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  • tissue
  • This is most often the case when a pathologist examines a small amount of malignant cells or tissue in a cytology or biopsy specimen. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, most breast cancers are a type of carcinoma called adenocarcinoma , which starts in cells that make up glands (glandular tissue). (cancer.org)
  • Microglia have been long understood to be the sentinels of the central nervous system, patrolling the brain and spinal cord and springing into action to stamp out infections or gobble up dead cell tissue. (rochester.edu)
  • Adipose tissue (fat cells), which requires extraction by liposuction. (wikipedia.org)
  • These stem cells can become any tissue in the body, excluding a placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are found in organ tissue and have the capacity to produce specialized cell types for that particular organ. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • Researchers at the Eaton-Peabody Laboratory have successfully isolated adult stem cells from the tissue of the mouse utricle. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • If it were not for endothelial cells extending and remodeling the network of blood vessels, tissue growth and repair would be impossible. (nih.gov)
  • The largest blood vessels are arteries and veins, which have a thick, tough wall of connective tissue and and many layers of smooth muscle cells ( Figure 22-22 ). (nih.gov)
  • These are cells of the connective-tissue family, related to vascular smooth muscle cells, that wrap themselves round the small vessels ( Figure 22-24 ). (nih.gov)
  • A study of the embryo reveals, moreover, that arteries and veins develop from small vessels constructed solely of endothelial cells and a basal lamina: pericytes, connective tissue and smooth muscle are added later where required, under the influence of signals from the endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Once a vessel has matured, signals from the endothelial cells to the surrounding connective tissue and smooth muscle continue to play a crucial part in regulating the vessel's function and structure. (nih.gov)
  • An emerging line of research in our lab is to study the motility of cells of well-defined tissue origins in mechanical and geometrical environments that mimic physiological conditions. (jhmi.edu)
  • We isolate primary cells from genetically modified animals and then apply high-resolution biophysical techniques to observe and parameterize their motility in vitro in engineered environments that provide tissue-mimetic tests of environmental inputs. (jhmi.edu)
  • mitosis
  • Conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy is incapable of such delicate and "intelligent" behavior, as it preferentially targets fast-replicating cells by damaging their DNA in the vulnerable mitosis stage of cell division, regardless of whether they are benign, healthy or cancerous cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • endothelial cells
  • Endothelial cells have a remarkable capacity to adjust their number and arrangement to suit local requirements. (nih.gov)
  • It is hoped that by blocking the formation of new blood vessels through drugs that act on endothelial cells, it may be possible to block the growth of tumors (discussed in Chapter 23). (nih.gov)
  • The wall is lined by an exceedingly thin single sheet of endothelial cells, the endothelium, separated from the surrounding outer layers by a basal lamina. (nih.gov)
  • In the finest branches of the vascular tree-the capillaries and sinusoids-the walls consist of nothing but endothelial cells and a basal lamina ( Figure 22-23 ), together with a few scattered-but functionally important- pericytes . (nih.gov)
  • The endothelial cells, although inconspicuous, are the fundamental component. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, endothelial cells line the entire vascular system, from the heart to the smallest capillary, and control the passage of materials-and the transit of white blood cells-into and out of the bloodstream. (nih.gov)
  • The recruitment of pericytes in particular depends on PDGF-B secreted by the endothelial cells, and in mutants lacking this signal protein or its receptor , pericytes in many regions are missing. (nih.gov)
  • million in stem cell res
  • For example, in 2015, the National Institutes of Health invested around US$ 1,429 million in stem cell research, as stem cells research offers great potential for better understanding of human development it is expected that this factor will fuel growth of the personalized cell therapy market in the near future. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • Since its establishment in 2005, NYSCF has invested over $200 million in stemcell research and continues to conduct the most advanced stem cell research internationally, both in its own laboratory in New York City, and also in collaboration with major medical research and leading academic institutions around the world. (nyscf.org)
  • cortical
  • The CD8 antibody allows the identification of CD8, a 68 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by class I major histocompatibility complex restricted, mature suppressor/cytotoxic T cells, the great majority of cortical thymocytes and approximately 30% of medullary thymocytes. (emdmillipore.com)
