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  • focal
  • Paxillin is a focal adhesion adapter protein involved in the integration of growth factor- and adhesion-mediated signal transduction pathways. (rupress.org)
  • It exhibits robust focal adhesion localization in several cultured cell types but is not found along the length of the associated actin-rich stress fibers. (rupress.org)
  • Also, actopaxin colocalizes with paxillin to rudimentary focal complexes at the leading edge of migrating cells. (rupress.org)
  • An actopaxin PBS mutant incapable of binding paxillin in vitro cannot target to focal adhesions when expressed in fibroblasts. (rupress.org)
  • Some focal adhesion proteins such as vinculin, talin, and α-actinin function solely to provide a structural link between integrins and F-actin, whereas others such as the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Cas, and paxillin function as scaffold proteins and are involved in coordinating integrin-mediated signal transduction ( Burridge and Chrzanowska-Wodnicka 1996 ) associated with the regulation of cell motility, gene expression, and cell proliferation ( Giancotti and Ruoslahti 1999 ). (rupress.org)
  • Background: Deletion in liver cancer gene (DLC1) and phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK) have recently been reported as metastasis-related genes. (mdpi.com)
  • axon
  • Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that Necl-1 localized at the contact sites among axons, their terminals, and glia cell processes that cooperatively formed synapses, axon bundles and myelinated axons. (uniprot.org)
  • results
  • Together, these results suggest an important role for actopaxin in integrin-dependent remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton during cell motility and cell adhesion. (rupress.org)
  • formation
  • Early elevation of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α concentrations in peritoneal fluid but not in plasma correlate to adhesion formation in this rodent adhesion model, indicating that anti-adhesion treatment should be early, local and not systemic. (diva-portal.org)
  • PVAC-impregnated sutures reduced adhesion formation without reducing bursting pressure. (diva-portal.org)
  • synaptic
  • For more than a century, neuroscientists have known that nerve cells talk to one another across the small gaps between them, a process known as synaptic transmission (synapses are the connections between neurons). (medicalxpress.com)
  • NCAM has been implicated as having a role in cell-cell adhesion, neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory. (wikidoc.org)
  • In an electrical synapse, the presynaptic and postsynaptic cell membranes are connected by special channels called gap junctions or synaptic cleft that are capable of passing an electric current, causing voltage changes in the presynaptic cell to induce voltage changes in the postsynaptic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligands
  • In studies conducted in collaboration with Joachim Spatz and colleagues at the University of Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (Stuttgart, Germany) it was demonstrated that cells also respond to the spacing of adhesion ligands. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • metastasis
  • We outline some of the key factors that influence this process and highlight how the tumor cell environment may promote metastasis. (abcam.com)
  • Cancer metastasis tumors that spread through the circulatory system use mechanisms of cell adhesion to establish new tumors in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • Betson M, Lozano E, Zhang J, Braga VM (2002) Rac activation upon cell-cell contact formation is dependent on signaling from the epidermal growth factor receptor. (springer.com)
  • neuronal
  • Synapses are essential to neuronal function: neurons are cells that are specialized to pass signals to individual target cells, and synapses are the means by which they do so. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • In these epithelial tumors, cadherin engagement can promote cell survival by a process termed "synoikis" that involves the receptor tyrosine kinase, EGFR. (springer.com)
  • neural
  • It can further be shown that in mixed aggregates of cells prepared from different organs (for example, neural retina and liver) there occurs cell segregation such that cells originally derived from the same organ attached to each other and separate from the cells derived from a different organ. (springer.com)
  • This cadherin recycling mechanism is thought to be substantial in the neural adhesion-based migratory pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been demonstrated that neural cells located in the hippocampus aren't sensitive to varying mechanical stiffness as it related to outgrowth, where cells originating from the dorsal root ganglion show maximal outgrowth on surfaces of approximately 1 kPa. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • Thus, during early stages of vascular inflammation, low shear stress typically seen at atherosclerosis-prone regions promotes the induction of endothelial CX3CL1 and monocytic cell recruitment, whereas physiological shear stress counteracts this inflammatory activation of endothelial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Tissues
