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  • atoms
  • The mononuclear iron dioxygenases, or non-heme iron-dependent dioxygenases as they are also termed, all utilize a single catalytic iron to incorporate either one or both atoms of dioxygen into a substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • It requires no cofactors and catalyzes the reaction that links primary and secondary metabolism: the deamination of phenylalanine to trans -cinnamic acid, with the release of nitrogen as ammonia and introduction of a trans double bond between carbon atoms 7 and 8 of the side chain. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • enzyme
  • the 1,2-CTD enzyme produced by Pseudomonas arvilla is the exception to this rule, containing two highly homologous subunits that can form either a homo- or hetero- dimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.3 ) (3,4-PCD), an oligomeric enzyme complex which consists of 12 copies each of an α and a β subunits. (expasy.org)
  • Small amounts of catechol occur naturally in fruits and vegetables, along with the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (also known as catecholase, or catechol oxidase). (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon mixing the enzyme with the substrate and exposure to oxygen (as when a potato or apple is cut and left out), the colorless catechol oxidizes to reddish-brown melanoid pigments, derivatives of benzoquinone. (wikipedia.org)
  • incorporation
  • A kinetic model of NW doping, including the microscopic processes of (1) P incorporation into the liquid catalyst, (2) P evaporation from the catalyst, and (3) P crystallization in the Si NW, quantitatively explains the results and shows that suppression of the reservoir effect can be achieved when P evaporation is much faster than P crystallization. (jove.com)
  • catechin
  • Catechin /ˈkætɪtʃɪn/ is a flavan-3-ol, a type of natural phenol and antioxidant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catechol was first isolated in 1839 by Edgar Hugo Emil Reinsch (1809 - 1884) by distilling it from the solid tannic preparation catechin, which is the residuum of catechu, the boiled or concentrated juice of Mimosa catechu (Acacia catechu L.f). (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty acid
  • A: it cleaves it into three pieces: two free fatty acids and one 2-monoacylglycerol (fatty acid + glycerol) because lipase can only reach the sides of the triacylglyceride. (caribbeanmedstudent.com)
  • A: they get reassembled into cholesteryl ester (cholesterol + fatty acid), triacylglycerol (monoacylglycerol + 2 fatty acids), just like how they were in the micelle before breakdown by pancreatic lipase and cholesteryl ester hydrolase. (caribbeanmedstudent.com)
  • phenolic
  • 1,2-CTD degrades phenolic hydrocarbons key to the synthesis lipid membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, 1,2-CTD may bind to the cell lipid membrane via its terminal phospholipids and thus have greater access to the phenolic hydrocarbons vital in lipid membrane structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the phenolic compound component comprises a hydrolysable tannin, a condensed tannin, or a combination thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1, wherein the phenolic compound component comprises a flavanol. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • bond
  • Its methyl ether derivative, guaiacol, converts to catechol via hydrolysis of the CH3-O bond as promoted by hydriodic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • intermediate
  • The pathway for degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by Sphingobium chlorophenolicum ( Fig. 1 ) ( 2 , 3 ) includes the remarkably toxic intermediate tetrachlorobenzoquinone (TCBQ). (pnas.org)
  • wherein
  • wherein, the binding system prevents, inhibits, or ameliorates a symptom of acute diarrhea in the subject when compared to a second subject in a control group in which the binding system was not administered. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • and wherein R 3 is not 2-pyridyl optionally substituted with 1, 2 or 3 independent R.sub. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2. The compound of claim 1, wherein R 1 is fluoro. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 5. The compound of claim 1, wherein R 4 is phenyl optionally substituted with 0, 1, 2 or 3 independent R.sub. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the liquid is exposed to siderophores by passing the liquid over at least one surface on which are immobilized microorganisms that produce and secrete the siderophores. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 2, wherein the surface is one or more internal surfaces of a compartment, wherein the compartment has an inlet and outlet to allow the passage of liquid through the compartment. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 3, wherein the compartment is, or is part of, a bioreactor. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 2, wherein the surface is of one or more removable structures that can be positioned directly in the flow of the liquid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 9. The method of claim 2, wherein the microorganisms are halophilic bacteria. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 14. The method of claim 1, wherein the siderophore is selected from the group consisting of ferrichromes, copragen, rhodotorulic acids, and hydroxamate type, siderophores. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, it directs the flow of carbon from the shikimic acid pathway to the different branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • coordination
