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  • proteins
  • The potent neurotrophic factor glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a distant member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily of proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Conclusion We provided novel evidence that B cells differentiated within synovial ELS in the RA joints frequent target deiminated proteins which could be generated during NETosis of RA synovial neutrophils including histones. (bmj.com)
  • The genetic modification of mammalian cells is a standard procedure for the production of correctly modified proteins with pharmaceutical relevance. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also express nestin and vimentin, which are found in neuroepithelial precursor cells, as well as microtubule-associated proteins expressed in human neuroepithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiation produces neurons via asymmetric cell division, and these cells form interconnected axon networks and express tetanus toxin receptors and neurofilament proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GPI anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and which serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloride channels are a diverse group of proteins that regulate fundamental cellular processes including stabilization of cell membrane potential, transepithelial transport, maintenance of intracellular pH, and regulation of cell volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • In theory, the oocyte's cytoplasm would reprogram the transferred nucleus by silencing all the somatic cell genes and activating the embryonic ones. (sciencemag.org)
  • The high structural stability of the cloned Synechocystis genome was closely associated with the symmetry of the bacterial genome structure of the DNA replication origin ( oriC ) and its termination ( terC ) and the exclusivity of Synechocystis ribosomal RNA operon genes ( rrnA and rrnB ). (pnas.org)
  • Although DNA cloning is one of the most basic tools used in biology to understand genes and gene function(s), cloning is not considered representative of HGT because the process occurs under well regulated laboratory conditions. (pnas.org)
  • Each of the clones expressed the osteoclast marker genes TRAP and cathepsin-K mRNA with RANKL treatment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Both the frequency of cells expressing a given Ly49 molecule and the level of expression are influenced by host MHC genes ( 6 , 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In the mouse, the NK1.1 Ag, which is a homologue of NKRP1 ( 15 ), is expressed on all NK cells in appropriate strains ( 16 ), is encoded by genes in the NK complex ( 4 ), and may be involved in recognition as judged by the ability of Ab to NK1.1 to induce or enhance killing by NK cells ( 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Genes Cells 5: 397-406. (springer.com)
  • Methods Single synovial tissue CD19+cells were Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)-sorted and V H /V L Ig genes cloned to generate recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rmAbs) from patients with ELS+/ACPA+RA. (bmj.com)
  • 1995
  • In 1995, our group suggested the use of the Bacillus subtilis 168 genome as a stable cloning vehicle for giant DNA ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • induces
  • GDNF induces the expression of mGIF rapidly and transiently both in a neuroblastoma cell line and in primary cultures of rat embryonic cortical neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • kinase
  • The integrin-mediated physical connection between cell and ECM is not simply mechanical but also results in the induction of outside-in integrin-dependent signaling pathways, beginning with tyrosine phosphorylation of the key cytoskeletal protein focal adhesion kinase (FAK) ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • FAK is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase considered to be a central molecule in integrin-mediated signaling, involved in cell cycle progression, cell survival, and migration ( 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • somatic cell nuc
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology has recently been used to generate animals with a common genetic composition. (sciencemag.org)
  • The isolation of pluripotent human embryonic stem (ES) cells ( 1 ) and breakthroughs in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in mammals ( 2 ) have raised the possibility of performing human SCNT to generate potentially unlimited sources of undifferentiated cells for use in research, with potential applications in tissue repair and transplantation medicine. (sciencemag.org)
  • Theoretically, among various possibilities, an established somatic cell nuclear transfer system with genetically engineered donor cells seems to be an efficient and reliable approach to achieve this goal. (publish.csiro.au)
  • The authors conclude that although in this early phase of research no direct evidence can be provided about the practical use of transgenic pigs produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer as organ donors or disease models, the future chances even in medium term are good, and at least proportional with the efforts and sums that are invested into this research area worldwide. (publish.csiro.au)
  • gene
  • As a consequence the newly introduced information may not be realized (expressed), the gene(s) may be lost and/or re-insert and they may render the target cells in unstable state. (wikipedia.org)
  • After its introduction into the genome of a host cell the properties of many integration sites (genomic ´addresses´) are characterized and appropriate clones are isolated the GOI (gene-of-interest) is part of a circular ´exchange plasmid´ and is flanked by a set of matching sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • First applied for the Tyr-recombinase Flp, this novel procedure is not only relevant to the rational construction of biotechnologically significant cell lines, but it also finds increasing use for the systematic generation of stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • We have observed glucose-stimulated changes at the β-cell basal membrane similar to focal adhesion remodeling in cell migration. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Filamentous actin (F-actin) in β-cells was reported to be organized as a dense web beneath the plasma membrane ( 2 ) and was later shown to undergo remodeling upon glucose stimulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It may play a role in normal bladder epithelial physiology, possibly in regulating membrane permeability of superficial umbrella cells or in stabilizing the apical membrane through AUM/cytoskeletal interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caveolae are small domains on the inner cell membrane involved in vesicular trafficking and signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • the protein localizes principally to the cell nucleus and exhibits both nuclear and plasma membrane chloride ion channel activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal
