• Materials and methods: We investigated the utility of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hscTnT), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin T and I, and creatine kinase (CK)-MB in cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy, in order to determine whether baseline levels or changes in these biomarkers may help predict the onset of congestive heart failure. (umn.edu)
  • Additional important areas of emphasis include the proper management of situations likely to lead to cardiac arrest and the stabilization of the patient in the early period following a successful resuscitation. (asante.org)
  • Recognize and initiate early management of peri-* arrest conditions that may result in cardiac arrest or complicate resuscitation outcome. (asante.org)
  • Manage cardiac arrest until return of spontaneous circulation, termination of resuscitation, or transfer of care. (asante.org)
  • Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major cause of death worldwide. (healthypeople.gov)
  • Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) is a course developed by the American Heart Association for the training of health care providers. (asante.org)
  • It aimed to find if written test results improved for advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) taught in flipped classroom/team-based Learning (FC/TBL) vs. lecture-based (LB) control in University of California-Irvine School of Medicine, USA. (jeehp.org)
  • Better tools need to be identified to predict cardiac complications of anthracycline chemotherapy. (umn.edu)
  • Conclusion: Elevations in baseline hscTnT levels are suggestive of an oncology subgroup at high risk of developing cardiac complications from their chemotherapy. (umn.edu)
  • All registrants must have knowledge of basic EKG rhythm strip interpretation or work in an area caring for patients requiring cardiac monitoring on a daily basis. (1199seiu.org)
  • The term is usually used to describe studies of such phenomena by invasive (intracardiac) catheter recording of spontaneous activity as well as of cardiac responses to programmed electrical stimulation (PES) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Components of a cardiac rehabilitation program vary by individual clinical need, and each program will be carefully constructed for the patient by his or her rehabilitation team. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The thoroughly updated content takes into account recent developments in cardiac rehabilitation, and incorporates practical advice on how to use guidelines in clinical practice. (springer.com)
  • [5] [9] In the setting of blunt trauma, a high, clinical suspicion for BCI is warranted, and if suspicion is high enough, patients should be monitored for adverse sequelae since there are no pathognomonic clinical signs or symptoms that correlate with the risk of cardiac complications. (nih.gov)
  • Due to the low sensitivity of endomyocardial biopsies for diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis, the Japanese Society of Sarcoidosis and Other Granulomatous Disorders released guidelines for diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis that incorporate histologic, radiologic, and clinical features. (medscape.com)
  • [ 4 , 24 ] The Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) also released a similar expert consensus statement in 2014 based on the Japanese guidelines for clinical diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis. (medscape.com)
  • Incidence, predictors, and clinical outcomes of postoperative cardiac tamponade in patients undergoing heart valve surgery. (medscape.com)
  • Sagrista-Sauleda J, Angel J, Sambola A, Alguersuari J, Permanyer-Miralda G, Soler-Soler J. Low-pressure cardiac tamponade: clinical and hemodynamic profile. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical significance of histopathologic patterns of cardiac amyloidosis. (medscape.com)
  • Cardiac valve diseases are prevalent clinical problems, usually requiring prosthetic replacement. (google.com)
  • This book is designed to present readers with comprehensive, high-quality research results on almost all aspects of this carcinoma in clinical management, from correct determination of the esophagogastric junction, issues on cardiac mucosa, epidemiology, and natural history, to clinical, endoscopic, and histopathologic features and diagnostic pitfalls of this carcinoma at both early and advanced stages. (worldcat.org)
  • Subsequently, clinical management of gastric cardiac carcinoma at advanced stages is discussed at length with a personalized, multidiscipline approach with strategies from surgical resections with various methods, to pre-, peri- and post-resection chemoradiation therapies as well as the most advanced immunotherapy. (worldcat.org)
  • This title presents essential clinical knowledge in cardiac anesthesia in a practical, user-friendly format. (worldcat.org)