  • These two populations of granule cells are also the only major neuronal populations that undergo adult neurogenesis , while cerebellar and cortical granule cells do not. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein kinase Cdr2 (which negatively regulates Wee1) and the Cdr2-related kinase Cdr1 (which directly phosphorylates and inhibits Wee1 in vitro ) are localized to a band of cortical nodes in the middle of interphase cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • In 2017, two CAR T-cell therapies were approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), one for the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and the other for adults with advanced lymphomas. (cancer.gov)
  • The global personalized cell therapy market was valued at US$ 3,536.2 million in 2016 and is expected to witness a robust CAGR of 25.3% during the forecast period (2017 - 2024). (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • epigenetic
  • Neoplasms are mosaics of different mutant cells with both genetic and epigenetic changes that distinguish them from normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a cancer cell divides, both daughter cells inherit the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of the parent cell, and may also acquire new genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in the process of cellular reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are currently investigating how aneuploidy affects the epigenetic state of cells and which cellular pathways may be particularly sensitive to modification by an unbalanced chromosome dosage. (jhmi.edu)
  • Age, on the other hand, is just the degree of usefulness of that cell, and it's mostly an epigenetic process. (nautil.us)
  • The factors also somehow wipe off the epigenetic memory of the cell, making them younger. (nautil.us)
  • multicellular
  • The new study not only advances the understanding of the evolution of HeLa cells, and of tumors in general, but of the cells of multicellular organisms in culture in general. (phys.org)
  • In a multicellular aggregate of hPSCs, intracellular apicosomes from multiple cells are trafficked to generate a common lumenal cavity. (rupress.org)
  • Cell polarity is the simplest form of whole-cell pattern beyond spherical symmetry, from which more complex developmental and multicellular patterns emerge. (jhmi.edu)
  • prostate cancer cells
  • The researchers also have preliminary results showing that the compound is similarly selective and effective for human breast and prostate cancer cells, and that it effectively and safely kills breast cancer in rats, Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • cancer cells
  • Over the last two decades, targeted therapies like imatinib (Gleevec®) and trastuzumab (Herceptin®) -drugs that target cancer cells by homing in on specific molecular changes seen primarily in those cells-have also cemented themselves as standard treatments for many cancers. (cancer.gov)
  • In LCIS, cells that look like cancer cells are growing in the lobules of the milk-producing glands of the breast, but they don't grow through the wall of the lobules. (cancer.org)
  • Each type of non-small cell lung cancer has different kinds of cancer cells. (cancer.gov)
  • The cancer cells of each type grow and spread in different ways. (cancer.gov)
  • Researchers at the University of Washington have updated a traditional Chinese medicine to create a compound that is more than 1,200 times more specific in killing certain kinds of cancer cells than currently available drugs, heralding the possibility of a more effective chemotherapy drug with minimal side effects. (washington.edu)
  • The scientists attached a chemical homing device to artemisinin that targets the drug selectively to cancer cells, sparing healthy cells. (washington.edu)
  • It was highly selective at killing the cancer cells. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer drug designers are faced with the unique challenge that cancer cells develop from our own normal cells, meaning that most ways to poison cancer cells also kill healthy cells. (washington.edu)
  • Most available chemotherapies are very toxic, destroying one normal cell for every five to 10 cancer cells killed, Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • The compound Sasaki and his colleagues developed kills 12,000 cancer cells for every healthy cell, meaning it could be turned into a drug with minimal side effects. (washington.edu)
  • Artemisinin alone is fairly effective at killing cancer cells. (washington.edu)
  • It kills approximately 100 cancer cells for every healthy cell, about ten times better than current chemotherapies. (washington.edu)
  • The compound is so selective for cancer cells partly due to their rapid multiplication, which requires high amounts of iron, and partly because cancer cells are not as good as healthy cells at cleaning up free-floating iron. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer cells get sloppy at maintaining free iron, so they are more sensitive to artemisinin," Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer cells are already under significant stress from their high iron contents and other imbalances, Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • This compound works on a general property of cancer cells, their high iron content. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer therapies act as a form of artificial selection, killing sensitive cancer cells, but leaving behind resistant cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Why haven't cancer cells undergone genetic meltdowns? (phys.org)