  • MOSCONA, A. A., Cells and Tissues in Culture (F. N. Willmer ed. (springer.com)
  • Ewing sarcomas - rare, aggressive childhood cancers - are derived from mesenchymal cells in bone and soft tissues, and children with metastatic disease have poor survival. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Later in development, NCAM1 (CD56) expression is found on various differentiated tissues and is a major CAM mediating adhesion among neurons and between neurons and muscle. (wikidoc.org)
  • Normal cells that stain positively for CD56 include NK cells , activated T cells , the brain and cerebellum , and neuroendocrine tissues. (wikidoc.org)
  • Fungal adhesion allows fungi to bind to host tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • These surface tensions have been determined for a variety of tissues, including embryonic tissues and cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The surface tensions correspond to the mutual sorting behavior: the tissue type with the higher surface tension will occupy an internal position relative to a tissue with a lower surface tension (if these tissues can interact with each other through their adhesion machinery). (wikipedia.org)
  • in fact, EpCAM is expressed in a variety of human epithelial tissues, carcinomas, and progenitor and stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • attachment
  • First, an attachment assay, which employs a colorimetric detection of bound cells, and second, a spreading assay, which employs phase contrast microscopy to measure the flattening of adherent cells. (springer.com)
  • When presented to cells as a peptide-covered surface, synthetic peptides containing the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence promote cell attachment in a manner similar to that of natural fibronectin or vitronectin. (google.es)
  • EPCAM
  • Expression levels are substantially higher in small intestine, and in colon EpCAM is probably expressed at the highest levels among all epithelial cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • some cells in a tumor have more EpCAM than other cells in the same tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Squamous carcinomas often express EpCAM whereas normal squamous cells do not express EpCAM. (wikipedia.org)
  • EpCAM expression differs between different types of renal cell carcinomas, and EpCAM expression increases during development of androgen resistance in prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • EpCAM was first found to play a role in homotypic cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • HoxA5 has far-reaching effects on gene expression, causing ~300 genes to become upregulated upon its induction in breast cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • synapses
  • By altering the release of neurotransmitters, the plasticity of synapses can be controlled in the presynaptic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • invasion
  • The primary reason for treatment failure in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is local tumor cell invasion. (springer.com)
  • These cell-cell adhesions are responsible for forming stratifying cell layers, but also influence the differentiated state of the tumor cells, and tend to restrain invasion. (springer.com)
  • shear
  • Myeloma cancer cell responding to shear flow (by scanning electron microscope). (weizmann.ac.il)
  • By contrast, CX3CL1 induction is profoundly reduced when cells are exposed to higher shear stress. (hindawi.com)
  • When endothelial cells were grown and subsequently stimulated with TNF α under low shear stress, strong adhesion of monocytic THP-1 cells to endothelial cells was observed. (hindawi.com)
  • migrate
  • This simple view is probably an oversimplification, because not only do cells migrate to be adjacent to homologous cells, but they also take up characteristic positions within the aggregate which cannot be explained simply by differential affinities (33). (springer.com)
  • tissue development
  • Specifically, it has been found that adhesions are involved in tissue development, plasticity, and memory formation within the central nervous system (CNS), and may prove vital in the generation of CNS-specific therapeutics. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • To clarify the mechanisms underlying the ECM's specific effects on cells, synthetic matrices with distinct chemical and physical properties are utilized as adhesive substrates. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • aggregates
  • The differential adhesion hypothesis (sometimes called the "thermodynamic hypothesis") is a theory of cell adhesion advanced by Malcolm Steinberg in 1964 to explain the mechanism by which heterotypic cells in mixed aggregates sort out into isotypic territories. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • Here, we report that endothelial cells from human artery, vein, or microvasculature constitutively express CX3CL1 when cultured under static conditions. (hindawi.com)
  • Comparison of the HoxA5 promoter methylation profile across cell types from the least differentiated (human embryonic stem cells) to the most endothelial-like (human umbilical vein endothelial cells, or HUVECs) shows that the HoxA5 promoter is normally heavily methylated in non-differentiated cells and becomes demethylated as cells differentiate down the endothelial lineage. (wikipedia.org)