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  • Gallic
  • Catechin and (-)-epicatechin as well as their gallic acid conjugates are ubiquitous constituents of vascular plants, and frequent components of traditional herbal remedies, such as Uncaria rhynchophylla. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, ellagic acid is a dimer of gallic acid and forms the class of ellagitannins, or a catechin and a gallocatechin can combine to form the red compound theaflavin, a process that also results in the large class of brown thearubigins in tea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biodegradation
  • These substrates include monochlorophenols, dichlorophenols, and more complex species such as the pesticide 2,4,5-T. Hydroxyquinol commonly occurs in nature as a biodegradation product of catechin, a natural phenol found in plants such as Bradyrhizobium japonicum. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • The ability to quench singlet oxygen seems to be in relation with the chemical structure of catechin, with the presence of the catechol moiety on ring B and the presence of a hydroxyl group activating the double bond on ring C. Electrochemical experiments show that (+)-catechin oxidation mechanism proceeds in sequential steps, related with the catechol and resorcinol groups and the oxidation is pH-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydroxyl
  • Catechin possesses two benzene rings (called the A- and B-rings) and a dihydropyran heterocycle (the C-ring) with a hydroxyl group on carbon 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of 1 mM borate significantly recovered the reduced ACE activities by tea catechins, suggesting that hydroxyl groups at the B-ring or at a galloyl moiety play an important role in the ACE-inhibitory mechanism. (go.jp)
  • Quercetin
  • Antioxidant Effects of Quercetin and Catechin Encapsulated into PLGA Nanoparticles," Journal of Nanomaterials , vol. 2012, Article ID 145380, 12 pages, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • inflammation
  • Tea catechins reduce vascular inflammation, lower the production of "bad" LDL cholesterol, raise the production of "good" LDL cholesterol, and impede the buildup of plaque inside blood vessels, thereby reducing the risk for clots or obstructions that can lead to brain-damaging stroke. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nanoparticles
  • Fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can be used to detect flavanols in plant cells Recent study tested catechins employed to coat nanoparticles of iron oxides in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nanoparticles would clump together without the catechin coating. (wikipedia.org)
  • catechol
  • Catechin is sometimes called by the ambiguous name of catechol, a term that is also used for pyrocatechol. (mfa.org)
  • species
  • Acetaldehyde-induced reactions yield ethyl-linked species such as malvidin glucoside-ethyl-catechin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some instances, root-herbivory on C. maculosa stimulates additional release of catechin, the main allelopathic chemical which the species emits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catechins constitute about 25% of the dry mass of a fresh tea leaf, although total catechin content varies widely depending on species, clonal variation, growing location, season, light variation, and altitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prevention
  • Prevention of cancer by the flavonoid hesperidin or by the flavanone (+)-catechin at early stages of carcinogenesis and availability of these agents particularly on the cellular level are little investigated. (springer.com)
  • humans
  • The supposed health benefits of catechins have been studied extensively in humans and animal models, but there are no proven effects that apply to human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cephalotaxus
  • Catechin-7-O-glucoside can be found in Paeoniae Radix, the crude drug made from roots of the Chinese peony (Paeonia lactiflora), in the red knotweed (Bistorta macrophylla, also known as Polygonum macrophyllum), in the stem barks of the Nepali hog plum (Choerospondias axillaris), in the Korean plum yew (Cephalotaxus koreana) and in Huanarpo Macho (Jatropha macrantha). (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover
  • Diastereoisomers gallery (+)-catechin (2R,3S) (-)-catechin (2S,3R) (-)-epicatechin (2R,3R) (+)-epicatechin (2S,3S) Moreover, the flexibility of the C-ring allows for two conformation isomers, putting the B ring either in a pseudoequatorial position (E conformer) or in a pseudoaxial position (A conformer). (wikipedia.org)