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  • 1999
  • Küppers R, Klein U, Hansmann ML et al (1999) Cellular origin of human B-cell lymphomas. (springer.com)
  • 1999). "Flotillins/cavatellins are differentially expressed in cells and tissues and form a hetero-oligomeric complex with caveolins in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocyte
  • However, counting CD34+ mononuclear cells may overestimate myeloid blasts in bone marrow smears due to hematogones (B lymphocyte precursors) and CD34+ megakaryocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies
  • Hybridoma technology opened a new horizon in the production of antibodies against target antigens of infectious pathogens, malignant diseases including autoimmune disorders, and numerous potent toxins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antibodies bind antigen with the help of a VHH fragment that can identify specific and unique conformational epitopes by the presence of its long complementary determining regions (CDR3). (frontiersin.org)
  • The approach allows the unbiased characterization of the human antibody repertoire at single-cell level through the generation of recombinant monoclonal antibodies from single primary human B cells of defined origin. (springer.com)
  • This protocol offers a detailed description of the method starting from the flow-cytometric isolation of single human B cells to the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based amplification of the expressed immunoglobulin (Ig) transcripts ( IGH , IGK , and IGL) and their subsequent cloning into expression vectors for the in vitro production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Anti-idiotypic antibodies have been shown to recognize T-cell receptors. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Antibodies are used to quantify and purify hematopoietic progenitor stem cells for research and for clinical bone marrow transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • T cell activation by "signal one" was modulated not only by positive costimulatory signals but by negative regulating molecules as well. (jimmunol.org)
  • Since the publication of these two Pillars of Immunology articles, the list of positive and negative costimulatory molecules has grown substantially, with the addition of ICOS, PD-1, and others expressed on T cells, along with their ligands on APCs ( 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Antigen-specific T cell activation depends on T cell receptor (TCR) interaction with peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in conjunction with co-stimulatory signals mediated by accessory molecules. (google.com)
  • We present three NK lines that are inhibited via the interaction of their NKAT3 receptor with HLA-G and with HLA-Bw4 molecules. (rupress.org)
  • The tumor microenvironment (TME) is the cellular environment in which the tumor exists, including surrounding blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, lymphocytes, signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix (ECM). (wikipedia.org)
  • PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Otherwise, the number of mismatched gene variants, namely alleles, encoding cell surface molecules called major histocompatibility complex (MHC), classes I and II, correlate with the rapidity and severity of transplant rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rejection is an adaptive immune response via cellular immunity (mediated by killer T cells inducing apoptosis of target cells) as well as humoral immunity (mediated by activated B cells secreting antibody molecules), though the action is joined by components of innate immune response (phagocytes and soluble immune proteins). (wikipedia.org)
  • The recipient's helper T cells coordinate specific immunity directed at the donor's self peptides or at the donor's Major histocompatibility complex molecules, or at both. (wikipedia.org)
  • When memory helper T cells' CD4 receptors bind to the MHC class II molecules which are expressed on the surfaces of the target cells of the graft tissue, the memory helper T cells' T cell receptors (TCRs) can recognize their target antigen that is presented by the MHC class II molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The memory helper T cell subsequently produces clones that, as effector cells, secrete immune signalling molecules (cytokines) in approximately the cytokine balance that had prevailed at the memory helper T cell's priming to memorize the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • We have now leveraged the negative regulatory role of TLR9 to develop an inducible rapid-onset murine model of systemic autoimmunity that depends on T cell detection of a membrane-bound OVA fusion protein expressed by MHC class II+ cells, expression of TLR7, expression of the type I IFN receptor, and loss of expression of TLR9. (jci.org)
  • The interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) is a heterotrimeric protein expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as lymphocytes, that binds and responds to a cytokine called IL-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flotillin 2 (flot-2) is a highly conserved protein isolated from caveolae/lipid raft domains that tether growth factor receptors linked to signal transduction pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • SLP-76 was originally identified as a substrate of the ZAP-70 protein tyrosine kinase following T cell receptor (TCR) ligation in the leukemic T cell line Jurkat. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of additional proteins have been identified that associate with SLP-76 both constitutively and inducibly following receptor ligation, supporting the notion that SLP-76 functions as an adaptor or scaffold protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the protein appears to promote muscle cell fusion and support myotube maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Recent studies have indicated that the 10A7 Ab, which reacts with most but not all mouse NK cells ( 18 ), binds to one or more members of the mouse NKRP1 family (J. C. Ryan and W. E. Seaman, personal communication) and may therefore delineate a subpopulation of NK cells with distinct recognition capabilities. (jimmunol.org)
