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  • diseases
  • In recent years, shorter telomeres have become associated with a broad range of aging-related diseases, including stroke, vascular dementia, cardiovascular disease, obesity, osteoporosis diabetes, and many forms of cancer. (newswise.com)
  • As if feeling depressed is not bad enough, we are finding that long-term depression may be associated with damage to cells in the body, and this may predispose patients to certain physical diseases. (scienceblog.com)
  • For example, depressed individuals are more likely to develop the diseases of advanced age, including diabetes, heart disease, osteoporosis, stroke and dementia. (scienceblog.com)
  • Telomere shortening predicts earlier onset of several major age-related diseases and earlier mortality, and may serve as one index of human longevity. (scienceblog.com)
  • Aging of ECs and resultant endothelial dysfunction lead to a variety of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellites, hypertension, and ischemic injury. (mdpi.com)
  • In turn, aging becomes a risk factor for many diseases, such as stroke and heart failure, and accelerates age-related diseases [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The book is intended for all scientists and clinicians working with stem cells, aging mechanisms or age-related diseases. (ebooks.com)
  • Diseases of Aging and Stem Cells. (ebooks.com)
  • Diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, end-stage renal failure and heart disease are caused by different mechanisms that are not related to stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene therapy agents/strategies intended to edit the genes of the cells of an organism in order to increase their resistance to aging, senile diseases and to prolong the life of the organism Childs BG, Durik M, Baker DJ, van Deursen JM (2015). (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of SIRT1 (mammalian sir2 homolog) in mice improved their health and retarded numerous age-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with the age-related thymic involution, and the consequent age-related decrease of thymic output of new T cells, this situation leaves the body practically devoid of virgin T cells, which makes the body more prone to a variety of infectious and non-infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic
  • Historically, the way pluripotency was induced from non-pluripotent cells was by doing the procedure I've just described: so-called "somatic cell nuclear transfer. (nautil.us)
  • Also, continual effort to replace the somatic cells may cause exhaustion of stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Building on this, and to accommodate Leonard Hayflick's idea of limited somatic cell division, Olovnikov suggested that DNA sequences are lost every time a cell/DNA replicates until the loss reaches a critical level, at which point cell division ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • telomere length
  • In women who engaged in lower levels of healthy behaviors, there was a significantly greater decline in telomere length in their immune cells for every major life stressor that occurred during the year. (newswise.com)
  • Soda and Cell Aging: Associations Between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Adults From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. (fabresearch.org)
  • We tested whether leukocyte telomere length maintenance, which underlies healthy cellular aging, provides a link between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic disease. (fabresearch.org)
  • There is a direct link between telomere length and aging. (nutritionexpress.com)
  • In humans, average telomere length declines from about 11 kilobases at birth to less than 4 kilobases in old age, with the average rate of decline being greater in men than in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • attenuate
  • Exciting, though, is that these results further suggest that keeping active, and eating and sleeping well during periods of high stress are particularly important to attenuate the accelerated aging of our immune cells," said Puterman. (newswise.com)
  • 2017): Senolytic drugs target alveolar epithelial cell function and attenuate experimental lung fibrosis ex vivo. (eurekalert.org)
  • genes
  • New research has provided insight into the HSC's aging process by systematically evaluating the gene expression (whether genes are turned "off" or "on") in cells from both young and old male mice. (nih.gov)
  • For this study, the researchers used several techniques, including a process called transcriptome analysis, to determine the extent to which genes are on or off depending on the age of the HSCs. (nih.gov)
  • The genome is made up of DNA, a long, winding molecule that contains the instructions, in the form of genes, needed to build and maintain cells. (nih.gov)
  • Often researchers can count the number of different types of transcripts in the transcriptome to determine the level of activity of different genes, also called gene expression, in a certain cell or tissue type. (nih.gov)
  • In humans and other multi-cell creatures, nearly every cell contains the same genes, but different cells show different patterns of gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers found, for instance, that genes regulated by a growth factor called TGF-β showed differences in expression between young and old HSC cells. (nih.gov)
  • It remained for a privately funded collaboration from biotechnology company Geron to isolate the genes for the RNA and protein component of human telomerase in order to establish the role of telomere shortening in cellular aging and telomerase reactivation in cell immortalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • mentioned a suggested common mechanism between the Sgs1 and WRN genes since they both had age related effects on yeast and human aging respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guarente's lab has studied the function of genes involved in aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • After birth, the decline of T-cell function begins with the progressive involution of the thymus, which is the organ essential for T-cell maturation following the migration of precursor cells from the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • During aging, bone quantity declines and fat redistributes from subcutaneous to ectopic sites such as bone marrow, muscle, and liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen-prese
  • CD28 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 play a crucial role in regulating the activation of T cells after engagement by CD80/CD86 on antigen-presenting cells . (natap.org)
