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  • physiological
  • The complete model consists of separate modules each of which characterise a separate physiological subsystems. (cellml.org)
  • Human PK and baseline were fixed, pharmacological values were set as the animal values and physiological values were scaled according to body weight using an exponent of -0.25.Adequate fits to PK, baseline and PD data were generally observed, although issues with sampling times and dose ranges restricted the model options in a number of cases. (bl.uk)
  • If greater model complexity is restricted to physiological aspects the use of such models in safety pharmacology may also help to give more insight into mechanism of action. (bl.uk)
  • Yet, automated critical care systems developed by researchers are ad-hoc, because they determine the control law, i.e., drug infusion rate, using input-output observations rather than the insights on the patient's physiological states gained from rigorous data-based analysis of mathematical models. (umd.edu)
  • Thus, it is worth developing model-based automated systems relating the fluid and vasopressor dose input to the underlying physiological states. (umd.edu)
  • This necessitates dose-response mathematical models capable of reproducing realistic physiological and dose-mediated states with reasonable computational load. (umd.edu)
  • However, most of existing models are too simplistic to reflect physiological reality, while others are too complicated with thousands of parameters to tune. (umd.edu)
  • To address these challenges, we believe that a hybrid physiologic-phenomenological modeling paradigm is effective in developing mathematical models for automated systems: low-order phenomenological models with adaptive personalization capability are suited to develop control algorithms, while physiological models can provide high-fidelity patterns with physiological transparency suited to interpret the underlying physiological states. (umd.edu)
  • It is shown that the models can adequately reproduce the underlying physiological states and endpoints to fluid and vasopressor infusion. (umd.edu)
  • clinical
  • Identified model parameters are correlated to create predictive measures of haemodynamic changes to clinical therapy or patient condition. (canterbury.ac.nz)
  • These results provide a first clinical validation of this model-based diagnostic therapeutic decision support approach to haemodynamic management. (canterbury.ac.nz)
  • Substantial heterogeneity in predictor and outcome definitions was observed between models, and important clinical and methodological information were often missing. (bmj.com)
  • Noise and flow artifacts in the medical images and clinical measurements lead to geometric models that contain some uncertainty. (utaustinportugal.org)
  • Incorporating these larger animal models earlier into preclinical development plans can contribute to better translation and clinical outcomes. (mpiresearch.com)
  • Clinical prediction models (CPMs) estimate the probability of clinical outcomes and hold the potential to improve decision making and individualize care. (nih.gov)
  • The comparative performance of these models, the consistency of effects and risk estimates across models and the actual and potential clinical impact of this body of literature is poorly understood. (nih.gov)
  • Realizing the Potential of Clinical Risk Prediction Models: Where Are We Now and What Needs to Change to Better Personalize Delivery of Care? (nih.gov)
  • We developed, validated and demonstrated highly improved accuracy of two clinical algorithms for global cardiovascular risk prediction that reclassified 40 percent to 50 percent of women at intermediate risk into higher- or lower-risk categories," the authors write. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It covers a wide range of topics, from the assimilation of clinical data to the development of mathematical and computational models, including with parameters, as well as their efficient numerical solution, and both in-vivo and in-vitro validation. (springer.com)
  • Today, computer models is used to (1) demonstrate feasibility,(2) increase confidence in controller designs by complementing animal studies, (3) help design better animal and clinical experiments, and (4) reduce the number of required animal and human experiments. (wikibooks.org)
  • This research validates this model with respect to inotrope therapy commonly used in circulatory support, prior to first human clinical trials. (canterbury.ac.nz)
  • Conclusions: Clinically accurate prediction of the impact of circulatory support drugs, such as adrenaline, offers significant clinical potential for this type of model-based application. (canterbury.ac.nz)
  • Overall, this work represents a further clinical validation of the underlying fundamental CVS model and methods, and their use for cardiovascular diagnosis and therapy selection in critical care. (canterbury.ac.nz)
