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  • pathways
  • Based on in vitro studies, TIE2-R849W is thought to lead to constitutive ligand-independent hyperphosphorylation of mutant TIE2, thereby activating downstream signaling pathways and enhancing corresponding cell functions[ 5 , 8 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Here, we report that Yap, the Hippo pathway effector, is a chief player in this process: functionally manipulating Yap during regeneration dramatically affects cell proliferation and expression of key signaling pathways, impacting regenerative growth. (biologists.org)
  • ligands
  • Ephrin A5 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein of the ephrin-A subclass of ephrin ligands that binds to the EphA subclass of Eph receptors . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonetheless, certain ephrin-A ligands are known to initiate reverse signaling cascades like ephrin A5, which has been shown to stimulate the spreading of growth cones in cultures of mouse spinal motor neurons . (wikipedia.org)
  • This complex system (often referred to as the IGF "axis") consists of two cell-surface receptors (IGF1R and IGF2R), two ligands ( Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2)), a family of six high-affinity IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to IGFBP-6), as well as associated IGFBP degrading enzymes , referred to collectively as proteases . (ipfs.io)
  • cysteine
  • Members of the CCN protein family are characterized by having four conserved cysteine-rich domains, which include the insulin-like growth factor-binding domain (IGFBP), the Von Willebrand factor type C domain (VWC), the thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR), and a C-terminal domain (CT) with a cysteine knot motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • The four CYR61 domains are, from N- to C-termini, the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) domain, von Willebrand type C repeats (vWC) domain, thrombospondin type 1 repeat domain (TSR), and the C-terminal (CT) domain that contains a cysteine-knot motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the CCN protein family, including CTGF, are structurally characterized by having four conserved, cysteine-rich domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • SPARC (Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine), a secreted glycoprotein, regulates proliferation, migration and differentiation. (ubc.ca)
  • binds
  • In our body, the Extracellular Matrix (ECM) is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, provides essential physical scaffolding that binds cells (as intercellular matrix ) and tissues together and initiates crucial biochemical and biophysical cues required for tissue morphogenesis, differentiation and homeostasis. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In DNA-ligand binding studies, the ligand can be a small molecule, ion, or protein which binds to the DNA double helix . (wikipedia.org)
  • junction proteins
  • Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry, we found that among the family of gap junction proteins, connexin (Cx) 26, Cx36, Cx37, Cx43, and Cx45 were expressed in the mouse neocortex. (ubc.ca)
  • gene
  • CYR61 was first identified as a protein encoded by a serum-inducible gene in mouse fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ephrin A4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNA4 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus-induced gene silencing of NRL1 in N. benthamiana resulted in reduced P. infestans colonization and accelerated INF1-mediated cell death, indicating that this host protein acts as a negative regulator of immunity. (plantphysiol.org)
  • structurally
  • Full-length CYR61 protein contains 381 amino acids with an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally distinct domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily is a large group of structurally related cell regulatory proteins that was named after its first member, TGF-β1 , originally described in 1983. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Ligand binding to a receptor protein alters the conformation by affecting the three-dimensional shape orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conformation of a receptor protein composes the functional state. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins help to modulate IGF action in complex ways that involve both inhibiting IGF action by preventing binding to the IGF-1 receptor as well as promoting IGF action possibly through aiding in delivery to the receptor and increasing IGF half-life. (ipfs.io)
  • physiological function
  • Because the understanding of a direct function of WISP proteins in cancer development and progression has begun to emerge, in this review article, we describe the physiological function of WISP proteins in a variety of human cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the following sections, we highlight the physiological function of WISP proteins in a variety of human tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ephrin
  • Based on their structures and sequence relationships, ephrins are divided into the ephrin-A (EFNA) class, which are anchored to the membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol linkage, and the ephrin-B (EFNB) class, which are transmembrane proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • Reverse signaling by ephrin A5 was demonstrated to be GPI-dependent as the elimination of all GPI linkages by the application of a phosphatidlyinositol-specific phospholipase C abolished the positive effects of ephrin A5 on growth cone spreading. (wikipedia.org)
  • This finding that ephrin A5 promotes growth cone survival that is opposite of EphA signaling and mediated directly by ephrin A5 reverse signaling has important implications for axon guidance as it provides a mechanism by which migrating axons expressing EphAs would preferentially avoid ephrin A5 expressing cells and possibly migrate towards cells with lower expression of ephrin A5. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • In February 2017, it was reported that the NOV protein was involved in regulatory T cell-mediated oligodendrocyte differentiation in the regeneration of myelin following damage to the myelin sheath. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather than serving as stable structural elements in the ECM, these proteins are rapidly turned over and have regulatory roles. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancers
  • Emerging evidence indicates that WISP proteins are critically involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis in cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, we discuss that targeting WISP proteins could be a promising strategy for the treatment of human cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • promoter
  • To monitor newborn neurons, we introduced a plasmid containing green fluorescent protein driven by a neuronal (Tα1 tubulin) promoter into the embryonic neocortex using in utero electroporation. (ubc.ca)
  • Cysteine
  • SPARC (Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine), a secreted glycoprotein, regulates proliferation, migration and differentiation. (ubc.ca)
  • The four CYR61 domains are, from N- to C-termini, the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) domain, von Willebrand type C repeats (vWC) domain, thrombospondin type 1 repeat domain (TSR), and the C-terminal (CT) domain that contains a cysteine-knot motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human NOV protein contains 357 amino acids with an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally distinct domains with homologies to insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP), von Willebrand type C repeats (vWC), thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR), and a cysteine knot motif within the C-terminal (CT) domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the CCN protein family are characterized by having four conserved cysteine-rich domains, which include the insulin-like growth factor-binding domain (IGFBP), the Von Willebrand factor type C domain (VWC), the thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR), and a C-terminal domain (CT) with a cysteine knot motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the CCN protein family, including CTGF, are structurally characterized by having four conserved, cysteine-rich domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • This phenomenon is related to enhanced proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells, elevated extracellular matrix protein secretion and an increased number of myofibroblasts. (springer.com)
  • Here, we report that Yap, the Hippo pathway effector, is a chief player in this process: functionally manipulating Yap during regeneration dramatically affects cell proliferation and expression of key signaling pathways, impacting regenerative growth. (biologists.org)
  • expression
  • Differences observed between asthmatic and non-asthmatic bronchial fibroblasts (e.g., response to transforming growth factor β, cell shape, elasticity, and protein expression profile) may have a crucial influence on this phenomenon. (springer.com)
  • made of DNA (see nucleic acid nucleic acid, any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cells
  • Intercellular communication between cells is realized through gap junction channels formed by connexins (Cx). (springer.com)
  • In higher organisms, a division of labor has evolved in which groups of cells have differentiated into specialized tissues tissue, in biology, aggregation of cells that are similar in form and function and the intercellular substances produced by them. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • contains
  • Jackson is a industrial request that practically contains the latest inbox, using the reviews in their empty solution and depending them thorough Additionally n't to initiatives but only to Mathematics and proteins. (ciganot.com)