  • The age-associated impairment of dendritic Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) has profound implications as this translates into a deficiency in cell-mediated immunity and thus, the inability for effector T-lymphocytes to modulate an adaptive immune response (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • In a small study involving 35 men in their 50s and 60s, researchers at the Preventive Medicine Research Institute and the University of California, San Francisco found that the 10 participants who adopted several healthful lifestyle changes for five years experienced a 10 percent lengthening of their cell's telomeres, indicating that the cells would have a longer lifespan. (bostonglobe.com)
  • In addition, the researchers confirmed and extended previous studies by identifying epigenetic changes in young versus old HSCs that are consistent with the aging HSCs' inability to develop into other types of blood cells. (nih.gov)
  • However, Olovnikov's prediction was not widely known except by a handful of researchers studying cellular aging and immortalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • 13 January Man-made carbon emissions have delayed the next ice age by 50,000 years, according to researchers at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • 25 January Researchers at the University of Washington announce a new handheld, pen-sized microscope that could identify cancer cells in doctor's offices and operating rooms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Iowa use real-time 3D videos of cellular movement to show how cancer cells extend "cables" and grab other cells, leading to tumour growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 29 January Researchers demonstrate that graphene can be successfully interfaced with neurons, while maintaining the integrity of these vital nerve cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • single cell org
  • 7 January Scientists report that, about 800 million years ago, a minor genetic change in a single molecule, called GK-PID, may have allowed organisms to go from a single cell organism to one of many cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When SIRT4 was mutated in a single cell organism S. cerevisiae longevity was extended. (wikipedia.org)
  • homeostasis
  • In addition to its function in tissue homeostasis and regeneration, adult stem cells can represent the cell type of origin of various types of cancers including leukemia and colorectal cancer. (karger.com)
  • It might even be the primary cause for age-associated attrition of tissue function in organs that heavily rely on stem cells for maintaining homeostasis, like the skin, blood and intestines. (ebooks.com)
  • yeast
  • Single yeast cells aging in a new microfluidic chip. (eurekalert.org)
  • Yeast: Chronological aging. (ebooks.com)
  • Extrachromosomal rDNA circles (aka ERC) are extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA), are self replicating sequences of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) found in a strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and are suggested to contribute to their aging and found in their aged cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They determined that the generation of ERCs negatively influence the life spans of grande (cells with fully functional mitochondria) and petite (cells with dsyfunctional mitochondria) yeast strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • HSCs
  • Taken together, this study provides a comprehensive analysis of the genomic properties of young and old mouse HSCs and suggests how changes in the stem cell during aging promotes self-renewal and hinders HSCs' ability to transition into other types of blood cells. (nih.gov)
  • Epigenomic profiling of young and aged HSCs reveals concerted changes during aging that reinforce self-renewal. (nih.gov)
  • DNA strand breaks accumulate in long term HSCs during aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lig4 deficiency in the mouse causes a progressive loss of HSCs during aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • On the one hand, some muscle cells - including, it appears, some cells that would otherwise be satellite cells (skeletal muscle stem cells) - become senescent over the course of life, at least in mice (no studies in humans of which I'm aware). (fightaging.org)
  • His own research program is nothing if not ambitious: He wants to reverse aging in humans. (nautil.us)
  • In humans cells, SIRT7 has only been shown to interact with two other molecules: RNA polymerase I (RNA Pol I) and upstream binding factor (UBF). (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • p16 plays an important role in cell cycle regulation by decelerating cells progression from G1 phase to S phase, and therefore acts as a tumor suppressor that is implicated in the prevention of cancers, notably melanoma, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, cervical cancer, and esophageal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • This functional reprogramming is usually accompanied by an age reset, down to zero. (nautil.us)
  • I'm studying whether we can separate the process of functional reprogramming of cells from the process of aging reprogramming of cells. (nautil.us)
  • What is the difference between functional and aging reprogramming? (nautil.us)
  • Consequently, all clone of cells derived from GSC are marked with a functional lacZ gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In spite of their structural and functional differences, the CDK inhibitor isoforms and the ARF product encoded by this gene, through the regulatory roles of CDK4 and p53 in cell cycle G1 progression, share a common functionality in control of the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • As age advances, there is decline in both the production of new naive lymphocytes and the functional competence of memory cell populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The functional capacity of T-cells is most influenced by the effects of aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Therefore, stem cells have an increased risk of acquiring mutations that could ultimately lead to the transformation of tissue stem cells. (karger.com)
  • ERCs accumulate in old cells and mutations of Sgs1 were found to increase this accumulation, leading to the idea that ERCs lead to shorter lifespan of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations resulting in deletion or reduction of function of the CDKN2A gene are associated with increased risk of a wide range of cancers and alterations of the gene are frequently seen in cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • LAM involves lung tissue infiltration with smooth muscle-like cells with mutations of the tuberous sclerosis complex gene (TSC2). (wikipedia.org)
  • chronological
  • however, individuals with nine or more years of untreated chronic depression showed significant telomere shortening, even after accounting for chronological age. (scienceblog.com)
  • This age-associated immune deficiency is ubiquitous and found in both long- and short-living species as a function of their age relative to life expectancy rather than chronological time. (wikipedia.org)