  • modalities
  • Datasets using both modalities were acquired, segmented, and used to generate a 3D geometrical model from nine mice. (springer.com)
  • MPI Research has established swine models of myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, and has used these models to cost-effectively and quickly assess modalities from small-molecule therapeutics to biologics, devices, and stem cell regenerative therapies. (mpiresearch.com)
  • study
  • Eligibility criteria for study selection Studies describing the development or external validation of a multivariable model for predicting CVD risk in the general population. (bmj.com)
  • The study involved the application of current CVD risk models to the THIN dataset. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Previous chapters have described a large number of transgenic animal models used to study specific cardiovascular syndromes. (springer.com)
  • A case study is presented on how the model is intended to be used in the future to investigate the effects of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance. (cellml.org)
  • The zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) has become a popular vertebrate model organism to study organ formation and function due to its optical clarity and rapid embryonic development. (biologists.org)
  • It was theorised that more complex models containing the CV feedback mechanisms may be required for some of the unsuccessful predictions.Overall PKPD modelling can be used to describe CV safety pharmacology data in different species and if study design and modelling issues were addressed, greater accuracy could be obtained. (bl.uk)
  • These models provide an excellent means to study both acute and chronic responses of RT in the muscles. (medsci.org)
  • In this study, hybrid physiologic-phenomenological models of blood volume and cardiovascular responses to fluid and vasopressor infusion are successfully developed and validated using experimental data. (umd.edu)
  • Method: The model and parameter identification process is used to study the effect of different adrenaline doses in healthy and critically ill patients. (canterbury.ac.nz)
  • prevention
  • As 8 to 10 million U.S. women have an ATP-III estimated 10-year risk between 5 percent and 20 percent, application of these data could have an immediate effect on cardiovascular prevention," the authors conclude. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Our model can be used to estimate the impact of primary prevention interventions on life expectancy and can assess the impact of interventions on inequalities. (pubfacts.com)
  • parameter
  • This is a lumped parameter model for cardiac activation based on the work of Heldt et al. (cellml.org)
  • It uses the Heldt et al activation function and extends the lumped parameter circulation model such that the circulation through organs is represented. (cellml.org)
  • The model consists of a closed-loop lumped-parameter representation of the circulation connected to set-point models of the arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflexes. (cellml.org)
  • However, there are highly non-linear valve dynamics inherent in these models which makes parameter identification difficult. (canterbury.ac.nz)
  • myocardial infarction
  • The new algorithms are called the Reynolds Risk Score and the clinically simplified model for non-diab etic women includes age, systolic blood pressure, current smoking, total and HDL cholesterol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and parental history of myocardial infarction before age 60. (bio-medicine.org)
  • interventions
  • This model may provide additional information for targeting and tailoring interventions and requires future prospective evaluation. (nih.gov)
  • A policy model is a model that can evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions and inform policy decisions. (pubfacts.com)
  • arterial
  • Such model includes a coupling between the distending arterial wall and the non-Newtonian blood flow. (omicsonline.org)
  • The hemodynamic effects on arterial blood pressures and stroke volume (cardiac index) are simulated in the model and adrenaline-specific parameters identified. (canterbury.ac.nz)
  • parameters
  • When cardiovascular parameters of age- and sex-matched A/J and C57BL/6J inbred mice were compared the C57BL/6J mice demonstrated eccentric physiologic ventricular hypertrophy, increased ventricular function, lower heart rates, and increased exercise endurance. (springer.com)
  • Toward this goal, a low-order theoretical model is presented, in which LV shape is represented using a small number of parameters, allowing rapid computational simulations of LV dynamics. (deepdyve.com)
  • Model parameters are largely based on literature values. (cellml.org)
