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  • oxygenase
  • 2. Role of oxygen in the metabolic regulation : Besides the well known … More role of oxygen in the energy metabolism, oxygen has been shown to play an important physiological role in metabolic regulation through oxygenase-catalyzed reactions. (nii.ac.jp)
  • For the elucidation of the active site structure of another well characterized oxygenase, catechol 2, 3 - dioxygense, we used o-nitrophenol, a competitive inhibitor, and found it a useful active site probe for this enzyme. (nii.ac.jp)
  • moiety
  • The A ring is similar to a resorcinol moiety while the B ring is similar to a catechol moiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability to quench singlet oxygen seems to be in relation with the chemical structure of catechin, with the presence of the catechol moiety on ring B and the presence of a hydroxyl group activating the double bond on ring C. Electrochemical experiments show that (+)-catechin oxidation mechanism proceeds in sequential steps, related with the catechol and resorcinol groups and the oxidation is pH-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arthropod cuticle consists of chitin linked by a catechol moiety to protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • caffeate
  • Dihydroxyphenylalanine ammonia-lyase was presumed to use 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) to produce trans-caffeate and NH3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeate 3,4-dioxygenase is an enzyme that uses caffeic acid and oxygen to produce 3-(2-carboxyethenyl)-cis,cis-muconate. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Examples of recent gene duplication events in signaling as well as dioxygenase clusters are present, indicating selective gene family expansion as a relatively recent event in D. aromatica 's evolutionary history. (biomedcentral.com)
  • hydroxylase
  • Chalcone is then isomerized to naringenin by chalcone isomerase which is oxidized to eriodictyol by flavonoid 3'- hydroxylase and further oxidized to taxifolin by flavanone 3-hydroxylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenol
  • Catechin /ˈkætɪtʃɪn/ is a flavan-3-ol, a type of natural phenol and antioxidant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catechol is produced industrially by the hydroxylation of phenol using hydrogen peroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • dehydrogenase
  • The enzyme 1,2-dihydroxy-6-methylcyclohexa-3,5-dienecarboxylate dehydrogenase uses 1,2-dihydroxy-6-methylcyclohexa-3,5-dienecarboxylate and NAD+ to produce 3-methylcatechol, NADH and CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catabolism
  • Jones DCN, Cooper RA (1990) Catabolism of 3-hydroxybenzoate by the gentisate pathway in Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1. (springer.com)
  • oxidation
  • Chemical oxidation of caffeic acid in acidic conditions using sodium periodate leads to the formation of dimers with a furan structure (isomers of 2,5-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)tetrahydrofuran 3,4-dicarboxylic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • cleave
  • 1,2-CTD uses Fe3+ as a cofactor to cleave the carbon-carbon bond between the phenolic hydroxyl groups of catechol, thus yielding muconic acid as its product. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, 2,3-CTD utilizes Fe2+ as a cofactor to cleave the carbon-carbon bond adjacent to the phenolic hydroxyl groups of catechol, thus yielding 2-hydroxymuconaldehye as its product. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • In recent years, 2-D electrophoresis has been widely accepted as a standard procedure to separate complex protein mixtures in proteome studies (Proteomics). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glyoxalase
  • The principal physiological function of glyoxalase I is the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a reactive 2-oxoaldehyde that is cytostatic at low concentrations and cytotoxic at millimolar concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • 3. The composition of claim 1 wherein the host organism comprises bacteria of the Bacillus or Clostridia genera. (patents.com)
  • Catechols such as DHSA are produced through the metabolism of cholesterol by bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • catechin
  • Catechol was first isolated in 1839 by Edgar Hugo Emil Reinsch (1809 - 1884) by distilling it from the solid tannic preparation catechin, which is the residuum of catechu, the boiled or concentrated juice of Mimosa catechu (Acacia catechu L.f). (wikipedia.org)
  • iron
  • A novel non-heme iron-containing dioxygenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active site of catechol dioxygenases most frequently contains iron, but manganese-containing forms are also known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iron-containing dioxygenases can be subdivided into three classes on the basis of how iron is incorporated into the active site: those employing a mononuclear iron center, those containing a Rieske [2Fe-2S] cluster, and those utilizing a heme prosthetic group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite this common oxygenation event, the mononuclear iron dioxygenases are diverse in how dioxygen activation is used to promote certain chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most mononculear iron dioxygenases are members of the cupin superfamily in which the overall domain structure is described as a six-stranded β-barrel fold (or jelly roll motif). (wikipedia.org)