  • But if cancer cells were accumulating harmful mutations faster than they could be purged, wouldn't the population eventually die out? (phys.org)
  • How do cancer cells avoid complete genetic meltdown? (phys.org)
  • To get at the heart of the matter, a team of scientists from Beijing and Taipei wanted to get a new hint at cancer vulnerability from a mutational perspective by probing the most famous cultured cancer cells, HeLa cells. (phys.org)
  • Therefore, despite single-cell origin, the progeny quickly generated aneuploidy within only 20-30 cell divisions, again illustrating frequent cytogenetic change in cancer cells. (phys.org)
  • Despite the level of mutations occurring, reduction in growth rates, and chromosome numbers no longer representing that of normal humans, cancer cells still find a way to survive. (phys.org)
  • In future work , the scientists want to exploit their cancer cell fitness and growth rate findings to understand how cancer cells can become even more vulnerable to recent breakthroughs with checkpoint inhibitor drugs. (phys.org)
  • notably the p53 system that is so often mutated in cancer cells. (jhmi.edu)
  • dendritic
  • Cerebellar granule cells project up through the Purkinje layer into the molecular layer where they branch out into parallel fibers that spread through Purkinje cell dendritic arbors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each granule cell sends a single axon onto the Purkinje cell dendritic tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen-specific
  • Once the collected T cells have been engineered to express the antigen-specific CAR, they are "expanded" in the laboratory into the hundreds of millions. (cancer.gov)
  • generate
  • Thus, a cell that acquires a mutation that increases its fitness will generate more daughter cells than competitor cells that lack that mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our observations suggest that human cells that have been cultured for a sufficiently long period still generate deleterious mutations in the form of CNVs at a high rate and with a high intensity. (phys.org)
  • We are intrigued about how cells generate patterns through self-organization in response to environmental signals, accomplish division or motility through coordinated structural rearrangements and force production, and, when challenged with hostile environments or genetic perturbations, evolve innovative solutions to maintain vitality and functionality. (jhmi.edu)
  • types
  • All types can occur in unusual histologic variants and as mixed cell-type combinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several types of ACT (see "ACT: TILs, TCRs, and CARs"), but, thus far, the one that has advanced the furthest in clinical development is called CAR T-cell therapy. (cancer.gov)
  • There are several types of non-small cell lung cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Cancer that may begin in several types of large cells. (cancer.gov)
  • These findings show that a precisely choreographed interaction between multiple cells types is necessary to carry out the formation and destruction of connections that allow proper signaling in the brain. (rochester.edu)
  • There are two types of B-cell leukemia: prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) and hairy cell leukemia (HCL). (va.gov)
  • Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells are unique types of cells that have the ability to renew themselves over long periods of time. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • Stem cells are the Gary Oldman of cell types. (nautil.us)
  • The name granule cell has been used for a number of different types of neuron whose only common feature is that they all have very small cell bodies . (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Changes in T cell populations have also been implicated in chronic inflammation associated with the disease states such as cancer and atherosclerosis as well as in viral infection, bacterial infections, parasitic infections, sepsis, tuberculosis, burns, trauma, malnutrition, and stress. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Cell populations go through a particular type of exponential growth called doubling. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Since too much free-floating iron is toxic, when cells need iron they construct a special protein signal on their surfaces. (washington.edu)
  • The cancer cell, unaware of the toxic compound lurking on its surface, waits for the protein machinery to deliver iron molecules and engulfs everything - iron, proteins and toxic compound. (washington.edu)
  • Sera from three of eight vaccinated men contained new antibodies recognizing polypeptides of 26, 31, and 150 kDa in protein extracts from prostate cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Wee1 protein is a tyrosine kinase that normally phosphorylates the Cdc2 cell cycle regulatory protein (the homolog of CDK1 in humans), a cyclin-dependent kinase, on a tyrosine residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • This suggests that cell division may be regulated in part by dilution of Wee1 protein in cells as they grow larger. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotherapy
  • The final step is the infusion of the CAR T cells into the patient (which is preceded by a "lymphodepleting" chemotherapy regimen). (cancer.gov)
  • It also explains why, even if chemotherapy treatment successfully killed 90 percent of a cancer cell population, it may still not be enough. (phys.org)
  • cochlear
  • A new report published in the Ear, Nose & Throat Journal (October, 2004) describes the significant progress being made in the growth of cochlear hair cells generated from stem cells in mice. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • Granule cells are found within the granular layer of the cerebellum , the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus , the superficial layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus , the olfactory bulb , and the cerebral cortex . (wikipedia.org)
  • The granule cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus are small neurons with two or three short dendrites that give rise to a few branches with expansions at the terminals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its axon projects to the molecular layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus where it forms parallel fibers, also similar to cerebellar granule cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dorsal cochlear granule cells are small excitatory interneurons which are developmentally related and thus resemble the cerebellar granule cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • synapses
  • The next step is to integrate the growth of stem cell-derived hair cells with the recovery of neural synapses to complete the auditory pathway. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • These parallel fibers form thousands of excitatory granule-cell-Purkinje-cell synapses onto the intermediate and distal dendrites of Purkinje cells using glutamate as a neurotransmitter . (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, at the level of the cell there is selection for cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kit can thus distinguish both the CD4 T helper cells as well as the CD8 cytotoxic T Cells. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Thus, each generation of cells should be twice as numerous as the previous generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • When cells have reached sufficient size during G2, the phosphatase Cdc25 removes the inhibitory phosphorylation, and thus activates Cdc2 to allow mitotic entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • polarity
  • Our ongoing work attempts to explain how molecular components of distinct functional modules interact in time and space to establish cell polarity that is robust to noise but sensitive to physiological inputs. (jhmi.edu)
  • Cell polarity factors positioned at the cell tips provide spatial cues to limit Cdr2 distribution to the cell middle. (wikipedia.org)
  • autoimmune diseases
  • Multiple studies have identified the identification and enumeration of CD4 T helper cells to be important in characterizing and monitoring immunodeficiency such as HIV, immunosuppression, and autoimmune diseases. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Granule
  • For convection cells on the moon's surface, see Granule (solar physics) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Drawing of Purkinje cells (A) and granule cells (B) from pigeon cerebellum by Santiago Ramón y Cajal , 1899. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerebellar granule cells account for the majority of neurons in the human brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • These granule cells receive excitatory input from mossy fibers originating from pontine nuclei . (wikipedia.org)
  • Layer 4 granule cells of the cerebral cortex receive inputs from the thalamus and send projections to supragranular layers 2-3, but also to infragranular layers of the cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granule cells in different brain regions are both functionally and anatomically diverse: the only thing they have in common is smallness. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, olfactory bulb granule cells are GABAergic and axonless, while granule cells in the dentate gyrus have glutamatergic projection axons . (wikipedia.org)
  • Granule cells (save for those of the olfactory bulb) have a structure typical of a neuron consisting of dendrites , a soma (cell body) and an axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each granule cell has 3 - 4 stubby dendrites which end in a claw. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granule cells all have a small soma diameter of approximately 10 μm. (wikipedia.org)
  • 100-300,000 granule cell axons synapse onto a single Purkinje cell . (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence of gap junctions between granule cells allows multiple neurons to be coupled to one another allowing multiple cells to act in synchrony and to allow signalling functions necessary for granule cell development to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The granule cells, produced by the rhombic lip , are found in the granule cell layer of the cerebellar cortex . (wikipedia.org)