  • Genetic (by crossing with Ncf1 mutant) and/or pharmacological (with ang II type 1 receptor blocker, losartan, or NOX inhibitor apocynin) reduction of NOX activity controlled hormonal and biochemical parameters in DD mice, resulting in normalized blood pressure and improved cardiovascular histology. (biomedsearch.com)
  • First, the models are robust against inter-individual variability, in which they can be adapted to each patient with a small number of tunable parameters. (umd.edu)
  • The adrenaline-specific parameters accurately and uniquely capture the impact of inotrope therapy on the CVS, independent of other model parameters. (canterbury.ac.nz)
  • Methods
  • 19. (BC-1) N.K. Drew, A. Grosberg , Methods of Myofibrillogenesis Modeling . (uci.edu)
  • Bootstrap methods were used to identify factors for the final model. (nih.gov)
  • Accounting for heterogeneity drives different statistical methods for summarizing data and, if heterogeneity is anticipated, a random-effects model will be preferred to the fixed-effects model. (deepdyve.com)
  • Exposures
  • We expect to be able to extend the use of our animal models to exposures of ambient ultrafine particles and organic ultrafine carbonaceous particles. (epa.gov)
  • heart
  • The Portuguese Heart Foundation funded a PhD scholarship to undertake the work on developing a CVD model for Portugal. (europa.eu)
  • A new mathematical model of pumping heart coupled to lumped compartments of blood circulation is presented. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • This lumped pulsatile cardiovascular model consists of eight compartments of the body that include pumping heart, the systemic circulation, and the pulmonary circulation. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The pumping heart is modeled by the time-dependent linear curves of compliances in the heart. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Recent advances in the development of biophysical modelling have lead to one of the most advanced examples of organ modelling with the advent of whole heart in-silico models. (inria.fr)
  • An Absolute Risk Prediction Model to Determine Unplanned Cardiovascular Readmissions for Adults with Chronic Heart Failure. (nih.gov)
  • Baseline mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR) either displayed circadian rhythms, which were described by cosine functions for dog or a biorhythm model specifically developed for rats, or an anaesthetic effect in guinea-pigs, which was described using a linear function. (bl.uk)
  • subsequent
  • In the subsequent sections we will review the information regarding cardiac morphological adaptations, signaling pathway of the cardiac cell, cardiac function and the vascular adaptation induced by RT using this animal model developed by Tamaki et al. (medsci.org)
  • We will conduct several animal studies, to continue work on our general hypothesis that pre-existing inflammation and old age are important priming factors to sensitize the host for subsequent pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of inhaled ultrafine particles. (epa.gov)
  • Datasets
  • Rather than developing yet another similar CVD risk prediction model, in this era of large datasets, future research should focus on externally validating and comparing head-to-head promising CVD risk models that already exist, on tailoring or even combining these models to local settings, and investigating whether these models can be extended by addition of new predictors. (bmj.com)
  • numerical
  • Feintuch A, Ruengsakulrach P, Lin A et al (2007) Hemodynamics in the mouse aortic arch as assessed by MRI, ultrasound and numerical modeling. (springer.com)
  • While the main focus of our studies is on numerical simulations of the flow in cerebral aneurysms, we are also involved in modeling blood flow in other vascular territories as well as in design and optimization of biomedical devices, such as a Chemofilter device removing chemotherapy drugs from blood. (purdue.edu)
  • validation
  • The usefulness of most of the models remains unclear owing to methodological shortcomings, incomplete presentation, and lack of external validation and model impact studies. (bmj.com)
  • We assessed discrimination, validation and calibration of our model. (pubfacts.com)
  • hypothesis
  • Techniques that have been proposed under the new discipline of data mining often include variable selection as part of the modeling process, and can perform hypothesis generation from the data. (uea.ac.uk)
  • However, a major challenge in modeling/assessing the infection-cardiovascular risk hypothesis is that the exact time of infection, or more generally "exposure," onsets cannot be ascertained based on hospitalization data. (repec.org)
