• Carnitine covers an important role in lipid metabolism, acting as an obligatory cofactor for beta-oxidation of fatty acids by facilitating the transport of long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane as acylcarnitine esters. (nih.gov)
  • Recently isolated genes defective in the human hereditary diseases of copper metabolism, Menkes syndrome and Wilson's disease, encode P-type ATPases that are more similar to the bacterial CadA and CopB ATPases than to eukaryote ATPases that pump different cations. (nih.gov)
  • The causative genes have implicated proteins with diverse functions such as protein misfolding ( HSPB1, HSPB8, BSCL2 ), RNA metabolism ( IGHMBP2, SETX, GARS ), axonal transport ( HSPB1, DYNC1H1, DCTN1 ) and cation-channel dysfunction ( ATP7A and TRPV4 ) in motor-nerve disease. (bmj.com)
  • Pictured right is of Dr. Crane and his drawing of the cotransporter system he proposed in 1960, at the international meet on membrane transport and metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides metabolic permeation, VDAC1 also acts as a scaffold for proteins such as hexokinase that can in turn regulate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • VDAC1 is involved in cell metabolism by transporting ATP and other small metabolites across the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) allowing regulation of the TCA cycle and, by extension, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular architecture of a 2D crystalline protein barrier with nano-scale pores necessarily affects the diffusion behavior of low-concentration solutes even if they are significantly smaller than the pore size [ 11 , 12 , 13 ]. (nature.com)
  • Secondly, we have been investigating the molecular determinants that help to define the functionality of opsin proteins. (wpi.edu)
  • Also transports the neurotoxicant, methylmercury-L-cysteine by molecular mimicry. (tcdb.org)
  • We feel that the presentation here of so wide a variety of articles on both the molecular and the cellular aspects of protein synthesis will be of considerable value to many scientists working in the area who were unable to attend, as well as to many who are active in related areas. (springer.com)
  • Two APC family members, LAT1 and LAT2 (TC #2.A.3.8.7), transport a neurotoxicant, the methylmercury-L-cysteine complex, by molecular mimicry. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, the electroneutral cation-Cl (electroneutral potassium chloride cotransporter) family of proteins are a family of solute carrier proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2007, 871, 92-97, doi:10.1016/j.molstruc.2006.07.046 M. Pinkerton, L. K. Steinrauf, "Molecular structure of monovalent metal cation complexes of monensin", J. Mol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence from early molecular biological and functional studies has strongly indicated that the functional P2X receptor protein is a trimer, with the three peptide subunits arranged around an ion-permeable channel pore. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular and Cellular Biology portal As of this edit, this article uses content from "2.A.25 The Alanine or Glycine:Cation Symporter (AGCS) Family", which is licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, but not under the GFDL. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein, TRPML3, has 553 amino acid with a predicted molecular weight of ≈64 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The WNK1 protein is composed of 2382 amino acids (molecular weight 230 kDa). (wikipedia.org)
  • In yeast, hyperosmotic stress causes an immediate dissociation of most proteins from chromatin, presumably because cells are unprepared for, and initially unresponsive to, increased ion concentrations in the nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • The Monovalent Cation:Proton Antiporter-1 (CPA1) Family (TC# 2.A.36) is a large family of proteins derived from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, blue-green bacteria, archaea, yeast, plants and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterial and yeast proteins are widely divergent and do not cluster closely on the NCS1 family phylogenetic tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two of the yeast proteins (Dal4 (TC# 2.A.39.3.1) and Fur4 (TC# 2.A.39.3.2)) cluster tightly together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even in the best studied eukaryote, yeast, Borrelly has reported a Mg2+/H+ exchanger without an associated protein, which is probably localised to the Golgi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the Non-Selective Cation Channel-2 (NSCC2) Family (TC#1.A.15) have been sequenced from various yeast, fungal and animals species including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are the Sec62 proteins, believed to be associated with the Sec61 and Sec63 constituents of the general protein secretory systems of yeast microsomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The yeast Sec62 protein has been shown to be essential for cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surprisingly, TopPred predicts a 12 TMS topology for the yeast Pho89 protein, but the homologous regions are not predicted to show similar topological features. (wikipedia.org)
