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  • predictors
  • Rather than developing yet another similar CVD risk prediction model, in this era of large datasets, future research should focus on externally validating and comparing head-to-head promising CVD risk models that already exist, on tailoring or even combining these models to local settings, and investigating whether these models can be extended by addition of new predictors. (bmj.com)
  • Over the past two decades, numerous prediction models have been developed, which mathematically combine multiple predictors to estimate the risk of developing CVD-for example, the Framingham, 3 4 5 SCORE, 6 and QRISK 7 8 9 models. (bmj.com)
  • In the others, clustering was resolved by developing the model on only one center, using mixed effects or stratified regression, or by using center-level characteristics as predictors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clinical predictive models (CPMs) are clinically useable mathematical equations that relate multiple predictors for a particular individual to the probability of risk for the presence (diagnosis) or future occurrence (prognosis) of a particular outcome [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indeed, their data show that adding CRP did not greatly improve these statistics, but they point out that neither did adding total, low-density lipoprotein, or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to models lacking these predictors. (annals.org)
  • Identifying a patient at high risk by using inexpensive methods, such as asking about general ill health (8) , family history, or socioeconomic position (9) , all of which are strong predictors of CHD risk, will enable the physician to target treatment to people who will experience the most benefit and therefore the most favorable ratio of benefit to side effects. (annals.org)
  • Risk factors of interest included the independent predictors of mortality in the previously published clinical prediction model together with 6MWD and 24-week change in 6MWD. (ersjournals.com)
  • We aimed to study the extent to which history of these pregnancy complications improves CVD risk prediction above and beyond conventional predictors. (springer.com)
  • History of LBW offspring was associated with increased risk of CVD when added to conventional predictors in women 50 years of age [Hazard ratio 1.68, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.19, 2.but not at age 60 (age interaction p = 0.04). (springer.com)
  • History of HDP was not associated with CVD when adjusted for reference model predictors. (springer.com)
  • diabetes mellitus
  • 19 The implication is that if blood cholesterol levels are sufficiently low, the other dominant risk factors, including cigarette smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, constitute much less of a threat. (ahajournals.org)
  • patients
  • To be useful, clinical prediction models must be reliable in new patients, potentially including patients from different hospitals, countries, or care settings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Visceral adiposity increases risk for hepatocellular carcinoma in male patients with cirrhosis and recurrence after liver transplant. (amedeo.com)
  • Improvement in risk prediction is important, but if it were the main aim, it would be much easier, quicker, and cheaper to ask patients about their lifetime socioeconomic circumstances, which, like CRP, generally predict CHD mortality rates even after adjustment for a wide range of conventional risk factors (9) . (annals.org)
  • Objective Various cardiovascular prediction models have been developed for patients with type 2 diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • This study aims to quantify the predictive performance of all cardiovascular prediction models developed specifically for diabetes patients. (bmj.com)
  • Design and methods Follow-up data of 453, 1174 and 584 type 2 diabetes patients without pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the EPIC-NL, EPIC-Potsdam and Secondary Manifestations of ARTerial disease cohorts, respectively, were used to validate 10 prediction models to estimate risk of CVD or coronary heart disease (CHD). (bmj.com)
  • Expected to observed ratios of the recalibrated models ranged from 1.06 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.40) to 1.55 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.54), mainly driven by an overestimation of risk in high-risk patients. (bmj.com)
  • These models can assist clinicians in identifying type 2 diabetes patients who are at low or high risk of developing CVD. (bmj.com)
  • 3 , 4 Current guidelines have started to acknowledge the heterogeneity in risk and include different treatment recommendations for diabetes patients without other risk factors who are considered to be at lower risk. (bmj.com)
  • however, the independent contribution of 6MWD to the prediction of mortality risk has not been evaluated in a large, well-defined population of patients with IPF. (ersjournals.com)
  • A Cox proportional hazards model was used to characterise the relationship between risk factors of interest and all-cause mortality in IPF patients who completed a week 24 study visit in a clinical trial evaluating interferon γ-1b (n=748). (ersjournals.com)
  • Steve Nissen, MD , of the Cleveland Clinic, has done extensive work on cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes, and said the findings are similar to those seen in patients with the blood sugar disorder. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The authors suggest that when a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease is confirmed in a homeless patient, consult with a cardiologist for next steps in the management process and schedule regular follow-up with patients to minimize the risk of loss of care. (acc.org)
  • We briefly introduce the concept and use of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk scores and review the methodology for CVD risk score development and validation in patients with diabetes. (springer.com)
  • We also discuss CVD risk scores for diabetic patients that have been developed in different countries. (springer.com)
  • Patients with diabetes have a gradient of CVD risk that needs to be accurately assessed. (springer.com)
  • Numerous CVD risk scores for diabetic patients have been created in various settings. (springer.com)
  • A well-constructed risk score for diabetic patients may be advocated by guidelines and adopted by healthcare providers to help determine preventive strategies. (springer.com)
