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  • enzymes
  • The catechol estrogens are formed from estradiol and estrone by cytochrome P450 enzymes predominantly in the liver but also in extrahepatic tissues, and are metabolized by catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) into methoxylated estrogens such as 2-methoxyestradiol and 4-methoxyestrone as well as by conjugation via other phase II enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under poor conditions of inactivation by phase II enzymes, catechol estrogens can undergo oxidation to reactive quinones and semiquinones, and this has been hypothesized to contribute to estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygenase
  • 2. Role of oxygen in the metabolic regulation : Besides the well known … More role of oxygen in the energy metabolism, oxygen has been shown to play an important physiological role in metabolic regulation through oxygenase-catalyzed reactions. (nii.ac.jp)
  • For the elucidation of the active site structure of another well characterized oxygenase, catechol 2, 3 - dioxygense, we used o-nitrophenol, a competitive inhibitor, and found it a useful active site probe for this enzyme. (nii.ac.jp)
  • compounds
  • These bacteria subsequently employ 1,2-CTD in the last step of the degradation of aromatic compounds to aliphatic products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six species of free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azomonas agilis, Azospirillum brasilense, Azospirillum lipoferum, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azotobacter vinelandii , and Beijerinckia mobilis , were surveyed for their ability to grow and fix N 2 using aromatic compounds as sole carbon and energy source. (springer.com)
  • The catechol estrogens are endogenous metabolites of estradiol and estrone and include the following compounds: 2-Hydroxylated: 2-Hydroxyestradiol 2-Hydroxyestrone 2-Hydroxyestriol 4-Hydroxylated: 4-Hydroxyestradiol 4-Hydroxyestrone 4-Hydroxyestriol The most abundant catechol estrogen in serum and urine is 2-hydroxyestrone, with 2-hydroxyestradiol and 2-hydroxyestriol also being formed, while the principal 4-hydroxy catechol estrogen, 4-hydroxyestrone, is present in only small amounts in urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a colorless or slightly yellow oily liquid typically extracted from the root-bark or the fruit of sassafras plants in the form of sassafras oil (although commercially available culinary sassafras oil is usually devoid of safrole due to a rule passed by the FDA in 1960), or is synthesized from catechol or other related methylenedioxy compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can also be synthesized from catechol or other related methylenedioxy compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • As said safrole can be synthesized from catechol and other related methylenedioxy compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Five additional compounds noted are 4-methyl-1,2-dihydroxybenzene (4-methylcatechol), 4-methoxyacetophenone, 5-methoxysalicylic acid, salicylaldehyde, and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Anaerobic enrichment cultures with 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate as sole source of energy and organic carbon yielded slow-growing cultures of fermenting bacteria. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • whereas
  • 2-Hydroxylated catechol estrogens are weak and possibly antiestrogenic estrogens, whereas their 4-hydroxylated counterparts are more potent in their estrogenic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, 2-hydroxyestrone reportedly shows negligible uterotrophic effect in animals, whereas 4-hydroxy catechol estrogens show moderate changes in stimulating uterine weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • Dioxygenation and spontaneous deamination of 2-aminobenzene sulphonic acid in Alcaligenes sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1,2-CTD uses Fe3+ as a cofactor to cleave the carbon-carbon bond between the phenolic hydroxyl groups of catechol, thus yielding muconic acid as its product. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spatial distribution of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degrader microhabitats as a function of 2,4-D degrader abundance is investigated by using a soil microsampling strategy combined with a mathematical spatial analysis. (readabstracts.com)
  • substrates
  • In addition to being substrates for COMT similarly to catecholamines like dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, catechol estrogens are potent competitive inhibitors of COMT as well as of tyrosine hydroxylase, and may affect both catecholamine biosynthesis and metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Piperonal can be prepared by oxidizing isosafrole or by using a multistep sequence from catechol or 1,2-methylenedioxybenzene. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • The principal physiological function of glyoxalase I is the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a reactive 2-oxoaldehyde that is cytostatic at low concentrations and cytotoxic at millimolar concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • cleave
  • In contrast, 2,3-CTD utilizes Fe2+ as a cofactor to cleave the carbon-carbon bond adjacent to the phenolic hydroxyl groups of catechol, thus yielding 2-hydroxymuconaldehye as its product. (wikipedia.org)
  • extradiol
  • Extradiol members utilize ferrous iron as the active redox state, and this center is commonly coordinated octahedrally through a 2-His-1-Glu motif with labile water ligands occupying empty positions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal of the
  • Trotter, James "Crystal and molecular structure of o-benzoquinone" Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 2: 1973, pp. 476-80. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • The second catechol hydroxyl group on carbon 3 (C3) is coordinated to Fe3+ after its deprotonation by the Tyr200 ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • Therefore, 1,2-CTD may bind to the cell lipid membrane via its terminal phospholipids and thus have greater access to the phenolic hydrocarbons vital in lipid membrane structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • A catechol estrogen is a steroidal estrogen that contains catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) within its structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • in the degradative pathways of 2-aminobenzenesulphonic, benzenesulphonic and 4-toluenesulphonic acids in Alcaligenes sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • Salicylic aldehyde (2-hydroxybenzaldehyde) is the organic compound with the formula C6H4CHO-2-OH. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1,2-Benzoquinone, also called ortho-benzoquinone, is an organic compound with formula C6H4O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloride
  • Cyclic esters are formed upon treatment with phosphorus trichloride and phosphorus oxychloride, carbonyl chloride, and sulphuryl chloride: C6H4(OH)2 + XCl2 → C6H4(O2X) + 2 HCl where X = CO, SO2, PCl, P(O)Cl Catechols produce quinones with the addition of ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN). (wikipedia.org)
  • NADH
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is 2-chlorobenzoate,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (1,2-hydroxylating, dechlorinating, decarboxylating). (wikipedia.org)
  • methylation
  • The influence of inhibition of uptake 2 and of O-methylation on β-adrenoceptor-mediated responses of guinea-pig trachea and rat uterus to some catecholamines was compared. (springer.com)
  • The responses were more markedly enhanced by inhibition of O-methylation (by U-0521) than by inhibition of uptake 2 (by hydrocortisone). (springer.com)
  • Reid JJ, Stitzel RE, Head RJ (1986) Characterization of the O-methylation of catechol oestrogens by intact rabbit thoracic aorta and subcellular fractions thereof. (springer.com)
  • Molecularly, this is seen as demethylenation of methylenedioxypyrovalerone (CYP2D6), followed by methylation of the aromatic ring via catechol-O-methyl transferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • derivatives
  • Highly selective suppression of melanoma cells by inducible DNA cross-linking agents: bis (catechol) derivatives, Journal of American Chemical Socioty , 2010, 132 (43), 15321-15327. (hubu.edu.cn)
  • Upon mixing the enzyme with the substrate and exposure to oxygen (as when a potato or apple is cut and left out), the colorless catechol oxidizes to reddish-brown melanoid pigments, derivatives of benzoquinone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flavan-3-ols (sometimes referred to as flavanols) are derivatives of flavans that use the 2-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-3-ol skeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrogen
  • It is estrogenic, similarly to many other hydroxylated estrogen metabolites such as 2-hydroxyestradiol, 16α-hydroxyestrone, estriol (16α-hydroxyestradiol), and 4-hydroxyestradiol but unlike 2-hydroxyestrone. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The majority of prion diseases involve CNS build up of PrPSc, an abnormally folded form of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), which propagates itself by seeding conformational conversion of PrPC substrate molecules [2], . (stopvivisection.info)
  • The polymer, which the researchers have named catechol-polystyrene, is designed after a natural protein that mussels produce for sticking to surfaces. (purdue.edu)
  • Arthropod cuticle consists of chitin linked by a catechol moiety to protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The norepinephrine transporter (NET), also known as solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • 1,2-CTD uses Fe3+ as a cofactor to cleave the carbon-carbon bond between the phenolic hydroxyl groups of catechol, thus yielding muconic acid as its product. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, 2,3-CTD utilizes Fe2+ as a cofactor to cleave the carbon-carbon bond adjacent to the phenolic hydroxyl groups of catechol, thus yielding 2-hydroxymuconaldehye as its product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, 1,2-CTD may bind to the cell lipid membrane via its terminal phospholipids and thus have greater access to the phenolic hydrocarbons vital in lipid membrane structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • C cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) has been reported to end up being a potential growth suppressor in many types of tumors. (biomasswars.com)
  • produce
  • The substrate of LuxS can be S-Ribosylhomocysteine, which can be cleaved to produce homocysteine and 4, 5-dihydroxy-2, 3- pentandione (DPD). (biomasswars.com)
  • A. salinestris colonies appear to be brown-black in color because they produce water-soluble catechol melanin. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Bryan LJ, Cole JJ, O'Donnell SR, Wanstall JC (1981) A study designed to explore the hypothesis that beta-1 adrenoceptors are "innervated" receptors and beta-2 adrenoceptors are "hormonal" receptors. (springer.com)
  • metabolic
  • Purpose Review aberrations of insulin signaling to atypical proteins kinase C (aPKC) in muscles and liver that generate cardiovascular risk elements, including, weight problems, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, insulin level of resistance and blood sugar intolerance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and obesity-associated metabolic symptoms (MetSyn). (biomasswars.com)
  • In psychiatry and neuroscience, brain and cerebrospinal fluid levels of HVA are measured as a marker of metabolic stress caused by 2-deoxy-D-glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • addition
  • SWV analysis has been used recently in the development of a voltammetric catechol sensor, in the analysis of a large number of pharmaceuticals, and in the development and construction of a 2,4,6-TNT and 2,4-DNT sensor In addition to being utilized in independent analyses, SWV has also been coupled with other analytical techniques, including but not limited to thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-pressure liquid chromatography. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • This is regarded as because of an additional influence on immune system adjustment [2 3 Among these effects is normally to improve FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) which play an immunosuppressive function in the torso as a security measure against advancement of Simeprevir autoimmunity . (technumber.com)
  • This organism's cells are about 2 x 4 μm in size when they are 18 hours old and can grow up to 5 μm in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • MTT assay Cell growth was examined using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dipheny ltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay. (biomasswars.com)
  • Department
  • 2 Case Survey A 67-year-old Caucasian gentleman was described our department using a six-year background of bilateral persistent plantar warts. (technumber.com)