process - this time starting with the genetic material extracted from the skin cells of a much older man. (wunc.org)
  • In 1880, a man named Walter Sutton made one of the most important discoveries towards cloning- he proved that chromosomes hold genetic information. (essaypride.com)
  • Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allowed the advancement of research on metabolic and genetic features of the clone cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Despite the emergence of new therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, CML and other leukemias remain problematic because some cancer stem cells avoid destruction and eventually regenerate themselves, a stem cell process known as self-renewal that can result in a return and spread (metastasis) of the disease. (labspaces.net)
  • People normally think about DNA instability in cancer, but in this case, it's how the RNA is edited by enzymes that really matters in terms of cancer stem cell generation and resistance to conventional therapy. (labspaces.net)
  • Despite tremendous advances in BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapies, the majority of patients relapse if therapy is discontinued, in part as a result of dormant cancer stem cell resistance. (labspaces.net)
  • This work suggests a novel mechanism for overcoming cancer stem cell resistance to therapy that may prevent relapse and progression. (labspaces.net)
  • They also interfere with some of the abnormal mechanisms in cancer cells, so they are used in high doses to treat cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is frequently used in cancer research laboratories to determine the effect of drugs or radiation on proliferating tumor cells as well as for titration of Cell-killing Particles (CKPs) in virus stocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any type of cell could be used in an experiment, but since the goal of these experiments in oncological research is the discovery of more effective cancer treatments, human tumor cells are a typical choice. (wikipedia.org)
  • They provide an ideal means to characterize the T cells that respond to a vaccine, and they have been used to test T cell responses in many vaccine systems, including influenza, yellow fever, tuberculosis, HIV/SIV and a large number of cancer vaccine trials, including melanoma and chronic myeloid leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essay
  • Another Nobel Laureate, James D. Watson, publicized the potential and the perils of cloning in his Atlantic Monthly essay, "Moving Toward the Clonal Man", in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein structure is essential in enabling the viral entry of HIV-1 into a target host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of this complex stimulates the release of a fusogenic peptide inducing the fusion of the viral membrane with the membrane of the target host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • assays
  • For Cell-killing Particle assays, the surviving fraction of cells is used to approximate the Poisson Distribution of virus particles amongst cells and therefore determine the number of CKPs encountered by each cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetramer assays are used for single-cell phenotyping and cell counting, and offer an important advantage over other methods, such as ELISPOT and single-cell PCR because they enable the recovery and further study of sorted cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • high-affinity
  • MHC multimers are oligomeric forms of MHC molecules, designed to identify and isolate T-cells with high affinity to specific antigens amid a large group of unrelated T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethical
  • However, there remain ethical concerns over the implications of using SCNT to develop stem cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Dolly's birth set off a huge outpouring of ethical concern - along with hope that the same techniques, applied to human cells, could be used to treat myriad diseases. (wunc.org)
  • Although cloning has some benefits, attempts to clone a human will bring up many moral and ethical issues. (essaypride.com)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, during course of cell division, one of the cells can get mutated further and acquire new characteristics to diverge as a new clone. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this enzyme in "youthful" cells replaces these lost bits (nucleotides) of DNA, thus making almost unlimited cycles of cell division possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the nature of the selective antigenic pressure(s) that led to the clonality of these B-cell clusters is not known. (pnas.org)
  • However, after reading this article I wanted more insight on the topic of cloning, so I researched it more in depth on the Internet. (essaypride.com)
  • However, the original adenovirus transformation was inefficient, suggesting that the cell that finally produced the HEK 293 line may have been unusual in some fashion. (wikipedia.org)