  • Successful cloning is dependent on optimization of attachment substrata, basal media composition, serum source, and growth factor/hormone additions to support proliferation of the cell type at clonal (low) density. (springer.com)
  • One feature of chronic rejection is the infiltration of ectopic B-cell clusters that are clonal into the transplanted kidney. (pnas.org)
  • Recently we prepared combinatorial antibody libraries from these infiltrating B-cell clusters and showed that they are clonal. (pnas.org)
  • induced MALT lymphomas as a precedent because studies of their pathogenesis has taught us that the sustained interaction between bacteria and/or their products and immunocompent cells in a confined space can lead to clonal proliferation of B-cells and even malignancy. (pnas.org)
  • pathway
  • Although the existence of NK cells has been known for more than 20 years, many of the basic issues concerning these cells, such as their developmental pathway, their mechanisms of recognition, and their physiologic function, are still poorly understood. (jimmunol.org)
  • locus
  • The target DNA is guided in the BGM vector by simultaneous homologous recombination at two small flanking DNAs called landing pad sequences (LPS), integrated at the BGM cloning locus before cloning. (pnas.org)
  • expression
  • Co-transfection of the Drosophila SL2 cells using mGIF expression plasmid and reporter constructs having Sp1 binding sites indicated that mGIF represses transcription from a TATA-containing as well as from a TATA-less promoter. (jneurosci.org)
  • Future work will involve studying the expression of the Ca 2+ channel in a range of hematopoietic cells, the electrophysiological properties of the Ca 2+ channel, and the signalling pathways that regulate its expression. (thermofisher.com)
  • NK cells obtained by exposing mouse fetal thymocytes to appropriate combinations of IL-4, IL-2, and PMA are phenotypically indistinguishable from cultured adult splenic NK cells with the exception that they generally lack measurable expression of all of the inhibitory Ly49 molecules that can currently be detected with Abs (Ly49A, -C, -G, and -I) and of the activating molecule Ly49D. (jimmunol.org)
  • The expression of individual variable Ags is independent and stochastic, resulting in fetal NK "clones" being potentially composed of hundreds of phenotypically distinct cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • A problem with this concept, and with negative signaling in general, is that since the level of class I expression varies substantially on different cells in the body there would appear to be a continuous need to adjust the level at which self-nonself discrimination is set in individual NK cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • The cells exhibit a high nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, prominent nucleoli, and the expression of the glycolipid antigen SSEA-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • NTERA-2 cells differentiate when exposed to retinoic acid and lose expression of SSEA-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual PTPs may be expressed by all cell types, or their expression may be strictly tissue-specific. (wikipedia.org)
  • generate
  • While recent studies in chronic lymphocytic leukemia have shown that self-reactive B-cell receptors (BCR) can generate cell-autonomous signaling and proliferation, our knowledge about the role of BCRs for the development or survival of other lymphomas remains limited. (springer.com)
  • The lysate was passed several times through a 21-gauge needle to shear the DNA released from the cells and generate a lysate with reduced viscosity. (thermofisher.com)
  • Stem cells can be used to replace damaged tissue or to generate transgenic animals with largely pre-determined properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • RESULTS Glucose stimulation of β-cells in monolayer significantly increased phosphorylation of FAK and paxillin as well as cell surface area. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Glucose-stimulated remodeling of focal adhesions and phosphorylation of FAK and paxillin are involved in full development of GSIS, indicating a previously unknown role for focal adhesion remodeling in pancreatic β-cell function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • demonstrates
  • This heterogeneity is not related to the cell cycle or activation status of the cells, and micromanipulation recloning demonstrates unambiguously that it is not due to a lack of a single cell origin. (jimmunol.org)
  • receptors
  • Agathangelidis A, Hadzidimitriou A, Rosenquist R et al (2011) Unlocking the secrets of immunoglobulin receptors in mantle cell lymphoma: implications for the origin and selection of the malignant cells. (springer.com)
  • This protection is mediated at least in part by receptors on NK cells that bind to class I molecules and deliver inhibitory signals ( 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, both integrins are receptors for laminin-5, a component of ECM known to promote rat β-cell function and survival ( 8 , 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • tumor cells
  • To the extent that GVHD targets antigens that are also expressed by recipient tumor cells, GVHD can also be responsible for significant GVL activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • binds
  • Recent studies have indicated that the 10A7 Ab, which reacts with most but not all mouse NK cells ( 18 ), binds to one or more members of the mouse NKRP1 family (J. C. Ryan and W. E. Seaman, personal communication) and may therefore delineate a subpopulation of NK cells with distinct recognition capabilities. (jimmunol.org)
  • Flot-2 binds to PAR-1, a known upstream mediator of major signal transduction pathways implicated in cell growth and metastasis, and may influence tumour progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Several additional transcription factors having the same zinc finger motif as Sp1 have been cloned and found to bind to the GC box sequence. (jneurosci.org)
  • stable