  • Results Statin prescribing increased substantially over time to patients with high 10-year CVD risk (≥20%): 7.0% of these received a statin prior to 2007, and 30.4% in 2007 onwards. (bmj.com)
  • Only about half the patients initiating statin treatment were high risk according to CVD risk score. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions There appeared to be substantive overuse in low CVD risk and underuse in high CVD risk (600 000 and 850 000 patients, respectively, in the UK since 2007). (bmj.com)
  • There is wide variation between practices in statin prescribing to patients at high CVD risk. (bmj.com)
  • In terms of the management of dyslipidemias, PCSK9 inhibitors lower LDL-C by 50-70% and provide an additional 15% reduction in key cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with known ASCVD, as demonstrated in the ODYSSEY and FOURIER trials. (springer.com)
  • In regard to the management of triglycerides, the REDUCE-IT trial demonstrated a nearly 5% absolute reduction in key cardiovascular events with a highly purified fish-oil derivative named icosapent ethyl in high-risk patients already on statin therapy. (springer.com)
  • predominantly
  • These results confirm that risk for cardiovascular disease in the nondiabetes range -- even in individuals deemed to be at high risk for diabetes -- is driven predominantly by established risk factors for cardiovascular disease, namely lipids, blood pressure, age, gender and smoking," Sattar told MedPage Today . (medpagetoday.com)
  • Although the Framingham risk score has long been recommended, the diversification of the U.S. population has led clinicians and researchers to express concern that the score, which is based on a predominantly white, middle-class Massachusetts population, may no longer be representative of the U.S. population in general. (aafp.org)
  • clinicians
  • Both Cook and colleagues (5) and Lloyd-Jones and coworkers (6) investigate whether adding CRP to predictive models could usefully improve the ability of clinicians to target interventions. (annals.org)
  • statins
  • Incorporating those individuals with greater than 10 % cardiovascular risk and the use of high-potency statins into Argentina's national lipid guidelines could result in fewer CHD deaths and events at a reasonable cost. (springermedizin.de)
  • 1 Preventive medical interventions, including the prescription of statins, to reduce the risk of CVD in otherwise healthy individuals are an increasingly important component of medical practice. (bmj.com)
  • 2 The Joint British Societies recommended that statins should be used if there is a high total risk of developing risk of CVD and the total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol targets have not been achieved. (bmj.com)
  • Obesity
  • Explain that regardless of what measure of obesity one uses, it does not add meaningful value to the prediction of cardiovascular risk when information on other traditional risk factors is available. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Point out that the authors do not believe that results of this study diminish the importance of obesity as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, since obesity is associated with other risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The study findings do, however, contradict previous studies that found abdominal obesity -- indicated by an "apple-shaped" body type with the weight concentrated around the middle -- to be a much stronger indicator of cardiovascular risk than BMI. (medpagetoday.com)
  • When you consider the fact that obesity affects all of these other risk factors, it is actually quite impressive that all of the obesity parameters are still individually a weak, but statistically significant, independent risk factor," he wrote. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Heart failure (HF) is the most common non-fatal event experienced in women with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AFib), and directly modifiable risk factors, such as obesity, hypertension, smoking and diabetes account for the majority of the population risk of HF, according to research published in JACC: Heart Failure . (acc.org)
  • analyses
  • In these analyses, large proportions of women with 10-year risk estimates of 5 percent to less than 10 percent or of 10 percent to less than 20 percent based on current ATP-III (Adult Treatment Panel III) risk scores were reclassified at either higher or lower risk of total cardiovascular disease when either of the new algorithms was used," the researchers found. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to describe properties, analysis, and reporting of multicenter studies in the Tufts PACE Clinical Prediction Model Registry and to illustrate consequences of common design and analyses choices. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In analyses adjusted for several conventional cardiovascular risk factors, there was an approximately J-shaped association between HbA1c values and CVD risk. (ox.ac.uk)
  • hypertension
  • It is noteworthy that the Japanese enjoyed this relative immunity to CHD despite the fact that the prevalence of one of the major risk factors-cigarette smoking-was much higher in Japan than in Western countries, 17 and another--hypertension-was just as high. (ahajournals.org)
  • dyslipidemia
  • 5,9-14 How much further can we expect to decrease risk by treating dyslipidemia (ie, lowering LDL levels and/or raising high-density lipoprotein levels)? (ahajournals.org)
  • While there have been great strides in the treatment of dyslipidemia over the last three decades, there are important recent developments and ongoing research that will expand the available therapeutic options and enable further cardiovascular risk reduction. (springer.com)
  • methods
  • Bootstrap methods were used to identify factors for the final model. (nih.gov)
  • The methods to develop risk scores are highly diverse and each choice has its own pros and cons. (springer.com)
  • High
  • Calibration of the SCORE-high model was graphically and statistically acceptable for men (chi(2) goodness-of-fit, p=0.097). (um.edu.my)
  • The SCORE-high model predicts risk accurately in men but underestimated it in women. (um.edu.my)
  • 7.5%), and high (≥ 7.5%) risk. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The association between HbA1c values and CVD risk changed only slightly after adjustment for total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations or estimated glomerular filtration rate, but this association attenuated somewhat after adjustment for concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein. (ox.ac.uk)