  • implications
  • Emphasis is given to implications for cancer therapy, abnormal mitosis and aberrant nuclear morphology, neoplastic transformations, negative charges on various malignant cell types. (powells.com)
  • mitochondria
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • the mitochondria in mammalian sperm are usually destroyed by the egg cell after fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • Global gene expression analyses uncovered an induction of p16INK4a in satellite cells of physiologically aged geriatric and progeric mice that inhibits satellite cell-dependent muscle regeneration. (fightaging.org)
  • Heat shock is used to induce Flp recombinase marker gene expression is activated in dividing cells due to recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulate
  • Newswise - A new study from UC San Francisco is the first to show that while the impact of life's stressors accumulate overtime and accelerate cellular aging, these negative effects may be reduced by maintaining a healthy diet, exercising and sleeping well. (newswise.com)
  • The ERC accumulate in the mother cell during the budding process. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • As they report in the European Respiratory Journal , they have already successfully counteracted this mechanism in the cell culture with the help of drugs. (eurekalert.org)
  • The number of stem cells in young people is very much higher than older people and this cause a better and more efficient replacement mechanism in the young contrary to the old. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, in the 1970s there was no recognition that the telomere-shortening mechanism normally limits cells to a fixed number of divisions, nor was there any animal study suggesting that this could be responsible for aging on the cellular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • CTLA-4 is maintained as an intracellular pool and is transiently expressed on the cell surface, where it provides an inhibitory signal . (natap.org)
  • Recent advances in cell surface and intracellular marker identification and single-cell analyses led to greater resolution and high-throughput ex-vivo quantification. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • The HSC, a type of adult stem cell, holds great promise for future biomedical applications because of its ability to self-renew and develop into any kind of blood cell. (nih.gov)
  • biological
  • Epel and co-author Elizabeth Blackburn, PhD, UCSF professor of biochemistry and biophysics, pioneered research on the impact of psychological stress on several biological markers of cell aging. (scienceblog.com)
  • TA-65 was shown to improve biological markers associated with human health span through the lengthening of short telomeres and rescuing of old cells, although the significance of these findings in actual life expectancy is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • In probing the links between depression and physical disease, the research team explored aging of the immune system as measured by the shortening of telomeres in immune cells taken from the blood. (scienceblog.com)
  • Immunosenescence refers to the gradual deterioration of the immune system brought on by natural age advancement. (wikipedia.org)
  • contribute
  • Endothelial Cell Aging: How miRNAs Contribute? (mdpi.com)
  • Chronic untreated HIV infection results in decreased expression of CD28 and increased expression of CTLA-4 by CD4 T cells , where both may contribute to impaired T-cell function. (natap.org)
  • decline
  • Aging is the inevitable decline in the body's resiliency, which ultimately leads to dwindling powers, both mental and physical. (howstuffworks.com)
  • There is a notable decline in the total number of phagocytes in aged hosts, coupled with an intrinsic reduction of their bactericidal activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A decline in humoral immunity caused by a reduction in the population of antibody producing B-cells along with a smaller immunoglobulin diversity and affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although myeloid cell production does not seem to decline with age, macrophages become dysregulated as a consequence of environmental changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primarily
  • Some maintain that aging is preprogrammed into our cells, while others contend that aging is primarily the result of environmental damage to our cells. (howstuffworks.com)
  • On May 28, 2015, the FDA approved sirolimus to treat lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare, progressive lung disease that primarily affects women of childbearing age. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • They can reprogram themselves to carry out the function of virtually any other type of cell, and play a vital role in early development. (nautil.us)
  • The function of a skin cell is to express certain proteins, keratins for example that protect the skin. (nautil.us)
  • The function of a liver cell is to metabolize. (nautil.us)
  • Reprogramming that function means that you no longer have a liver cell. (nautil.us)
  • You now have another cell, which has a totally different function. (nautil.us)
  • The amazing thing is that if you take an aged cell that is fully committed to a certain function, and you transplant its nucleus into an immature egg cell called an oocyte, then you revert its function to a pluripotent, embryonic one, which means it can become any other cell of the body-and you also revert the age of that cell to the youngest age possible. (nautil.us)
  • The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with old age. (wikipedia.org)
  • premature
  • Certain cases of major depression are associated with premature aging of immune cells, which may make people more susceptible to other serious illness, according to findings from a new UCSF-led study. (scienceblog.com)
  • vitro
  • Mukherjee, Asit B. "Culture media variation as related to in vitro aging of human fibroblasts: II. (wikipedia.org)
  • regeneration
  • It will be of special interest to scientists working on stem cell research, aging, regeneration, and cancer as well as physicians and scientists specializing in geriatric medicine, internal medicine, and surgery. (karger.com)
  • Regeneration of skeletal muscle relies on a population of quiescent stem cells ( satellite cells ) and is impaired in very old (geriatric) individuals undergoing sarcopenia . (fightaging.org)
  • p16INK4a silencing rejuvenated satellite cells, restoring regeneration in geriatric and progeric muscles. (fightaging.org)
  • physiological
  • Aging is not a disease, but a series of physiological events that are usually inevitable [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • as well as Maria Blasco in the journal Aging Cell, finding no increase in murine median or mean lifespan but some physiological anti-aging effects without augmenting cancer incidence. (wikipedia.org)