  • At the center this barrel structure is a metal ion, most commonly ferrous iron, whose coordination environment is frequently provided by residues in two partially conserved structural motifs: G(X)5HXH(X)3-4E(X)6G and G(X)5-7PXG(X)2H(X)3N. (wikipedia.org)
  • flavonoid
  • Chalcone is then isomerized to naringenin by chalcone isomerase which is oxidized to eriodictyol by flavonoid 3'- hydroxylase and further oxidized to taxifolin by flavanone 3-hydroxylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • It seems, in fact, that each member of each family can be used mainly for the synthesis of a specific compound, thus acting as a control point for carbon flux among the metabolic pathways leading to lignan , lignin, and flavonoid biosynthesis. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • membranes
  • 9 ] demonstrated that unsaturated biofilms of P. putida strain mt-2 on membranes overlaying iron-deficient solid media either containing dichromate or solid dichromate-coated hematite were able to completely reduce Cr(VI) under both conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • molecular
  • Molecular structure of ochratoxins naturally produced by filamentous fungi [ 2 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • To further the understanding of molecular pathways responding to the heavy metal chromium(VI) [Cr(VI)], the proteome of aerobically grown, Cr(VI)-stressed P . putida strain F1 was characterized within the context of two disparate nutritional environments: rich (LB) media and minimal (M9L) media containing lactate as the sole carbon source. (biomedcentral.com)
  • compound
  • The compound belongs to a group of fungal secondary metabolites, commonly known as ochratoxins ( Figure 1 ), which share a similar chemical structure. (mdpi.com)
  • structure
  • Structure and assembly of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase. (expasy.org)
  • Most mononculear iron dioxygenases are members of the cupin superfamily in which the overall domain structure is described as a six-stranded β-barrel fold (or jelly roll motif). (wikipedia.org)
  • Catecholamines are biochemically significant hormones/neurotransmitters that are phenethylamines in which the phenyl group has a catechol skeleton structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil
  • Thus far, 1,2-CTD has been observed to exist in the following species of soil bacteria: Pseudomonas sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxic
  • strain K‑804 [ 2 , 3 ] isolated from sorghum grain, and proved to be acutely toxic to Pekin ducklings, mice and rats [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • synthesis
  • suppressor gene can be implicated in the control of the cell routine, DNA MK-4827 synthesis, and DNA restoration aswell as apoptosis [2]. (cancer-colorectal.com)
  • presence
  • Inside a earlier research by our group, we proven that the current presence of p53 antibodies in sera could forecast increased success if expressed prior to the begin of radiotherapy. (cancer-colorectal.com)
  • produce
  • Cyclic esters are formed upon treatment with phosphorus trichloride and phosphorus oxychloride, carbonyl chloride, and sulphuryl chloride: C6H4(OH)2 + XCl2 → C6H4(O2X) + 2 HCl where X = CO, SO2, PCl, P(O)Cl Catechols produce quinones with the addition of ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN). (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • A member of family index for individuals' sera was determined, relating to manufacturer's guidelines, the following: = .136) (Figure 3). (cancer-colorectal.com)
  • known
  • On an evolutionary scale, they are some of the oldest molecules known, originating in the neighborhood of 3 BY ago. (bris.ac.uk)
  • chemical
  • Despite this common oxygenation event, the mononuclear iron dioxygenases are diverse in how dioxygen activation is used to promote certain chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1879, the Journal of the Chemical Society recommended that catechol be called "catechol", and in the following year, it was listed as such. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development and investigation of fiber optic chemical sensors (FOCS) and biosensors (FOBS) has been reflected by more than thousands references devoted to this field in 2002-2015 reviewed in [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • towards
  • Anti-p53 antibodies have already been extensively studied since it has been proven that anti-p53 antibodies correlate towards the mutational position from the gene [3]. (cancer-colorectal.com)