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  • protein
  • The inhibitory potency of acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-aldehyde ('Ac-DEVD-CHO'), benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone ('Z-VAD-FMK') and the endogenous caspase inhibitor X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein ('XIAP') against recombinant caspase-9 were predictive of the efficacy of these compounds in a cell-free system. (biochemj.org)
  • Gene
  • Tumour growth can occur by a combination of factors, including a mutation in a cell cycle gene which removes the restraints on cell growth, combined with mutations in apoptopic proteins such as Caspases that would respond by inducing cell death in abnormally growing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase 2 also known as CASP2 is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the CASP2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trials were carried out on laboratory mice which had been implanted with the human caspase-12 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-10 is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the CASP10 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • For Caspase-1, genes for specific COPs-ICEBERG, COP1 (ICE/Pseudo-ICE), and INCA (Inhibitory Card)-are all found near its locus, and are thus thought to have emerged from gene duplication events and subsequent deletions of the catalytic domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although this enzyme was originally reported as a human caspase that could be activated by caspase 8, later studies confirmed the gene identified for caspase 13 came from bovine origin, and is the likely orthologue of human caspase 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Structure of caspase-1 (CASP1), originally called interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE), the first human caspase to be identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active enzyme often exists as a heterotetramer in the biological environment, where a pro-caspase dimer is cleaved together to form a heterotetramer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of caspases requires proteolytic processing at conserved internal aspartic residues to generate a heterodimeric enzyme consisting of the large and small subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homology between the sense portion of the siRNA sequence and the mRNA enables the nuclease enzyme to bind and cleave the caspase transcript into small pieces, which are degraded by the cell's machinery. (abcam.com)
  • Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes that undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain diseases involving caspase-9 are treated with therapy by targeting this enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • The liver, pancreas, and skeletal muscle express this enzyme at a moderate level, and all other tissues express caspase-9 at low levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-1 is produced as a zymogen that can then be cleaved into 20 kDa (p20) and 10 kDa (p10) subunits that become part of the active enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • Under normal circumstances, caspases recognize tetra-peptide sequences on their substrates and hydrolyze peptide bonds after aspartic acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Sf caspase-1 proenzyme is cleaved after the amino acid residues Asp-28 and Asp-195, resulting in a smaller 12 kDa fragment and a larger 19 kDa fragment. (wikipedia.org)
  • DFFA is encoded by an alternatively encrypted mRNAs originating two distinct forms: short (ICAD-S) and long (ICAD-L), which act like a specific chaperone ensuring the correct CAD's folding Besides, it contains two aspartic acid residues (Asp117 and Asp224) where CAD is identified and, consequently, it stays bounded until Caspase-3 splits this union. (wikipedia.org)
  • activates
  • Surprisingly, it has recently been shown that LPS activates caspase-11 not through a receptor/scaffold mediator, but through direct LPS binding to the caspase-11 CARD domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Production of IL-1β downstream of caspase-11 requires another canonical inflammasome, called the NLRP3 inflammasome, that activates caspase-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • upstream
  • The value of the caspase market is hard to establish, since while central to many mechanisms of actions for many drugs, these drugs act slightly further upstream, modulating the relative activity of caspase molecules, but it is clear that they offer significant potential for R&D in pharma! (bioportfolio.com)
  • Assay Kit
  • Abcam's Caspase 2 Assay Kit (Fluorometric) provides a simple and convenient means for assaying the activity of caspases that recognize the sequence VDVAD. (abcam.com)
  • vitro
  • In particular, it has been shown that NO synthase (NOS) activity can lead to caspase inhibition by a mechanism independent of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, that caspases can be S-nitrosylated by NO donors in cellular and in vitro systems, that the S-nitrosylation takes place solely on the active-site cysteine, and that this modification inhibits caspase activity in a reversible manner ( 2-4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Caspase-11 has been shown in vitro to be activated by Shigella flexneri infection, while a guinea pig model of Shigella infection has been shown to activate the human homolog of caspase-11, caspase-4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Residue
  • When the procaspase is cleaved at a particular residue, the active heterotetramer can then be formed by hydrophobic interactions, causing four anti-parallel beta-sheets from p17 and two from p12 to come together to make a heterodimer, which in turn interacts with another heterodimer to form the full 12-stranded beta-sheet structure surrounded by alpha-helices that is unique to caspases. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • As of 2009, there are 11 or 12 confirmed caspases in humans [note and 10 in mice, carrying out a variety of cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytosol
  • The authors propose that activation of calpain by an increase in intracellular calcium, a condition that also promotes calpain translocation from the cytosol to membranes, may promote activation of caspase-12 and may play an important role in mediating neuronal degeneration. (sciencemag.org)
  • Within the cell, caspase-9 in humans is found in the mitochondria, cytosol, and nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-11 activation results in pyroptosis, a form of lytic cell death that releases inflammatory molecules such as ATP, HMGB1 and IL-1α from the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-11 appears to provide immune defense against bacteria that enter or access the host cell cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • For bacteria that do not typically access the host cytosol, caspase-11 is activated with delayed kinetics if Gram-negative bacteria aberrantly escape the vacuole and enter into the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • aspartic
  • This specificity allows caspases to be incredibly selective, with a 20,000-fold preference for aspartic acid over glutamic acid. (wikipedia.org)