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  • molecular
  • The Yale University cell and molecular biologist is probing the deep mysteries of epidermal cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • Some of the figures I showed are from Lodish et al, Molecular Cell Biology (4th edition, 2000), or are similar to figures from that book. (libretexts.org)
  • These include: Molecular and biochemical techniques Electrophoresis and blotting Immunostaining Chromatography Mass spectrometry PCR and sequencing Microarrays Imaging technologies Light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy MRI PET X-ray Genetic engineering/modification Transfection Viral transduction Transgenic model organisms Electrophysiology techniques Patch clamp EEG, EKG, ERG In silico techniques Bioinformatics Computational biology Biomedical scientists typically obtain a bachelor of science degree, and usually take postgraduate studies leading to a diploma, master or doctorate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gurdon has spent much of his research career at the University of Cambridge, first at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology (1971-83) and then at the Department of Zoology (1983-present). (wikipedia.org)
  • Har Swarup, FNA (9 December 1922 - 25 April 1981) was vice chancellor, academician, and scientist in the field of developmental biology and genetic engineering as well as an academician and teacher of molecular biology and biochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular and Cellular Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers were able to identify the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient for starting the cascade of molecular and cellular processes to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Those working with DNA refer to cloning a gene -- making many copies of it outside its normal environment. (libretexts.org)
  • Known world-wide as the standard introductory text to this important and exciting area, the seventh edition of Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis addresses new and growing areas of research whilst retaining the philosophy of the previous editions. (wiley.com)
  • He then became excited by DNA and worked on mitochondrial genes in fungi in order to learn the new (in those days) techniques for gene cloning and DNA sequencing. (wiley.com)
  • Professor Brown has written a number of undergraduate textbooks including Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis: An Introduction (6th edition, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010) and Genomes (3rd edition, Garland Science, 2006). (wiley.com)
  • By producing stably transformed cells of a synchronized culture with the Nicsy;CycB1;1 promoter/β-glucuronidase (gus) reporter gene fusion, we demonstrate that the 1149 bp promoter fragment mediates a gus transcriptional oscillation, indistinguishable from that of endogenous Nicsy;CycB1;1 cyclin B transcripts. (deepdyve.com)
  • He is known for his research at Oxford University on polyploidy, cloning, nuclear transfer and later for his many other researches such as the discovery of "ringed polysome figures" and on theories on gene expression changes with evolution and environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • TRP1 and URA3 genes are other YAC vector cloning site for foreign DNA is located within the SUP4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene compensates for a mutation in the yeast host cell that causes the accumulation of red pigment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning of a foreign DNA fragment into the YAC causes insertional inactivation of the gene, restoring the red color. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3153821) Gene Choice, competent cells for cloning (Reg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene Choice provides competent cells for cloning applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody
  • The B cells in the body have two important phenotypes (functional forms) -- the antibody secreting, terminally differentiated (that is, they cannot divide further) plasma cells, and the memory and the naive cells-both of which retain their proliferative potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutralization with an IL-35-specific antibody or Treg cell-restricted deletion of IL-35 production limited tumor growth in multiple murine models of human cancer. (bxcell.com)
  • Mouse anti Rat CD45RA antibody, clone OX-33 ( MCA340PE ) used for the identification of rat B-cells by flow cytometry. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • 2017
  • 2017 - Launches GenClone product line, a full line of cell culture media products centered around ultra-pure, high-performance fetal bovine sera. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • However, this view of cancer onset has been challenged in recent years and many tumors have been argued to have polyclonal origin, i.e. derived from two or more cells or clones, including malignant mesothelioma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning of human cells has numerous applications in medical research that may lead to cures and treatments for diseases and disabilities such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, various types of cancer, heart disease, and spinal cord injury. (bio.org)
  • The expansion of a particular clone of immune B cells is usually interpreted by clinicians as evidence of unrestricted cell growth, the hallmark of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers discover a tool to trigger an uncommon strategy cancer cells can use to lengthen their telomeres. (the-scientist.com)
