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  • Pathways
  • Therefore, FHL2 translocation could be important in regulating the different molecular signaling pathways which modify carcinogenesis, for example, nuclear translocation of FHL2 is related to aggressiveness and recurrence of prostate cancer Similar evidence also has been identified in experiment using A7FIL+ cells and NIH 3T3 cell line as the disease model. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inhibition of DSB repair pathways may be useful to increase tumor cell radiosensitivity and may target stem cell-like cancer cells, known to be the most radioresistant tumor components. (frontiersin.org)
  • CAK activity is not regulated by known cell-cycle pathways and cyclin binding is the limiting step for CDK activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These communications between cells triggers intracellular signaling cascades, termed signal transduction pathways, that regulate specific cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, a defective cyclin F may contribute to hypermutator phenotype and chromosomal instability through RRM2, CP110, and NuSAP pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • The protein synthesis inhibitor silvestrol has potent activity in B-cell leukemias via the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, and also reduces cyclin D1 expression in breast cancer and lymphoma cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Radiation sensitivity is influenced by neoplastic cell proliferation or quiescence status, resistance to apoptosis, levels of free-radical scavengers, and the ability to repair highly cytotoxic DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) caused by radiation therapy (RT) ( 2 - 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • it is often a biochemical alternative to the self-destruction of such a damaged cell by apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression of cyclin
  • One substrate of APCCdh1 is the transcription factor Ets2, which is activated by the Ras-Raf-MAPK signalling pathway and induces the expression of cyclin D1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased expression of cyclin A2 has been observed in many types of cancer such as breast, cervical, liver, and lung among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • While it is not clear whether increased expression of cyclin A2 is a cause or result of tumorigenesis, it is indicative of prognostic values such as predictions of survival or relapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • E2F1
  • The cyclin D/Rb/E2F1 pathway was investigated in vitro using MCL cell lines and primary tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HeLa cells were stained with anti-MYBL2 rabbit purified polyclonal 1:1200 and anti-E2F1 mouse monoclonal antibody 1:50. (abnova.com)
  • regulators
  • For his discovery of these key regulators of the cell cycle, Hunt was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2001, sharing the honor with his collaborator Paul Nurse , and with the American scientist Leland H. Hartwell . (nndb.com)
  • cln3
  • As described below, Cln3 is the primary regulator of this process during normal yeast growth, with the other two G1 cyclins performing their function upon induction by Cln3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cln3 is thought to be the main regulator linking cell growth to the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather, Cln3 activity is thought to increase gradually throughout the cycle in response to cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, Cln3 levels differ between mother and daughter cells, a difference that explains the asymmetry in cell cycle behavior between these two cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDK6
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) bound to the inhibitor ribociclib (detail view). (news-medical.net)
  • CDK6 is involved in a positive feedback loop that activates transcription factors through a reaction cascade. (wikipedia.org)
  • While doing this, the CDK6 in conjunction with CDK4, act as a switch signal that first appears in G1, directing the cell towards S phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, CDK6 is involved in the differentiation of T cells, acting as an inhibitor of differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDK6 has also been found to be important in the development of other cell lines, for example, CDK6 has a role in the alteration of the morphology of astrocytes and in the development of other stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in the metabolic control of cells have revealed yet another role of CDK6. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway is a known route altered in cancer cells, when there is an aberrant overexpression of CDK6 and CDK4. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • Thus, the ability to repair DSBs in cancer cells confers radioresistance, while RT reaching normal cells induces, among other side effects, the development of secondary malignancies. (frontiersin.org)
  • anaphase
  • Notably, subpopulations with hyper- and hypophosphorylated Rb are present within minutes after anaphase, delineating one subpopulation that never "uncrosses" the Restriction Point and continues cycling and another subpopulation that exits mitosis into an uncommitted pre-Restriction Point state. (pnas.org)
  • A key mechanism of CDK inactivation is ubiquitin-mediated cyclin proteolysis, which is triggered by the late mitotic activation of a ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). (sdbonline.org)
  • Following anaphase, dephosphorylation of Hct1 by Cdc14 may help initiate cyclin destruction (Jaspersen, 1999). (sdbonline.org)
  • aberrant
  • We hypothesized that this dual activity of silvestrol would make it especially effective in malignancies driven by aberrant cyclin D1 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • proliferation
  • Early serum withdrawal-restimulation-withdrawal experiments in synchronized cells suggested that cells arrest at a single point between mitosis and S phase until serum and mitogen conditions become favorable to proliferation once again ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • It was later shown that pulsed, rather than constant, mitogen exposure was sufficient to cross the Restriction Point and commit cells to a round of proliferation ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • This pathway stimulates cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Cdc7 is needed for proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • Moreover, cyclin F through RRM2 and CP110 control centrosome duplication and reduce the frequency of genomic mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferate
  • To commit to the cell cycle and proliferate, cells must cross the Restriction Point, after which they will complete the current cell cycle, even if serum or mitogens are withdrawn. (pnas.org)
  • Cdh1-deficient cells can proliferate but accumulate mitotic errors and have difficulties with cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Remarkably, cells lacking both Pds1 and Clb5 can proliferate in the complete absence of Cdc20 (Shirayama, 1999). (sdbonline.org)
  • If the tight control over the CDK-cyclin system breaks down, then cells can proliferate uncontrollably. (news-medical.net)
  • transcriptional
  • 1997). The cyclin A1 promoter does not possess a TATA box, whereas the region upstream of the transcriptional start site region contains four GC boxes, with multiple Sp1-binding sites important for the regulation of cyclin A1 expression (Müller et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The transcriptional factors are activated by the primary messengers, in most cases, due to their function as nuclear receptors for these messengers. (wikipedia.org)