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  • metabolic
  • 2-Hydroxyestradiol, as well as 2-hydroxyestrone and 4-hydroxyestradiol, can undergo metabolic redox cycling to generate free radicals like superoxide and reactive estrogen semiquinone/quinone intermediates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The breast tissue is the site of major metabolic conversions of estradiol (E 2 ) mediated by specific cytochromes P450 hydroxylations and methylation by catechol- O -methytransferase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In opposition to other metabolic pathways of estrogen, the UGT-mediated process leads to the formation of glucuronides that are devoid of biologic activity and are readily excreted from the tissue into the circulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • progestogens
  • Because of irregular bleeding associated with use of the progestogens, estrogens were added but in amounts that alone could almost completely block fertility through ovulation inhibition. (glowm.com)
  • induce
  • however, only unbound estrogens can the C-2 pathway.3-5,7-9 Furthermore, it is theorized that shifting enter target-tissue cells and induce biological activity.1,2 This is an estrogen balance toward a less estrogenic state through promo- tion of the C-2 pathway may prove beneficial for a variety of subtype is needed to further elucidate the complex nature of conditions related to estrogen dominance or imbalance. (gotomydoctor.com)
  • metabolism
  • Genetic variation in the estrogen metabolism UGT1A1 gene may modify the effect of estrogenic exposures on endometrial cancer risk. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Other important but perhaps less well-studied members of the estrogen metabolism pathway in terms of genetic variation and endometrial cancer risk are UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Available evidence suggests that in vitro assays are capable of detecting biological activity at lower concentrations than the in vivo models, probably reflecting the ameliorating influence, in vivo, of factors such as absorption, distribution, protein binding, metabolism and degredation elimination. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • uterus
  • Lodhra is found to have oestrogenic action on uterus due to its glucosidic content. (ayurvedmart.com)
  • It acts as an antagonist at uterus and mammary glands [ 8 ] by suppressing the estrogen signaling in oncogenic pathways and inhibits the downstream gene transcription [ 9 ] . (drugbank.ca)
  • In contrast, the proliferation and genetic instability induced by estrogens in breast and uterus have been considered to increase further the likelihood that normal cells will transform into a malignant type. (biomedcentral.com)
  • exposure
  • Estrogen exposure-related factors evaluated include menstrual characteristics, oral contraceptive use, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and soy food intake. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Analysis of the joint effects of genotype and markers of estrogen exposure found the lowest risk of endometrial cancer among those with the homozygous variant genotype of the rs2070959 polymorphism and who were postmenopausal, had low body mass index, and had low soy food intake, although a test for multiplicative interaction was not significant. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that the G/G genotype ( rs2070959 ) in the UGT1A1 gene may decrease the risk of endometrial cancer and that this effect is most evident among women with low levels of endogenous estrogen exposure or with low soy food intake. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ultimately, the physiological significance of exposure to a phytoestrogen will depend on the activity shown by the substance in the in vivo situation. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • levels of estrogen
  • It later became apparent that these levels of estrogen were unnecessarily high when it was learned that the progestogen dose alone provided a fully contraceptive effect. (glowm.com)
  • liver
  • 2-Hydroxyestradiol has been identified as a prodrug of 2-methoxyestradiol, a transformation which is very efficiently catalyzed by catechol O-methyltransferase in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liver aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) specific activity was low in the young NZB, increased gradually with age, and was higher in the female mice. (worldwidescience.org)
  • serum
  • Estradiol is the predominant estrogen during reproductive years both in terms of absolute serum levels as well as in terms of estrogenic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The predominant effects of glucocorticoids include the stimulation of gluconeogenesis, lipolysis, and fat redistribution, as opposed to the predominant activity of mineralocorticoids, which is the regulation of serum osmolality and intravascular volume. (medscape.com)
  • weak
  • In addition, some yielding 4-OH.3 The 2-OH metabolite confers very weak estro- estrogen continues to be manufactured by aromatase in body fat, genic activity, and is generally termed the "good" estrogen. (gotomydoctor.com)
  • specific DNA sequences
  • The estrogen:ER complex binds to specific DNA sequences called a hormone response element to activate the transcription of target genes (in a study using an estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell line as model, 89 such genes were identified). (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • While estrogens are present in both men and women, they are usually present at significantly higher levels in women of reproductive age. (wikipedia.org)
  • In males, estrogen regulates certain functions of the reproductive system important to the maturation of sperm and may be necessary for a healthy libido. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrogens are important in the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics. (medscape.com)
  • Progestin
  • A constant ratio of progestin/estrogen is most common, although preparations with increasing proportions of the progestin component have gained some advocates. (glowm.com)
  • polyphenolic
  • In the past decade, epidemiologic and preclinical evidence suggested that polyphenolic phytochemicals present in many plant foods possess chemopreventive properties against several cancer forms. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • hormone replace
  • This has carried over into the evaluation of the implications that postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and anti-estrogenic therapy in breast cancer could have for concomitant eye disorders ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • gene
  • Using two Ishikawa human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line variants that we confirmed to be estrogen responsive [Ishikawa(+)] and estrogen unresponsive [Ishikawa(-)], we generated stably transfected AP-1 luciferase cell lines to identify the role of an estrogen-responsive mechanism in AP-1-mediated gene expression by various stimuli. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • exert
  • Moreover, they are produced, not only by the gonads, but also by other organs ( 3 , 4 ), including the central nervous system (CNS) in which estrogens are thought to exert a neuroprotective role ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)