  • The principal cell type of the dentate gyrus is the granule cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dentate granule cell has an elliptical cell body with a width of approximately 10 μm and a height of 18μm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The granule cell has a characteristic cone-shaped tree of spiny apical dendrites . (wikipedia.org)
  • The granule cells are tightly packed in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dendrites are short with claw-like endings that form glomeruli to receive mossy fibers , similar to cerebellar granule cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main intrinsic granule cell in the vertebrate olfactory bulb lacks an axon (as does the accessory neuron). (wikipedia.org)
  • Each cell gives rise to short central dendrites and a single long apical dendrite that expands into the granule cell layer and enters the mitral cell body layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Nevertheless, researchers caution that, in many respects, it's still early days for CAR T cells and other forms of ACT, including questions about whether they will ever be effective against solid tumors like breast and colorectal cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • In just the last few years, progress with CAR T cells and other ACT approaches has greatly accelerated, with researchers developing a better understanding of how these therapies work in patients and translating that knowledge into improvements in how they are developed and tested. (cancer.gov)
  • In the study, the UW researchers tested their artemisinin-based compound on human leukemia cells. (washington.edu)
  • Performing experiments in mice, the researchers employed a well-established model of measuring neuroplasticity by observing how cells reorganize their connections when visual information received by the brain is reduced from two eyes to one. (rochester.edu)
  • Researchers globally are realizing the potential of 3D cell culture for various applications, including testing and discovering new drugs to treat cancer, organ-on-chip models to study the human physiology in an organ specific context, and 3D cell printing to produce organ models. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • human
  • PT2399 dissociated HIF-2 (an obligatory heterodimer of HIF-2α-HIF-1β) in human ccRCC cells and suppressed tumorigenesis in 56% (10 out of 18) of such lines. (nih.gov)
  • This FlowCellect Human CD4/CD8 T Cell Assay provides a rapid & simple method to asses the percentage of CD4 & CD8 T cells in flow cytometry applications. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The CD4 antibody allows the identification of human helper/inducer CD4+ T cell (HLA Class II reactive) and recognizes a 60,000 Da surface antigen. (emdmillipore.com)
  • E1A was expressed at high levels in CN706-infected human PSA-producing LNCaP cells but not in CN706-infected DU145 cells, which are human prostate cells that do not express PSA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The titer of CN706 was significantly higher in LNCaP cells compared to several human cell lines that do not produce PSA (HBL100, PANC-1, MCF-7, DU145, and OVCAR3). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data suggest that both T-cell and B-cell immune responses to human PCA can be generated by treatment with irradiated, GM-CSF gene-transduced PCA vaccines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Plant cells are much larger than animal cells, and protists such as Paramecium can be 330 μm long, while a typical human cell might be 10 μm. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • The formation and removal of the physical connections between neurons is a critical part of maintaining a healthy brain and the process of creating new pathways and networks among brain cells enables us to absorb, learn, and memorize new information. (rochester.edu)
  • pluripotency
  • This self-renewal demands control of cell cycle as well as upkeep of multipotency or pluripotency, which all depends on the stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • During further mitotic expansion of such cysts, all cells retain expression of pluripotency markers. (rupress.org)
  • mutants
  • Yeast cell-size mutants were isolated that begin cell division before reaching a normal/regular size ( wee mutants). (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown in Wee1 mutants, cells with weakened Wee1 activity, that Cdc2 becomes active when the cell is smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • endoderm
  • This middle layer of cells, sandwiched between ectoderm and endoderm, grows and diversifies to provide a wide range of supportive functions. (nih.gov)
  • development
  • Famously isolated from cervical cancer victim Henrietta Lacks in 1951, they became the first immortalized cell line, helped in the development of the polio vaccine, and have become a biotechnology foundational resource for any in vitro drug development or cancer studies. (phys.org)