  • The invention relates generally to compositions of and methods for obtaining and using a polypeptide, other than B7, that binds to CTLA4, or CD28, or CTLA4Ig, or homologous proteins, and regulates T cell activation. (google.com)
  • and all three receptor chains form a complex that binds IL-2 with high affinity (Kd ~ 10−11 M) on activated T cells and regulatory T cells The intermediate and high affinity receptor forms are functional and cause changes in the cell when IL-2 binds to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of the stable complex formed when IL-2 binds to the high affinity receptor has been determined using X-ray crystallography. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once IL-2 binds to the high affinity receptor, the complex is rapidly internalized and has only a short time to signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flot-2 binds to PAR-1, a known upstream mediator of major signal transduction pathways implicated in cell growth and metastasis, and may influence tumour progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • NFAT binds to a sequence in the IL2 enhancer known as the antigen receptor response element 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is expressed on lymph node endothelia, whereas the L-selectin to which it binds is on the T cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • Drugs that inhibit IL-2 receptors, such as basiliximab and daclizumab are used in conjunction with other drugs to prevent immune rejection of transplants. (wikipedia.org)
  • namely
  • To activate a T cell, it was widely accepted, even in the 1960s, that there had to be a "signal one," namely, receptor recognition of a foreign Ag. (jimmunol.org)
  • lymphokines
  • This induced nonresponsiveness, termed 'T cell anergy', is defined by the failure of T cells to proliferate and produce lymphokines, such as IL-2. (google.com)
  • proliferation
  • The mAb 9.3 activated numerous signaling pathways and, while having little or no effect on resting T cells, cooperated with TCR stimulation to induce optimal cytokine production, proliferation, and cell survival ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • While recent studies in chronic lymphocytic leukemia have shown that self-reactive B-cell receptors (BCR) can generate cell-autonomous signaling and proliferation, our knowledge about the role of BCRs for the development or survival of other lymphomas remains limited. (springer.com)
  • One of its responses to a foreign antigen is the proliferation of a class of lymphocytes which specifically recognizes the antigen. (google.com)
  • The proliferation of the T cells of the immune system is part of a multifaceted response of T lymphocytes known as T cell activation. (google.com)
  • CD28
  • Before long, we had learned that "signal two" could be provided by the engagement of CD28 on the T cell by its ligands on APCs, B7-1 (CD80), and/or B7-2 (CD86), thereby producing costimulation. (jimmunol.org)
  • The molecule we now call CD28 was first defined in the early 1980s by a mAb called 9.3 that bound to almost all resting human CD4 + cells and ∼50% of CD8 + cells ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, Ab binding to CTLA-4 enhanced T cell activation, as had Abs directed at CD28 ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • CTLA-4, unlike CD28, was not expressed on resting T cells and appeared only after T cell activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Several investigators have suggested that the interaction of the CD28 molecule on the T cell with a ligand, B7, on the antigen-presenting cell (APC) is best characterized among the many cell surface receptor/ligand pairs in delivering this costimulatory activity. (google.com)
  • Blocking the binding of CD28 on T cells to its ligand, B7/BB-1, during TCR engagement, results in T cell anergy. (google.com)
  • recognize
  • Paradoxically, however, many T cells recognize alloantigens with high specificity, and receptors from such T cells are being explored for use in cancer immunotherapy. (pnas.org)
  • Catera R, Silverman GJ, Hatzi K et al (2008) Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells recognize conserved epitopes associated with apoptosis and oxidation. (springer.com)
  • progenitor
  • We hypothesize that fetal NK cells behave as progenitor cells that are undergoing a process of rapid, extensive, and continuous diversification and that are individually capable of generating and regenerating a complex NK cell repertoire. (jimmunol.org)
  • Development of T cells in the thymus is a tightly controlled process involving the commitment of progenitor cells to the T lineage, generation of a diverse T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire and selection of largely non-autoreactive T cell clones. (frontiersin.org)
  • The presence of CD34 on non-hematopoietic cells in various tissues has been linked to progenitor and adult stem cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • The expression of individual variable Ags is independent and stochastic, resulting in fetal NK "clones" being potentially composed of hundreds of phenotypically distinct cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Messmer BT, Albesiano E, Efremov DG et al (2004) Multiple distinct sets of stereotyped antigen receptors indicate a role for antigen in promoting chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (springer.com)
  • effector