  • At the center this barrel structure is a metal ion, most commonly ferrous iron, whose coordination environment is frequently provided by residues in two partially conserved structural motifs: G(X)5HXH(X)3-4E(X)6G and G(X)5-7PXG(X)2H(X)3N. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two important groups of mononuclear, non-heme iron dioxygenases are catechol dioxygenases and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 2OG-dependent dioxygenases, ferrous iron (Fe(II)) is also coordinated by a (His)2(Glu/Asp)1 "facial triad" motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcaligenes
  • Dioxygenation and spontaneous deamination of 2-aminobenzene sulphonic acid in Alcaligenes sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • in the degradative pathways of 2-aminobenzenesulphonic, benzenesulphonic and 4-toluenesulphonic acids in Alcaligenes sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • Therefore, 1,2-CTD may bind to the cell lipid membrane via its terminal phospholipids and thus have greater access to the phenolic hydrocarbons vital in lipid membrane structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urushiols are naturally existing organic compounds that have the catechol skeleton structure and diphenol functionality but with alkyl groups substituted onto the aromatic ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catecholamines are biochemically significant hormones/neurotransmitters that are phenethylamines in which the phenyl group has a catechol skeleton structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine is widely used for military and commercial purposes due to its high explosive properties. (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • Catechol is the conjugate acid of a chelating agent used widely in coordination chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catechol moieties are also found widely within the natural world. (wikipedia.org)
  • aromatic
  • Urushiols are naturally existing organic compounds that have the catechol skeleton structure and diphenol functionality but with alkyl groups substituted onto the aromatic ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthesis
  • Biosynthesis of catechol melanin from glycerol employing metabolically engineered Escherichia coli Microbial Cell Factories, 15, 161. (unam.mx)
  • strain
  • strain K‑804 [ 2 , 3 ] isolated from sorghum grain, and proved to be acutely toxic to Pekin ducklings, mice and rats [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • synthase
  • One molecule of 4-coumaroyl-CoA is added to three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form tetrahydroxychalcone using 7,2′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxyisoflavanol synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • NADH
  • The enzyme 1,2-dihydroxy-6-methylcyclohexa-3,5-dienecarboxylate dehydrogenase uses 1,2-dihydroxy-6-methylcyclohexa-3,5-dienecarboxylate and NAD+ to produce 3-methylcatechol, NADH and CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • skeleton
  • Catecholamines are biochemically significant hormones/neurotransmitters that are phenethylamines in which the phenyl group has a catechol skeleton structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flavan-3-ols (sometimes referred to as flavanols) are derivatives of flavans that use the 2-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-3-ol skeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • The bioavailability of quercetin in humans is low and highly variable (0-50%), and it is rapidly cleared with an elimination half-life of 1-2 hours after ingesting quercetin foods or supplements. (wikipedia.org)
  • coordination
  • Tetrasodium tris(bathophenanthroline disulfonate)ruthenium(II) (Na4Ru(bps)3) is a coordination compound containing a ruthenium center. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the center this barrel structure is a metal ion, most commonly ferrous iron, whose coordination environment is frequently provided by residues in two partially conserved structural motifs: G(X)5HXH(X)3-4E(X)6G and G(X)5-7PXG(X)2H(X)3N. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • Its methyl ether derivative, guaiacol, converts to catechol via hydrolysis of the CH3-O bond as promoted by hydriodic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism of 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid by Bordetella sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeate 3,4-dioxygenase is an enzyme that uses caffeic acid and oxygen to produce 3-(2-carboxyethenyl)-cis,cis-muconate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (dactylifric acid) and its isomers, are enzymic browning substrates found in dates (Phoenix dactylifera fruits). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical oxidation of caffeic acid in acidic conditions using sodium periodate leads to the formation of dimers with a furan structure (isomers of 2,5-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)tetrahydrofuran 3,4-dicarboxylic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • Collectively these fungi are major inhabitants of forest biomass thus, playing a major role in carbon cycling and recycling of nutrients [ 1 , 2 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • The second catechol hydroxyl group on carbon 3 (C3) is coordinated to Fe3+ after its deprotonation by the Tyr200 ligand. (wikipedia.org)