  • These tests could be used to distinguish strains of Listeria isolated from food outbreaks, food processing plants, or from clinical infections that place patients at increased risk of cardiac disease," suggested Dr Freitag. (redorbit.com)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1047625944 Title: Gastric cardiac cancer Author: Qin Huang Publisher: Cham : Springer International Publishing : Imprint : Springer, 2018. (worldcat.org)
  • What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sally Macgreror raises a pertinent point about the involvement and role of care givers in cardiac rehabilitation. (bmj.com)
  • Cardiac rehabilitation is a comprehensive exercise, education, and behavioral modification program designed to improve the physical and emotional condition of patients with heart disease . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Heart attack survivors, bypass and angioplasty patients, and individuals with angina, congestive heart failure, and heart transplants are all candidates for a cardiac rehabilitation program. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cardiac rehabilitation is prescribed to control symptoms, improve exercise tolerance, and improve the overall quality of life in these patients. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A cardiac rehabilitation program should be implemented and closely monitored by a trained team of healthcare professionals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cardiac rehabilitation is overseen by a specialized team of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Long-term maintenance is a critical feature of cardiac rehabilitation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The risks of another heart attack during cardiac rehabilitation are slight, and greatly reduced by careful, continuous monitoring of the physical status of the patient. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The outcome of the cardiac rehabilitation program depends on a number of variables, including patient follow-through, type and degree of heart disease , and the availability of an adequate support network for the patient. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cardiac rehabilitation is of key importance to ameliorate long-term morbidity and mortality resulting from cardiac diseases and events. (springer.com)
  • For those physicians understanding the scope of cardiac rehabilitation there is a need to distill the guidelines and various management options available to them into a concise practical manual. (springer.com)
  • Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital recently unveiled its new, expanded Cardiac Rehabilitation Center on Ethel Road in Edison. (mycentraljersey.com)
  • The center also offers cardiac rehabilitation services for individuals who have had coronary bypass surgery, heart valve repair or replacement surgery, stable angina and heart transplant. (mycentraljersey.com)
  • Cardiac rehabilitation is an important part of heart failure treatment. (webmd.com)
  • The death rate for these out-of-hospital cardiac arrests is at least 90% and of those who do survive, over half have permanent brain damage to some degree. (news-medical.net)
  • In the trial, run by the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, drones responded to 18 simulated cardiac arrests within a six-mile radius of their base, beating the ambulance every time. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • With cardiac arrests, every minute counts. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Implantable cardioverter defibrillators account for one-third of the decrease in cardiac arrests caused by ventricular fibrillation in North-Holland, according to research in Circulation, an American Heart Association journal. (redorbit.com)
  • Previous studies have shown a gradual 15-year decrease in VF-related cardiac arrests suffered outside the hospital setting - from 54 percent to 38 percent in the United States and Europe. (redorbit.com)
  • However, the incidence of such cardiac arrests from other abnormal heart rhythms continues to increase each year. (redorbit.com)
  • Researchers estimated that ICDs prevented 81 cardiac arrests during the 2005-2008 study. (redorbit.com)
  • The annual incidence of VF cardiac arrests fell significantly, from 21.1 people per 100,000 to 17.4 people per 100,000. (redorbit.com)
  • Incidence of cardiac arrests related to other abnormal rhythms increased significantly, from 12.2 per 100,000 to 19.4 per 100,000 annually. (redorbit.com)
  • It's unknown what caused the other two-thirds of decline in VF arrests or why cardiac arrests vs. other abnormal heart rhythms have increased. (redorbit.com)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Breathing in soot and other fine particles from the urban air may increase the risk of suffering a deadly heart stoppage, suggests a new study of more than 8,000 cardiac arrests in New York City. (reuters.com)
  • As the levels of particulate matter air pollution increased, more cardiac arrests occurred," lead researcher Dr. Robert A Silverman of the Long Island Jewish Medical Center, in New York, told Reuters Health in an e-mail. (reuters.com)