  • FasL was a key effector mechanism in the skin, as the transfer of FasL-deficient DO11gld T cells completely failed to elicit overt skin lesions. (jci.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • The discovery of melanoma-specific T cells in patients led to the strategy of adoptively transferring large numbers of in vitro-expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) which has proven that the immune system has the potential to control cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocytes of specific immunity T cells-including the subclasses helper T cells and killer T cells-and B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • recognition
  • T-cell receptor (TCR) allorecognition is often presumed to be relatively nonspecific, attributable to either a TCR focus on exposed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphisms or the degenerate recognition of allopeptides. (pnas.org)
  • In essence, both papers started with the recognition that an experimental manipulation that appeared to be activating an activator (in this case, anti-CTLA-4 Abs enhancing T cell activation) would give the same outcome if the manipulation was actually inhibiting an inhibitor. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although the existence of NK cells has been known for more than 20 years, many of the basic issues concerning these cells, such as their developmental pathway, their mechanisms of recognition, and their physiologic function, are still poorly understood. (jimmunol.org)
  • Even less is understood about the mechanisms of positive recognition used by NK cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • In the mouse, the NK1.1 Ag, which is a homologue of NKRP1 ( 15 ), is expressed on all NK cells in appropriate strains ( 16 ), is encoded by genes in the NK complex ( 4 ), and may be involved in recognition as judged by the ability of Ab to NK1.1 to induce or enhance killing by NK cells ( 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • interaction
  • The interaction of these clones with the Mx9 antibody was analysed and all were found to be specifically stimulated to proliferate by plastic-adherent Mx9. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The interaction between NK-cell and target cells via this receptor is thought to modulate NK-cell cytolytic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Functionally, decreased AR expression in primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from multiple individuals induced early steps of CAF activation, and in an orthotopic skin cancer model, AR loss in HDFs enhanced tumorigenicity of SCC and melanoma cells. (jci.org)
  • Toll-like receptors TLR7 and TLR9 are both implicated in the activation of autoreactive B cells and other cell types associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. (jci.org)
  • It was given additional substance with the demonstration in vitro that engagement of the TCR alone not only failed to induce effective T cell activation but also actually induced T cell anergy ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This heterogeneity is not related to the cell cycle or activation status of the cells, and micromanipulation recloning demonstrates unambiguously that it is not due to a lack of a single cell origin. (jimmunol.org)
  • Our results show that the orphan receptor known as GCY-4, CKRL-3, or STRL-22 is a specific receptor for MIP-3alpha, and that its activation leads to pertussis toxin-sensitive and phospholipase C-dependent intracellular Ca2+ mobilization when it is expressed in HEK 293 cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The invention includes as well, methods for using the isolated, recombinant polypeptides in assays designed to select and improve substances capable of altering T cell activation for use in diagnostic, drug design and therapeutic applications. (google.com)
  • This invention relates generally to compositions of and methods for regulating T cell activation. (google.com)
  • The invention relates more particulary to DNA sequences that encode polypeptides that regulate T cell activation, the recombinant vectors carrying those sequences, the recombinant host cells including either the sequences, vectors, or polypeptides which regulate T cell activation. (google.com)
  • The invention includes as well methods for using isolated, recombinant polypeptides in assays designed to select and improve among candidate substances that affect T cell activation. (google.com)
  • Hypoxia also causes the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1-α), which induces angiogenesis and is associated with poorer prognosis and the activation of genes associated with metastasis, leading, for instance, to increased cell migration and also ECM remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • NTPDase1 can therefore affect P2 receptor activation and functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies using SLP-76-deficient T cell lines or mice have provided strong evidence that SLP-76 plays a positive role in promoting T cell development and activation as well as mast cell and platelet function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD9 is found on the surface of exosomes and it can modulate cell adhesion and migration and also trigger platelet activation and aggregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokine
  • The β and γ chains of the IL-2R are members of the type I cytokine receptor family. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to an immunology textbook: "IL-2 is particularly important historically, as it is the first type I cytokine that was cloned, the first type I cytokine for which a receptor component was cloned, and was the first short-chain type I cytokine whose receptor structure was solved. (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • Here, we explain how a T-cell receptor (TCR) achieves high specificity toward a peptide antigen presented by allo-major histocompatibility complex (MHC). (pnas.org)