  • Geron published evidence of the role of telomerase in cancer and cell immortalization in collaboration with Woodring Wright and Jerry Shay at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1989, he was a founding member of the Wellcome/CRC Institute for Cell Biology and Cancer (later Wellcome/CR UK) in Cambridge, and was its Chair until 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2004, the Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Institute for Cell Biology and Cancer was renamed the Gurdon Institute in his honour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis
  • The aims of this study are to clone porcine MAP1LC3A, and analyze the pattern of its expression in the ovarian tissues of normal and miniature pig ovary in an attempt to understand the distinct mode of apoptosis between two strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In cell biology, ways in which fragmentation is useful for a cell: DNA cloning and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis is the programmed destruction of cells, and the DNA molecules within them, and is a highly regulated process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis refers to the demise of cells by a specific form of programmed cell death, characterized by a well-defined sequence of morphological changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular and nuclear shrinkage, chromatin condensation and fragmentation, formation of apoptotic bodies and phagocytosis by neighboring cells characterize the main morphological changes in the apoptosis process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extensive morphological and biochemical changes during apoptosis ensure that dying cells leave minimal impact on neighboring cells and/or tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes involved in controlling cell death encode proteins with three distinct functions: "Killer" proteins are required for a cell to begin the apoptotic process "Destruction" proteins do things such as digest DNA in a dying cell "Engulfment" proteins are required for phagocytosis of the dying cell by another cell The cleavage of chromosomal DNA into smaller fragments is an integral part, and biochemical hallmark, of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • Mast cell tryptase has an important role in the pathology of inflammatory diseases, especially asthma through bronchoconstriction ( Zhang and Timmerman 1997 ). (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Dolly
  • Using essentially the same techniques that resulted in the first cloned adult animal (Dolly the sheep), scientists at Oregon Health Sciences University have cloned human cells and coaxed them into developing into human embryos. (blogspot.com)
  • vitro
  • Thus far, these human replacement cells appear to function normally in vitro, raising the possibility for their application in the treatment of devastating chronic diseases affecting these tissue types. (bio.org)
  • gammadelta T cells, isolated from infected mice can kill MCMV infected target cells in vitro and, importantly, provide long-term protection in infected RAG-1(-/-) mice after adoptive transfer. (bxcell.com)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • This differentiation and activation of the B cell occurs most rapidly after exposure to antigen by antigen-presenting cells in the reticuloendothelial system, and under modulation by T cells, and is closely intertwined with affinity maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein may be essential for terminal differentiation and functional maturation of committed granulocyte progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This meant that the cells can change their differentiation pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila imaginal discs, cells have to choose from a limited number of standard discrete differentiation states. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact that transdetermination (change of the path of differentiation) often occurs for a group of cells rather than single cells shows that it is induced rather than part of maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • However, this enzyme in "youthful" cells replaces these lost bits (nucleotides) of DNA, thus making almost unlimited cycles of cell division possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, BCR-ABL+ leukemia actively suppresses antileukemia immune responses by converting cross-reactive leukemia-specific T cells into Treg cells. (bxcell.com)
  • Gurdon
  • Gurdon attended Edgeborough and then Eton College, where he ranked last out of the 250 boys in his year group at biology, and was in the bottom set in every other science subject. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prof. John Bertrand Gurdon used the same technique on the frog, Xenopus under Prof Michael Fischberg at Oxford and was later awarded the Noble Prize in 2012 for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. (wikipedia.org)
  • blastula
  • This work was an important extension of work of Briggs and King in 1952 on transplanting nuclei from embryonic blastula cells and the successful induction of polyploidy in the stickleback, Gasterosteus aculatus, in 1956 by Har Swarup reported in Nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • a cell other than the egg or sperm) of an existing or previously existing person and inserting it into an oocyte (the egg) from which the nucleus has been removed. (bio.org)
  • only the nucleus of the cell to be cloned is used, and it is transferred to an egg cell that has been deprived of its own nucleus. (libretexts.org)
  • The process involves sucking out the nucleus of a somatic (body) cell and injecting it into an oocyte that has had its nucleus removed Using an approach based on the protocol outlined by Tachibana et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Tissues produced these techniques could be used to produce skin for treating burns, or perhaps heart, or liver cells to repair a damaged organ, without fear of tissue rejection. (blogspot.com)
  • Autophagy is a process of programmed cell death (PCD) through which damaged tissues and pathogens are removed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • sequences