  • These studies may range from immunophenotyping experiments, studying T cells during development and disease or understanding impacts on T cells on treatment with specific compounds or mitogens or evaluating T cell specific responses. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Cell Culture in an important tool for research and development within the life science industry. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • Network with industry experts, gain insight into how the pharmaceutical industry is utilizing 3D Cell Culture technologies to enhance research and development, discuss the potential for novel in-vitro cell culture models to replace animal models, and discover novel 3D cell culture systems, organ-on-chip, 3D imaging of organoids and other technologies in development. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • Recently named the 2018 Science Magazine "Breakthrough of the Year," single cell sequencing allows scientists to retrace the steps that cells took during development, one cell at a time. (isscr.org)
  • There are over 200 companies engaged in development of personalized cell therapy products in the U.S. alone. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
  • They can reprogram themselves to carry out the function of virtually any other type of cell, and play a vital role in early development. (nautil.us)
  • The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction). (wikipedia.org)
  • When used in the context of cell development, the term refers to increase in cytoplasmic and organelle volume ( G1 phase ), as well as increase in genetic material ( G2 phase ) following the replication during S phase . (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinomas
  • LCLC's have typically comprised around 10% of all NSCLC in the past, although newer diagnostic techniques seem to be reducing the incidence of diagnosis of "classic" LCLC in favor of more poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • It is possible that when the microglia's synapse pruning function is interrupted or when the cells mistakenly remove the wrong connections - perhaps due to genetic factors or because the cells are too occupied elsewhere fighting an infection or injury - the result is impaired signaling between brain cells. (rochester.edu)
  • For example, when they isolated 39 cells from B8 (a fast-growing clone) and 40 cells from E3 (slow growing clone), and monitored their growth from a single cell for seven days, approximately 23 percent of B8 and 50 percent of E3 cells died out within seven days, due to either damage caused during cell isolation or genetic defects. (phys.org)
  • Hair cell loss is caused by exposure to excessive noise, aging, genetic mutations, autoimmune disease, and ototoxic medications such as aminoglycoside antibiotics. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • In mammals, attempts to regenerate damaged inner ear hair cells by genetic means have previously resulted in limited success. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • cancers
  • Until recently, the use of CAR T-cell therapy has been restricted to small clinical trials, largely in patients with advanced blood cancers. (cancer.gov)
  • immune
  • A rapidly emerging immunotherapy approach is called adoptive cell transfer (ACT): collecting and using patients' own immune cells to treat their cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • As its name implies, the backbone of CAR T-cell therapy is T cells , which are often called the workhorses of the immune system because of their critical role in orchestrating the immune response and killing cells infected by pathogens. (cancer.gov)
  • The study is another example of a dramatic shift in scientists' understanding of the role that the immune system, specifically cells called microglia, plays in maintaining brain function. (rochester.edu)
  • T lymphocytes (T cells) play critical roles in the regulation of immune responses, and are responsible for mediating many of the effector mechanisms of the immune system. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Vaccination activated new T-cell and B-cell immune responses against PCA antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • bodies
  • That one cell gave rise to all of the roughly 37 trillion specialized cells that make up each of our bodies today. (isscr.org)
  • mechanisms
  • While this constant reorganization of neural networks - called neuroplasticity - has been well understood for some time, the basic mechanisms by which connections between brain cells are made and broken has eluded scientists. (rochester.edu)
  • LNCaP
  • Furthermore, in LNCaP cells, the yield of CN706 was dependent on exogenous androgen (R1881). (aacrjournals.org)
  • CN706 destroyed large LNCaP tumors (1 × 10 9 cells) and abolished PSA production in nu/nu mouse xenograft models with a single intratumoral injection. (aacrjournals.org)
  • sperm
  • These cells are produced from the fusion of an egg and sperm cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • At one point, we were all just one single cell: a fertilized zygote formed when a sperm and egg fused together. (isscr.org)
  • world's
  • When you join the ISSCR, you become part of the world's largest and most renowned stem cell and regenerative medicine community. (isscr.org)
  • In 1839, at age 19, he built the world's first photovoltaic cell in his father's laboratory. (wikipedia.org)