  • Despite this deficiency, fetal NK cells have a similar specificity to Ly49-expressing adult splenic NK cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Individual fetal NK cell clones display an essentially invariant and broad specificity similar to that of polyclonal populations of fetal or adult NK cells, although significant differences in the fine specificity of clones can occasionally be detected. (jimmunol.org)
  • epithelial
  • See: Tumor-associated endothelial cells 80-90% of cancer are carcinomas, or cancers that form in the epithelial tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • We have found downmodulated AR expression in dermal fibroblasts underlying premalignant skin cancer lesions (actinic keratoses and dysplastic nevi) as well as in CAFs from the 3 major skin cancer types, squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), basal cell carcinomas, and melanomas. (jci.org)
  • Increased AR expression in these cells overcame the consequences of CSL loss and was by itself sufficient to block the growth and tumor-enhancing effects of CAFs on neighboring cancer cells. (jci.org)
  • Both the frequency of cells expressing a given Ly49 molecule and the level of expression are influenced by host MHC genes ( 6 , 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A problem with this concept, and with negative signaling in general, is that since the level of class I expression varies substantially on different cells in the body there would appear to be a continuous need to adjust the level at which self-nonself discrimination is set in individual NK cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • We hypothesized that such a dynamic expression was indicative of a regulatory function in intrathymic T-cell development. (frontiersin.org)
  • We concluded that, despite prominent and highly dynamic expression in thymocytes, miR-21 expression was not required for physiologic T-cell development or endogenous regeneration. (frontiersin.org)
  • Phenotypically, the most immature thymocytes are characterized by the absence of the co-receptors CD4 and CD8 (double-negative, DN), which can be further subdivided into multiple subsets based on dynamic expression of CD117, CD25, and CD44. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) is a transcription factor required for T-cell expression of interleukin 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, because of their CD34+ expression, such undifferentiated cells can be sorted out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunologic
  • Through their role in the development of T cell immunologic memory, which depends upon the expansion of the number and function of antigen-selected T cell clones, they also have a key role in enduring cell-mediated immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • The invention relates as well to the polynucleotides sequences encoding those polypeptides, the recombinant vectors carrying those sequences, the recombinant host cells including either the sequences or vectors, and recombinant polypeptides. (google.com)
  • We identified 15 TCRβ and 4 TCRα antigen receptor sequences shared between psoriasis patients and not observed in healthy controls or other inflammatory skin conditions. (jci.org)
  • C ) The number of unique T cell clones, as measured by the total number of unique CDR3 sequences, are shown for 14 patients before (active lesion) and after (resolved lesion) clinical resolution of psoriasis on etanercept therapy (Wilcoxon matched-paired signed rank test). (jci.org)
  • melanoma
  • The coexistence of a progressing melanoma with melanoma-specific T cells implicitly does not involve immunoediting, but does not exclude the possibility of TME immune suppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune cells
  • Tumors can influence the microenvironment by releasing extracellular signals, promoting tumor angiogenesis and inducing peripheral immune tolerance, while the immune cells in the microenvironment can affect the growth and evolution of cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cDNA
  • Multiple cloning sites are sometimes used to ensure that the fragments are inserted in all three possible reading frames so that the cDNA fragment is translated in the proper frame. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody
  • B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely modelled after the receptors of the precursor B cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once released into the blood and lymph, these antibody molecules bind to the target antigen (foreign substance) and initiate its neutralization or destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most common forms of IHC uses tissues that are fixed with paraformaldehyde and then embedded in paraffin (IHC-P). However, because this preparation can mask the epitope that the antibody needs to detect, it is often recommended to perform antigen retrieval methods on paraffin embedded tissues. (novusbio.com)
  • Live, attenuated vaccines, such as smallpox and polio vaccines, are able to induce killer T-cell (TC or CTL) responses, helper T-cell (TH) responses and antibody immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can generate TH and antibody responses, but not killer T cell responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • As they are stimulated to become plasma cells, B cells refashion parts of their genome in efforts to create a new gene that encodes a functional antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the cited gene changes can go awry in plasma cells by, for example, placing a gene that ordinarily controls cell growth adjacent to the normally highly active antibody gene promotor thereby creating a cancer-causing oncogene or, more commonly, by forming extra chromosomes (see trisomy) or chromosomes that have deleted or repetitive sections, any of which such changes may promote malignancy in more complex and less well understood ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Daxx, a Death domain-associated protein, was first discovered through its cytoplasmic interaction with the classical death receptor Fas. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the level of the cell, Daxx is found in the cytoplasm, interacting with Fas-receptor or other cytoplasmic molecules, as well as in the nucleus, where it is interacting with some subnuclear structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, arrestin binding to the cytoplasmic face of the receptor occludes the binding site for heterotrimeric G-protein, preventing its activation (desensitization). (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Conversely, under other circumstances CD34 has been shown to act as molecular "Teflon" and block mast cell, eosinophil and dendritic cell precursor adhesion, and to facilitate opening of vascular lumina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequences
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinases
  • Couples activation of these receptors and their associated kinases with distal intracellular events through the recruitment of GRB2. (uniprot.org)
  • regulation
  • Among its related pathways are Regulation of retinoblastoma protein and Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers . (genecards.org)
  • It has been associated with heterochromatin and PML-NBs (Promyelocytic Leukaemia nuclear bodies) and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nature Immunology, 2004;5:516 Lu L, Ikizawa K, Hu D, Werneck MBF, Wucherpfennig KW, Cantor H. Regulation of activated CD4+ T cells by NK cells via the Qa-1-NKG2A inhibitory pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunological
  • We coupled diversity profiles with unsupervised (hierarchical clustering) and supervised (support vector machine and feature selection) machine learning approaches in order to correlate patients' immunological statuses with their B- and T-cell repertoire data. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In particular, his research addressed whether the multiple immunological functions of T cells were invested in a single lineage or represented the specialized activities of distinct T cell subsets. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA vaccination is a technique for protecting against disease by injection with genetically engineered DNA so cells directly produce an antigen, producing a protective immunological response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue
  • Tissue Antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • this disorder is a form of plasma cell dyscrasia in which no myeloma protein is detected in serum or urine (at least as determined by conventional laboratory methods) of individuals who have clear evidence of an increase in clonal bone marrow plasma cells and/or evidence of clonal plasma cell-mediated tissue injury (e.g. plasmacytoma tumors). (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Clone REA976 recognizes the human CD370 antigen, also known as C-type lectin domain family 9 member A (CLEC9A). (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Based on the type of receptor through which they signal, human interferons have been classified into three major types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of telomeres and telomerase in cell aging and cancer was established by scientists at biotechnology company Geron with the cloning of the RNA and catalytic components of human telomerase and the development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for telomerase activity called the TRAP assay, which surveys telomerase activity in multiple types of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • The strength of arrestin-receptor interaction plays a role in this choice: tighter complexes tend to increase the probability of receptor degradation (Class B), whereas more transient complexes favor recycling (Class A), although this "rule" is far from absolute. (wikipedia.org)
  • autoimmune
  • Nature 2010;467:328 Kim, H-J, Wang X, Radfar S, Sproule TJ, Roopenian DC, Cantor H. CD8+ T regulatory cells express the Ly49 class I MHC receptor and are defective in autoimmune prone B6-Yaa mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignant
  • Malignant plasma cells ( plasmacytoma ), many displaying characteristic "clockface nuclei", also seen in normal plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of p120 leads to malignant transformation of 3T3 cells while treatment with antisense p120 mRNA causes the transformed cells to revert to their original non-malignant phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • In response to interferon, cells produce large amounts of an enzyme known as protein kinase R (PKR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein synthesis of both viral and host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursors
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the other end of this spectrum, detection of the myeloid protein indicates the presence of a hematological malignancy, i.e. multiple myeloma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, or other B cell-associated neoplasm, that derives stepwise from its MGUS precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • In baboon skeletal muscle, which consists of fully differentiated post-mitotic cells, less than 3% of myonuclei contain damaged telomeres and this percentage does not increase with age. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Here, we introduce a bioinformatics repertoire-profiling framework that possesses the advantage of capturing the diversity and distribution of entire immune repertoires, as opposed to singular public clones. (beds.ac.uk)
  • HIV infection and consequent activation of immune system cells remain the most common cause of ocular damage. (hindawi.com)
  • Plasma cells are key effector elements of the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • Beyond unicellular organisms) Telomerase is active in normal stem cells and most cancer cells, but is normally absent from, or at very low levels in, most somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)