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  • subunits
  • This protein associates with and is regulated by the regulatory subunits of the complex including cyclin E or A. Cyclin E binds G1 phase Cdk2, which is required for the transition from G1 to S phase while binding with Cyclin A is required to progress through the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cln3-Cdk1
  • however, when phosphorylated by Cln3-Cdk1, Whi5 is ejected from the nucleus, allowing for transcription of the G1/S regulon, which includes the G1/S cyclins Cln1,2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pulse of G1/S cyclins causes CLN3-Cdk1 to activate Cln1/2 (start point), as well as Clb5/6 at the initiation of S-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCNB1
  • Re-analyses of mRNA profiling data from primary NB revealed that high level mRNA expression of both cdk1 and its corresponding cyclin, CCNB1, were significantly associated with worse patient outcome independent of MYCN amplification, a strong indicator of adverse NB prognosis. (ugent.be)
  • Cdk1 as well as CCNB1 expression were readily detectable in all embryonal tumor cell lines investigated. (ugent.be)
  • Our results confirm an essential role for the cdk1/CCNB1 complex in tumor cell survival. (ugent.be)
  • binds
  • It was specifically found that the circadian-driven transcription factor 'CLOCK' binds to the PFKFB3 promoter at a genuine 'E-box' site to increase transcription in cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cyclin binds both Cdk1 and Cdk2 kinases, which give two distinct kinase activities, one appearing in S phase, the other in G2, and thus regulate separate functions in cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • checkpoint
  • Recent work has shown that disjunction of sister chromatids, in principle, engages the mitotic checkpoint, and probably also the error correction mechanism, with potentially catastrophic consequences for cell division. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells have solved this 'anaphase problem' by disabling the mitotic checkpoint at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Working in mouse models, it was also shown that whilst mice lacking p21 were healthy, spontaneous tumours developed and G1 checkpoint control was compromised in cells derived from these mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • These genes stop and start cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) by adding or removing phosphate groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Directed mutational studies targeting the Clb5 and Clb6 encoding genes have shown that both can activate origins usually replicated early in the cell cycle, but only Clb5 can activate late-stage origins. (wikipedia.org)
  • checkpoints
  • To ensure the proper division of the cell, there are control mechanisms known as cell cycle checkpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitotic Exit is an important transition point that signifies the end of mitosis and the onset of new G1 phase for a cell, and the cell needs to rely on specific control mechanisms to ensure that once it exits mitosis, it never returns to mitosis until it has gone through G1, S, and G2 phases and passed all the necessary checkpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Expression of the promoter is shown to be induce by phorbol esters and cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oscillations of the cyclins, namely fluctuations in cyclin gene expression and destruction by the ubiquitin mediated proteasome pathway, induce oscillations in Cdk activity to drive the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cdk- G1/S cyclin complex begins to induce the initial processes of DNA replication, primarily by arresting systems that prevent S phase Cdk activity in G1. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Control (+/+) and Cdk2AF (AF/AF) cells were treated with hydroxyurea (HU) to perturb DNA replication. (fredhutch.org)
  • To analyze changes in the cellular recovery from replication stress, Cdk2AF/AF and control cells were briefly treated with hydroxyurea and cell cycle profiles were monitored after drug washout. (fredhutch.org)
  • As hydroxyurea treatment stalls DNA replication forks and increases the likelihood of DNA damage, the authors speculated that Cdk2AF/AF cells had acquired DNA damage during the drug treatment. (fredhutch.org)
  • They found that asynchronously growing Cdk2AF/AF cells had increased replication origin firing and decreased fork speed, a measure of elongation. (fredhutch.org)
  • The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B period extends from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The D period refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the splitting of the bacterial cell into two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When used in the context of cell development, the term refers to increase in cytoplasmic and organelle volume (G1 phase), as well as increase in genetic material (G2 phase) following the replication during S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have also demonstrated that the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex CRL4Cdt2 degrades p21 in a PCNA dependent manner over S-phase, necessary to prevent p21 dependent re-replication, as well as in response to UV irradiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Precise and accurate DNA replication is necessary to prevent genetic abnormalities which often lead to cell death or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the replication fork comes upon damaged DNA, ATR, a protein kinase is activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • This kinase initiates several complex downstream pathways, which causes a halt in the initiation of new replication origins, prevention of mitosis and replication fork stabilization in order to keep the replication bubble open and DNA polymerase complex attached while the damage is being fixed. (wikipedia.org)
  • S phase index (SPI) S-fraction or S-phase fraction (oncology/pathology prognosis) Bell, S.P. and Dutta, A.: DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their expression is also being measured by flow cytometry concurrently with the initiation and termination of DNA replication during S-phase Cyclins are generally very different from each other in primary structure, or amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are specific origins of replication that are activated in either the early or late stage of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cells without Clb5, S-phase is extended because late-stage origins are required to be replicated through the gradual spread of replication forks rather than Clb5-stimulated replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cln1
  • Cln1,2 and/or Clb5,6-Cdk1 complex activity leads to a sudden drop in Sic1 levels, allowing for coherent S phase entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the other B-type cyclins, that negatively regulate SCB-binding factor (SBF) and MCB-binding factor (MBF), Clb5 and Clb6 can activate the G1/S transition in the absence of the G1 cyclins Cln1,2,3. (wikipedia.org)
  • division
  • In a new manuscript published by the Clurman Lab in the Human Biology Division, lead author and postdoctoral fellow Dr. Bridget Hughes and colleagues deciphered the role that tight control of Cdk2 activity plays on cell cycle events. (fredhutch.org)
  • During interphase, the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis, preparing it for cell division and duplicating its DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • After cell division, each of the daughter cells begin the interphase of a new cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before a cell can enter cell division, it needs to take in nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interphase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly formed cell and its nucleus, before it becomes capable of division again. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously it was called resting stage because there is no apparent activity related to cell division.Typically interphase lasts for at least 90% of the total time required for the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction). (wikipedia.org)
  • For some cells, there is a mechanism by which cell division is not initiated until a cell has reached a certain size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blt1 knockout cells had increased length at division, which is consistent with a delay in mitotic entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • In embryology, cleavage is the division of cells in the early embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cleavage differs from other forms of cell division in that it increases the number of cells without increasing the cytoplasmic mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that with each successive subdivision, there is roughly half the cytoplasm in each daughter cell than before that division, and thus the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic material increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rotational Rotational cleavage involves a normal first division along the meridional axis, giving rise to two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Leland Hartwell and Tim Hunt for their discoveries of protein molecules that control the division (duplication) of cells in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cooper, S. and Helmstetter, C. E. 1968 DNA synthesis during the division cycle of rapidly growing Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • This division is useful when talking about most cell cycles, but it is not universal as some cyclins have different functions or timing in different cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • fission
  • These cells maintain their shape by growing exclusively through the cell tips and divide by medial fission to produce two daughter cells of equal size, which makes them a powerful tool in cell cycle research. (wikipedia.org)