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  • biosynthesis
  • sphaeroides CrtI for the four-step Pantoea agglomerans enzyme, which re-routed carotenoid biosynthesis and culminated in the production of 2,2'-diketo-spirilloxanthin under semi-aerobic conditions. (osti.gov)
  • pathways
  • All of the spirilloxanthin series carotenoids are accepted by the assembly pathways for LH2 and RC-LH1-PufX complexes. (osti.gov)
  • tocopherols
  • The antioxidant capacity (in both the aqueous and lipid compartments), DNA oxidation (single cell gel electrophoresis), Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1), Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 (IGFBP-3), (gene expression profile (high-density filter-based cDNA microarrays), lipid peroxidation (MDA analysis and Isoprostane determination), and antioxidant nutrient levels (carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid and uric acid) in the circulation will be measured every other week throughout the study period. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Retinoids
  • books.google.co.uk - This up-to-date reference describes how retinoids and carotenoids function in the skin and how they can be utilized to prevent and treat a wide variety of skin diseases, as well as advance biomedical research in relation to cancer treatment and immunology. (google.co.uk)
  • metabolites
  • Carotenoids range, together with terpenoids, among the most prevalent, lipid-soluble secondary plant metabolites. (rsc.org)
  • Increasing evidence shows that carotenoids, and their metabolites, may modulate molecular pathways involved in cell proliferation, acting at Akt, tyrosine kinases, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) and growth factor signaling cascades. (eurekaselect.com)
  • antioxidant activity
  • A research group led by University of Tsukuba Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences Professor Hideaki Soya and Professor Randeep Rakwal has investigated the effect on hippocampal function of the naturally-derived pigment ASX, which is believed to have the most powerful antioxidant activity among carotenoids. (qualitycounts.com)
  • Regulation
  • Biosynthesis and regulation of carotenoids in Dunaliella: progresses and prospects. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, there is now strong evidence for an involvement of carotenoids in the regulation of apoptosis through modulatory effects on the activation of caspase cascade and on the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins and transcription factors. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Carotene
  • I. INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY & PRODUCT DEFINITIONSStudy Reliability And Reporting Limitations I-1Disclaimers I-2Data Interpretation & Reporting Level I-2Quantitative Techniques & Analytics I-3Product Definitions And Scope Of Study I-3Product Segments I-4Beta-Carotene I-4Lutein I-4Astaxanthin I-4Canthaxanthin I-5Annatto I-5Capsanthin I-5Other Carotenoids I-5Zeaxanthin I-5Lycopene I-6Apocarotenal I-6End-Use Applications I-6II. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In contrast, photo-excitation of carotenoids that possess energy states below that of singlet oxygen, such as β-carotene, lutein, loroxanthin and violaxanthin, did not enhance cell death. (nih.gov)
  • foods
  • Let's take a closer look at why carotenoids are so important, which foods contain them, and what recipes will allow you to serve up delicious, carotenoid-friendly meals. (canceractive.com)
  • Today, carotenoids are mainly used as additives and dyes in human and animal foods (aquaculture, poultry farms). (deinove.com)
  • Despite the large number of carotenoids in nature, only about 50 are present in foods that people in the United States eat, and only about 14 of those have been identified in blood, an indication of what is absorbed in the human body. (encognitive.com)
  • singlet
  • Photo-excitation of carotenoids causes cytotoxicity via singlet oxygen production. (nih.gov)
  • We hypothesized that carotenoids whose energy states are above the singlet excited state of oxygen (singlet oxygen) would possess photosensitizing properties. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that carotenoids such as fucoxanthin, which are capable of singlet oxygen production through photo-excitation and show good penetration and retention in target cells, are useful as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy for skin disease. (nih.gov)
  • plants
  • Carotenoids are a type of plant cellular pigment that play a role in photosynthesis and give many plants a red, orange or yellow color. (reference.com)
  • Carotenoids are one of the many different phytonutrients - naturally occurring chemicals produced by plants. (canceractive.com)
  • In plants, carotenoids are often affiliated with the light-harvesting complexes, preventing the photo-oxidation of chlorophyll, and also absorbing light in the 450-500 nm region, closing. (rsc.org)
  • potent
  • This applies to carotenoids as well, as some are believed to be more potent than others. (canceractive.com)
  • Carotenoids protect cells against photooxidative damage and hence found important applications in environment, food and nutrition, disease control, and as potent antimicrobial agents. (hindawi.com)
  • Plasma
  • Cohen K, Liu Y, Luo J, Appleton CM, Colditz GA. Plasma carotenoids and the risk of premalignant breast disease in women aged 50 and younger: a nested case-control study. (harvard.edu)
  • Our results suggest that plasma levels of carotenoids may play a role in reducing breast cancer risk, particularly among women with high mammographic density. (chiro.org)
  • 2018
  • Dr. Billy Hammond, a professor at the Brain and Behavioral Sciences at the University of Georgia, presented his work on a carotenoid called lutein and its potential interactions with the human auditory system during a symposium on carotenoids at the Nutrition 2018 ​ ​ conference in Boston last weekend. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • extraction
  • Thus, hypophasic carotenoids of paprika (PM1), orange (PM3) and apple (PM4), and epiphasic extractions of paprika (PM2) and apple (PM5) were obtained by extraction, saponification and partition between MeOH-H(2)O (9:1) (hypophasic) and hexane (epiphasic). (greenmedinfo.com)