  • By inserting large fragments of DNA, from 100-1000 kb, the inserted sequences can be cloned and physically mapped using a process called chromosome walking. (wikipedia.org)
  • maturation
  • The process of immunological B-cell maturation involves transformation from an undifferentiated B cell to one that secretes antibodies with particular specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • One example is the transformation of iris cells to lens cells in the process of maturation and transformation of retinal pigment epithelium cells into the neural retina during regeneration in adult newt eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • revert
  • In part, this requires that the cell used for cloning be able to revert to the 'primitive' state typical of an egg cell -- able to replicate and differentiate. (libretexts.org)
  • human
  • The following background paper highlights BIO's perspective on the difference between using cloning technology to theoretically clone a human being and the beneficial uses of cloning technology in medicine and agriculture. (bio.org)
  • But using cloning technology to clone human cells does not create a new human being. (bio.org)
  • These are not cells or products that could ever develop into a human being, even if implanted in a uterus. (bio.org)
  • The use of normal, cloned human liver cells to test new drugs under development for certain toxic metabolites, for example, would reduce the danger of human clinical trials by eliminating such compounds before human testing. (bio.org)
  • Staining of human tonsil with Mouse anti Human Mast Cell Tryptase ( MCA1438 ). (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Human mast cell tryptase purified from human lung tissue. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • MJ's Human Biology blog" highlights recent items in the news or in scientific journals that cover new findings and hot topics relevant to the teaching of human biology. (blogspot.com)
  • The host is Dr. Michael Johnson, author of Johnson's Human Biology: Concepts and Current Issues. (blogspot.com)
  • The researchers started with eight human eggs from a single human donor, and after enucleating the eggs, joined them with human skin cells. (blogspot.com)
  • Expansion of gammadelta T cells has been observed during human CMV (HCMV) infection in the fetus and in transplant patients with HCMV reactivation but the protective function of gammadelta T cells under these conditions remains unclear. (bxcell.com)
  • In the debate on the morality of human cloning, Christians take multiple positions. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hard to pinpoint any one, definite stance of the Christian religion, since there are so many Christian denominations and so few official statements from each of them concerning the morality of human cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are certain Protestant denominations that do not disagree with the acceptability of human cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these pastors acknowledged the reason for this violation being rooted in the religiously motivated view that human cloning is an example of scientists 'playing God. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some scientists do argue that the puberty of views comes from the differing understandings of what exactly human cloning is. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • In lymphocytic neoplastic diseases such as multiple myeloma and lymphoma, but also other illnesses, there can be a massive expansion of a single B-cell clone, detectable by measuring the excessively-produced antibodies, measured in a serum protein electrophoresis test or peripheral blood flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein may be involved in signal transduction at cell-cell junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016 - Notable introduction of Prometheus product line, proprietary products for protein biology research. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3153821) Prometheus, proprietary protein biology research products (Reg. (wikipedia.org)
  • marker
  • The newly cloned porcine MAP1LC3A provides a novel autophagosomal marker in both normal and miniature pig. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, selectable marker genes, such as antibiotic resistance and a visible marker, are utilized to select transformed yeast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • deletion
  • Other artifacts are deletion of segments from a cloned region, and rearrangement of genomic segments (such as inversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • Tryptases are the products of a number of genes and form the major neutral protease present in mast cells secreted in response to infection and injury. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • In order for DNA cloning to be completed, it is necessary to obtain discrete, small regions of an organism's DNA that constitute specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The procedure involved replacing the genes in the original chromosome with synthetic versions and the finished synthesized chromosome was then integrated into a yeast cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • However, problems within a cell can sometimes cause fragmentation that results in irregularities such as red blood cell fragmentation and sperm cell DNA fragmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Many of the tumors derive from one (sufficiently) mutated cell, so they are technically a single clone of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using an IL-35 reporter mouse, we observed substantial enrichment of IL-35(+) Treg cells in tumors. (bxcell.com)
  • The success of antitumor immune responses depends on the infiltration of solid tumors by effector T cells, a process guided by chemokines. (bxcell.com)
  • tissue
  • Scientists create a way to isolate mRNA from a single living cell within a tissue. (the-scientist.com)