  • Simultaneous Confidence Bands and Hypothesis Testing in Varying-coefficient Models ," Scandinavian Journal of Statistics , Danish Society for Theoretical Statistics;Finnish Statistical Society;Norwegian Statistical Association;Swedish Statistical Association, vol. 27(4), pages 715-731. (repec.org)
  • risk
  • The prediction horizon was not specified for 49 models (13%), and for 92 (25%) crucial information was missing to enable the model to be used for individual risk prediction. (bmj.com)
  • Many of the risk factors predisposing people to CVD are known, and there are a number of survival models to identify those who could benefit from preventive treatment. (uea.ac.uk)
  • We have assessed 3 models for CVD risk using the THIN database: the standard Framingham model, and the more recent ASSIGN and QRISK models. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Over time, these markers were codified into global risk scores for assessment of cardiovascular risk. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 95% CI, 0.83-0.99) also were significantly associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events. (acc.org)
  • Risk of cardiovascular death was similarly estimated with the same set of risk factors. (acc.org)
  • The individual risk factor weighting is intuitive, but the body mass index of 2 , which increases risk comparable to a cardiovascular event in the past year and diabetes. (acc.org)
  • We sought to develop an absolute risk prediction model for unplanned cardiovascular readmissions following hospitalisation for CHF. (nih.gov)
  • A Cox's proportional hazards model (taking into account the competing risk of death) was used to develop a prediction model. (nih.gov)
  • We have developed a practical model for individualising the risk of short-term readmission for CHF. (nih.gov)
  • Measurement Error Case Series Models With Application to Infection-Cardiovascular Risk in Older Patients on Dialysis ," Journal of the American Statistical Association , Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 107(500), pages 1310-1323, December. (repec.org)
  • Taking a competing risk approach, the cause-specific hazards of a first event are modelled using parametric survival analysis. (pubfacts.com)
  • The first paper described the structure and statistical underpinning of the state-transition model, demonstrating how life expectancy estimates are generated for individuals defined by ASSIGN risk factors. (pubfacts.com)
  • Editor, Hippisley Cox et al(1), and Christiaens (2), have published important empirical data and conceptual reasoning, respectively, in relation to cardiovascular risk prediction. (bmj.com)
  • The risk of failure often precludes the design and evaluation of controllers in live humans, so that devices and treatments are often tested on computer and animal models first. (wikibooks.org)
  • describe
  • The point estimate and CIs for random-effects models describe the practical implications of the observed heterogeneity and may usefully be contrasted with the fixed-effects estimates. (deepdyve.com)
  • Furthermore, we also describe cardiovascular findings observed using other animal models of RT. (medsci.org)
  • pathways
  • The patient-oriented modeling approach has proven useful, as it has enabled a systematic observation on the emergence of various cardiovascular pathways based on patient attributes incorporated in the model. (uib.no)
  • comparable
  • In the case of aneurysms, the uncertainty due to the virtual model definition is comparable to that when choosing different models for the non-Newtonian behavior of blood. (utaustinportugal.org)
  • In general, our model predictions were comparable with observed event rates for a Scottish randomised statin trial population which has an overlapping follow-up period with SHHEC. (pubfacts.com)
  • The lack of animal models with comparable protocols to the RT performed by humans hampers the knowledge. (medsci.org)
  • therapeutic
  • These results are presented as (further) justification for (beginning) human trials of this model-based diagnostic and therapeutic approach. (canterbury.ac.nz)
  • focuses
  • The first stint focuses on medical image analysis, virtual model reconstruction, and patient-specific CFD simulations of cerebral aneurysms and fluid-structure interaction. (utaustinportugal.org)
  • Events
  • The results suggest that the estimate of the relative incidence of cardiovascular events during the 30 days after infections, a period where acute effects of infection on vascular endothelium may be most pronounced, is substantially attenuated in the presence of infection onset measurement error. (repec.org)
  • We examined in detail the accuracy of the proposed method to estimate the relative incidence of cardiovascular events. (repec.org)
  • Legislation or other measures to reduce dietary salt intake by 3 g/day (current mean intake approximately 8.5 g/day) would prevent approximately 30 000 cardiovascular events, with savings worth at least £40m a year. (bmj.com)