  • This yeast protein is about 24% identical to the plant sucrose:H+ symporters and is more distantly related to the bacterial members of the GPH family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most characterized CCC family proteins are from higher eukaryotes, but one has been partially characterized from Nicotiana tabacum (a plant), and homologous ORFs have been sequenced from Caenorhabditis elegans (worm), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and Synechococcus sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins of the CaCA family are found ubiquitously, having been identified in animals, plants, yeast, archaea and divergent bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two clusters consist exclusively of animal proteins, a third contains several bacterial and archaeal proteins, a fourth possesses yeast, plant and blue green bacterial homologues, the fifth contains only the ChaA Ca2+:H+ antiporter of E. coli and the sixth contains only one distant S. cerevisiae homologue of unknown function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterized protein members of the AE family are found in plants, animals, insects and yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • The generalized transport reaction catalyzed by functionally characterized members of the CPA1 family is: Na+ (out) + H+ (in) ⇌ Na+ (in) + H+ (out). (wikipedia.org)
  • The generalized transport reaction for Na+ channels is: Na+ (out) → Na+ (in) That for the degenerins is: Cation (out) → cation (in) ENaC consists of three different subunits: α, β, γ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The generalized transport reaction for CDF family members is: Me2+ (in) H+ (out) ± K+ (out) → Me2+ (out) H+ (in) ± K+ (in). (wikipedia.org)
  • The generalized transport reaction catalyzed by the AGCS family is: alanine or glycine (out) + Na+ or H+ (out) → alanine or glycine (in) + Na+ or H+ (in). (wikipedia.org)
  • The generalized transport reaction catalyzed by the GPH:cation symporter family is: Sugar (out) + [H+ or Na+] (out) → Sugar (in) + [H+ or Na+] (in) Heuberger, E. H. (wikipedia.org)
  • The generalized transport reaction for CCC family symporters is: {Na+ + K+ + 2Cl−} (out) ⇌ {Na+ + K+ + 2Cl−} (in). (wikipedia.org)
  • The generalized transport reaction catalyzed by members of the CPA2 family is: M+ (in) + nH+ (out) ⇌ M+ (out) + nH+ (in). (wikipedia.org)
  • The generalized transport reaction catalyzed by well characterized ENT family members is: Nucleoside (out) → Nucleoside (in) Young, J. D. (wikipedia.org)
  • The generalized transport reaction usually catalyzed by the members of this family is: solute (out) + nNa+ (out) → solute (in) + nNa+ (in). (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a carrier ionophore is valinomycin, a molecule that transports a single potassium cation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kef channels are regulated by potassium transport and NAD-binding (KTN) domains that sense both reduced glutathione, which inhibits Kef activity, and glutathione adducts that form during electrophile detoxification and activate Kef. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the large-scale sequencing analysis of a human fetal brain cDNA library, we isolated a cDNA encoding a novel sideroflexin protein (SFXN4), which showed 59% identity and 71% similarity to mouse sideroflexin4. (nih.gov)
  • The two proteins are highly expressed in many human tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Originally 86 proteins were found but three of these, AAKG2_ HUMAN, FGF20_HUMAN and SYUB_HUMAN, were considered to be false positives. (omicsonline.org)
  • Tannins, proteins, and divalent cations interactions are important for many processes in the food industry and human and animal nutrition and health. (bioportfolio.com)
  • "The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment. (tcdb.org)
  • Patch-clamp analyses on human cells indicated that TMEM165 catalyzes Ca2+ transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capacity for transport and affinity for these substrates may vary between rat and human isoforms however. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human and mouse TRPML3 proteins share 91% sequence identity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human MATE1 (hMATE1) is an electroneutral H+/organic cation (OC) exchanger responsible for the final excretion step of structurally unrelated toxic organic cations in kidney and liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best-characterized members of the human Ent family, hENT1 and hENT2, possess similar broad permeant selectivities for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, but hENT2 also efficiently transports nucleobases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum albumin is the main protein of human blood plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human version is human serum albumin, and it normally constitutes about 50% of human plasma protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In lab experiments it has been shown that all-trans retinoic acid down regulates human albumin production Other albumin types include the storage protein ovalbumin in egg white, and different storage albumins in the seeds of some plants, including hemp. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, two closely related rat/human members of the family, SVCT1 and SVCT2, localized to different tissues of the body, co-transport L-ascorbate (vitamin C) and Na+ with a high degree of specificity and high affinity for the vitamin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers may be interested in using Bioinformatics databases such as those available at The National Center for Biotechnology Information ( NCBI ) website for more information about accession numbers and the proteins they represent. (mybiosource.com)