  • GenClone provides cell culture media, sera (FBS), buffers, and reagents for cell and tissue culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olympus provides plasticware for general liquid handling and cell and tissue culture applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves and then differentiate into the cell types needing replacement in the damaged tissue Macrophages can self-renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had been. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treg
  • Regulatory T (Treg) cells pose a major barrier to effective anti-tumor immunity. (bxcell.com)
  • Although Treg cell depletion enhances tumor rejection, the ensuing autoimmune sequelae limits its utility in the clinic and highlights the need for limiting Treg cell activity within the tumor microenvironment. (bxcell.com)
  • Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is a Treg cell-secreted cytokine that inhibits T cell proliferation and function. (bxcell.com)
  • Treg cell-derived IL-35 promoted the expression of multiple inhibitory receptors (PD1, TIM3, LAG3), thereby facilitating intratumoral T cell exhaustion. (bxcell.com)
  • In response to BCR-ABL+ leukemia, BCR-ABL-specific T cells proliferated and converted into regulatory T (Treg) cells, a process that was dependent on cross-reactivity with self-antigen, TGF-beta1, and MHC class II Ag presentation by leukemic cells. (bxcell.com)
  • Treg cells were critical for leukemia progression in C57BL/6 mice, as transient Treg cell ablation led to extended survival of leukemic mice. (bxcell.com)
  • 1989
  • In their telomerase research, West and colleagues at Geron cloned the RNA component of telomerase and collaborated with Thomas Cech (winner of 1989 Nobel Prize in Chemistry), with whom they cloned the catalytic component of the telomerase enzyme, and sponsored collaborative research in the laboratory of Carol Greider, then at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor
  • They are classified as either totipotent (iTC), pluripotent (iPSC) or progenitor (multipotent-iMSC, also called an induced multipotent progenitor cell-iMPC) or unipotent-(iUSC) according to their developmental potential and degree of dedifferentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial
  • The discovery reveals the role of a growth factor and endothelial cells in thymus repair, and could have implications for chemotherapy and radiation patients' recovery following treatment. (the-scientist.com)
  • immune
  • Immune-like cells in the central nervous system are now recognized as key participants in the creation and maintenance of persistent pain. (the-scientist.com)
  • Time-lapse imaging shows the immune cells transferring chemical signals during pigment pattern formation in developing zebrafish. (the-scientist.com)
  • Immune cells called macrophages shuttle cellular messages in the skin. (the-scientist.com)
  • To address how BCR-ABL+ leukemia escapes immune surveillance, we developed a peptide: MHC class II tetramer that labels endogenous BCR-ABL-specific CD4+ T cells. (bxcell.com)
  • identical
  • A clone is a group of identical cells that share a common ancestry, meaning they are derived from the same cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • they get bigger, then divide in two, producing two identical daughter cells. (libretexts.org)
  • DNA cloning is important in asexual reproduction or creation of identical DNA molecules, and can be performed spontaneously by the cell or intentionally by laboratory researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a single recombinant DNA molecule (composed of a vector plus an inserted DNA fragment) is introduced into a host cell, the inserted DNA can be replicated along with the vector, generating a large number of identical DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • These two ways in which fragmentation is used in cellular processes describe normal cellular functions and common laboratory procedures performed with cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA cloning can also be performed intentionally by laboratory researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic scheme for this can be summarized as follows: Vector + DNA Fragment ↓ Recombinant DNA ↓ Replication of recombinant DNA within host cell ↓ Isolation, sequencing, and manipulation of purified DNA fragment There are numerous experimental variations to this scheme, but these steps are essential to DNA cloning in a laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragment
  • Furthermore, the 320 bp fragment no longer mediates the observed transcriptional regulation of the 1149 bp Nicsy;CycB1;1 promoter in BY-2 protoplasts isolated from synchronized cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • For the purposes of DNA cloning, purified DNA ligase is used to covalently join the ends of a restriction fragment and vector DNA that have complimentary ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • The key to cloning a DNA fragment is to link it to a vector DNA molecule that can replicate within a host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cDNA
  • Every PCR primer pair was experimentally validated using Bio-Rad's iScript™ advanced cDNA synthesis kit and SsoAdvanced™ SYBR ® Green supermix. (bio-rad.com)
  • Multiple cloning sites are sometimes used to ensure that the fragments are inserted in all three possible reading frames so that the cDNA fragment is translated in the proper frame. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic cells
  • Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • March 1982, pp. 1935-1939 J M Blatny, T Brautaset, C H Winther-Larsen, K Haugan and S Valla: "Construction and use of a versatile set of broad-host-range cloning and expression vectors based on the RK2 replicon", Appl. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory
  • WIPI2 mRNA is readily detectable in several commonly used laboratory cell lines (HEK293A, HeLa, A431) and several cancer cell lines, while WIPI1 expression is limited to cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA cloning is important in asexual reproduction or creation of identical DNA molecules, and can be performed spontaneously by the cell or intentionally by laboratory researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two ways in which fragmentation is used in cellular processes describe normal cellular functions and common laboratory procedures performed with cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA cloning can also be performed intentionally by laboratory researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic scheme for this can be summarized as follows: Vector + DNA Fragment ↓ Recombinant DNA ↓ Replication of recombinant DNA within host cell ↓ Isolation, sequencing, and manipulation of purified DNA fragment There are numerous experimental variations to this scheme, but these steps are essential to DNA cloning in a laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli cells
  • The yield and productivity of gamma-aminobutyric acid might be significantly improved if the overexpressed GadB in E. coli cells can be excreted outside, where it can directly transforms monosodium glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid. (springeropen.com)
  • 2000 ). Because GadA and GadB are intracellular enzymes, and most MSG are out of the cells, the recombinant E. coli cells have to be specially treated by sonication, ethyl acetate, toluene, and thermal activation to increase the permeability (Zhao et al. (springeropen.com)
  • molecules
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only relatively small DNA molecules can be cloned in any available vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a single recombinant DNA molecule (composed of a vector plus an inserted DNA fragment) is introduced into a host cell, the inserted DNA can be replicated along with the vector, generating a large number of identical DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • grown
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • Then the cells are grown on a dish with the medium that the antibiotic is resistant to and if the insertion was successful, then cells will grow. (macalester.edu)
  • tumor
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • cellular
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acids
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Due to an abundance of technological advances in the field of biology in recent years, genetic modification has now become common practice. (macalester.edu)
  • Since animal mtDNA evolves faster than nuclear genetic markers, it represents a mainstay of phylogenetics and evolutionary biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two years later, Wong-Staal cloned HIV and then completed genetic mapping of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both mouse and human atherosclerotic lesions show a high level of PPARγ expression and these findings provoked intense interest in the regulatory actions of PPARs in monocyte-macrophage biology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Western Blot analysis of RAG2 expression in transfected 293T cell line ( H00005897-T01 ) by RAG2 MaxPab polyclonal antibody.Lane 1: RAG2 transfected lysate(57.97 KDa).Lane 2: Non-transfected lysate. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • 9kD granulysin is also a chemoattractant for T lymphocytes, monocytes, and other inflammatory cells and activates the expression of a number of cytokines, including RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1α, IL-10, IL-1, IL-6 and IFNα. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, because of their CD34+ expression, such undifferentiated cells can be sorted out. (wikipedia.org)
  • migration
  • of TRPC decreased the cell routine S stage and cell migration, implicating an operating function for TRP-mediated Ca2+ entrance in cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of its mode of action, under all circumstances CD34, and its relatives podocalyxin and endoglycan, facilitates cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragmentation
  • It remains inactive in growing cells while it is associated with its inhibitor (ICAD, DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa subunit, DFFA or DFF45) resulting into a complex ICAD-CAD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Per usual in non-apoptotic growing cells caspase activated dnase is held in check inactivated in the cytoplasm thanks to the association with its inhibitor, inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) also known as DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa (DFF45). (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • The heterodimer also stimulated cAMP production and thymidine incorporation by cultured thyroid cells and increased serum thyroxine levels in TSH-suppressed rats in vivo. (jci.org)
  • membrane
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • relatively
  • Research has shown that CD34+ cells are relatively more in men than in women in the reproductive age among Spinal Cord Injury victims. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten their anti-viral defenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons are named for their ability to "interfere" with viral replication by protecting cells from virus infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Coat colour in mammals is determined by the presence, distribution and biochemical activity of the melanocytes, which are specialized cells where eumelanins (black/brown pigments) and pheomelanins (yellow/red pigments) are synthesized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However
  • However, the infected cell can prepare neighboring cells against a potential infection by the virus by releasing interferons. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)