  • Given the significant diversity in genome structure observed upon horizontal DNA transfer in nature, our stable laboratory-generated composite genome raised fundamental questions concerning two complete genomes in one cell. (pnas.org)
  • genome
  • Cloning the whole 3.5-megabase (Mb) genome of the photosynthetic bacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 into the 4.2-Mb genome of the mesophilic bacterium Bacillus subtilis 168 resulted in a 7.7-Mb composite genome. (pnas.org)
  • We succeeded in such unprecedented large-size cloning by progressively assembling and editing contiguous DNA regions that cover the entire Synechocystis genome. (pnas.org)
  • The strain containing the two sets of genome grew only in the B. subtilis culture medium where all of the cloning procedures were carried out. (pnas.org)
  • Our megasize DNA cloning method, designated megacloning, may be generally applicable to other genomes or genome loci of free-living organisms. (pnas.org)
  • We termed the cloning vehicle BGM (for B. subtilis genome) vector and demonstrated the successful reconstruction of long contiguous DNAs ( 12 - 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • We applied this method in the complete cloning of the whole 3.5-Mb genome of the photosynthetic bacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 ( 17 ) into the 4.2-Mb genome of the mesophilic bacterium B. subtilis 168 ( Fig. 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Genome Biol. (wikipedia.org)
  • recognition
  • This recognition initiates T cell activation and expansion, ultimately leading to destruction of the pathogen. (thermofisher.com)
  • Recently, a significant advance in our understanding of NK cell recognition has come from the realization that MHC class I molecules can protect target cells from lysis by NK cells ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Even less is understood about the mechanisms of positive recognition used by NK cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • progenitor
  • We hypothesize that fetal NK cells behave as progenitor cells that are undergoing a process of rapid, extensive, and continuous diversification and that are individually capable of generating and regenerating a complex NK cell repertoire. (jimmunol.org)
  • antigens
  • Preferential selection of B-cell clones by a limited set of antigens has been suggested to drive lymphoma development. (springer.com)
  • It has been postulated that these donor T cells can be directed at either tumor-associated antigens (5) or minor histocompatibility antigens (6 , 7 , 8) , but the specific antigens that are targets of effective DLI responses in vivo have not been identified. (aacrjournals.org)
  • GVHD is mediated primarily by donor T cells directed against multiple antigens expressed in different recipient tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • transgenic
  • First evidence of intraclonal genetic exchange in trypanosomatids using two Leishmania infantum fluorescent transgenic clones. (springer.com)
  • As expected, some transgenic mice bearing 2kb or 6kb constructs showed tissue specific expression of LacZ gene in hair follicles, gut pacemaker cells and neurons where KL is expressed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • It has been associated with heterochromatin and PML-NBs (Promyelocytic Leukaemia nuclear bodies) and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli cells
  • The yield and productivity of gamma-aminobutyric acid might be significantly improved if the overexpressed GadB in E. coli cells can be excreted outside, where it can directly transforms monosodium glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid. (springeropen.com)
  • 2000 ). Because GadA and GadB are intracellular enzymes, and most MSG are out of the cells, the recombinant E. coli cells have to be specially treated by sonication, ethyl acetate, toluene, and thermal activation to increase the permeability (Zhao et al. (springeropen.com)
  • functional
  • These cells exhibit functional and structural asymmetry in their apical and basolateral plasma membranes that is essential to their function. (rupress.org)
  • HeLa
  • WIPI2 mRNA is readily detectable in several commonly used laboratory cell lines (HEK293A, HeLa, A431) and several cancer cell lines, while WIPI1 expression is limited to cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acids
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematopoietic
  • However, with regard to 42 strains thus far produced , none showed expression in the hematopoietic tissues, except one strain in which LacZ expression was observed in osteoblast cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Src, Fyn and Yes are expressed ubiquitously in all cell types while the others are generally found in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • mice
  • The purpose of the present study is to produce model mice in which the hematopoiesis supporting cells are easily distinguished from other stromal cell component. (nii.ac.jp)
  • lineage
  • Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • In Xenopus , the germline is specified through the inheritance of germ plasm formed during oogenesis and asymmetrically segregated into the future germ cell lineage. (biologists.org)
  • line
  • The THP-1 monocytic cell line which displays macrophage like differentiation in response to phorbol esters was used as a model system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Western blot analysis of DUSP22 over-expressed 293 cell line, cotransfected with DUSP22 Validated Chimera RNAi ( Cat # H00056940-R01V ) (Lane 2) or non-transfected control (Lane 1). (abnova.com)
  • The use of a helper phage can be eliminated by using 'bacterial packaging cell line' technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Coat colour in mammals is determined by the presence, distribution and biochemical activity of the melanocytes, which are specialized cells where eumelanins (black/brown pigments) and pheomelanins (yellow/red pigments) are synthesized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • organisms
  • The majority of cell types in multicellular organisms are polarized and face two different environments. (rupress.org)
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Overexpression of p120 leads to malignant transformation of 3T3 cells while treatment with antisense p120 mRNA causes the transformed cells to revert to their original non-malignant phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • We conclude that millicurrent stimulation of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes cultivated in a 3 D collagen gel and of osteochondral explants directly influences cell metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)