  • When cardiac arrests occur outside of the hospital, victims typically have less than eight percent chance of survival. (reuters.com)
  • So the team compared readings from air quality monitors around New York City with the records of 8,216 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests that happened between 2002 and 2006. (reuters.com)
  • Cardiac contusion is a misnomer that is used to reflect injury to the heart after blunt chest trauma. (nih.gov)
  • This is the term trauma experts agree is more appropriate since it encompasses the various types of cardiac injuries seen after blunt chest trauma. (nih.gov)
  • Blunt cardiac injury (BCI) from blunt chest trauma is most commonly due to motor vehicle collisions (50%), with 20% of all motor vehicle collision deaths involving blunt chest trauma. (nih.gov)
  • Does more than a single chest tube for mediastinal drainage affect outcomes after cardiac surgery? (medscape.com)
  • The CardioInsight™ Noninvasive 3D Mapping System is a non-invasive mapping system that collects chest ECG signals and combines these signals with CT scan data to produce and display simultaneous, bi-atrial and biventricular, 3-D cardiac maps. (medtronic.com)
  • Symptoms of cardiac hypertrophy include chest pain or pressure after exercise or after meals, shortness of breath, tiredness, fainting, and palpitations, says WebMD. (reference.com)
  • ECG s of patients with cardiac amyloidosis usually show a low voltage in the limb leads with unusual, extreme right axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intracardiac thrombosis and embolism in patients with cardiac amyloidosis. (medscape.com)
  • Cardiac catheterization (kath-uh-tur-ih-ZAY-shun) is a procedure used to diagnose and treat certain cardiovascular conditions. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This book is an essential guide to the medical treatment of the cardiac patient and presents core principles of cardiovascular therapeutics as well as drug recommendations. (springer.com)
  • When adjusted for other existing conditions and cardiac disease severity, depressive symptoms remained associated with a 31 percent higher rate of cardiovascular events. (psychcentral.com)
  • If you have a massive heart attack, almost everyone would agree you should undergo cardiac catheterization," Dr. Deepak Bhatt, who directs the Integrated Interventional Cardiovascular Program at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, told ABCNews.com. (go.com)
  • Cardiac (or cardiovascular) disease refers to any condition affecting the ability of the heart and/or blood vessels to function properly. (wikinvest.com)
  • In fact, we are the only center in the region to guarantee that a specialized pediatric cardiac anesthesiologist will be available for your child at all times. (childrensnational.org)
  • As the only location in North Texas to offer pediatric cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs) and specialized pediatric cardiac imaging tests, we help find the answers that you and your child's care team need. (childrens.com)
  • The group plans to train Ethiopia's first pediatric cardiac surgeon, and its efforts to raise money for a boy named Eliyas. (voanews.com)
  • Equally important is that we have started training what would be Ethiopia's first pediatric cardiac surgeon. (voanews.com)
  • Every three days, sudden cardiac death takes the life of a young U.S. athlete,' says Dr. Anthony Rossi, Medical Director of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit at Miami Children's Hospital, 'These young people often die without exhibiting advance signs of heart problems. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Cardiac ablation is a procedure to scar or destroy tissue in your heart that's allowing incorrect electrical signals to cause an abnormal heart rhythm. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This illustration shows ablation catheters being applied near the pulmonary veins in a type of cardiac ablation called pulmonary vein isolation. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Cardiac ablation works by scarring or destroying tissue in your heart that triggers or sustains an abnormal heart rhythm. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Cardiac ablation is a procedure that's used to correct heart rhythm problems. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Discuss the risks and benefits of cardiac ablation with your doctor to understand if this procedure is right for you. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Your doctor will discuss with you the risks and benefits of cardiac ablation. (mayoclinic.org)
  • During cardiac ablation, catheters are passed through a vein in order to reach your heart. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Factors such as high incidence of cardiac diseases, rising awareness programs and increased funding for research projects are likely to drive the growth of the North American market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • However, the Asian market is slated to grow at the highest CAGR owing to the increasing government and private sector investments in healthcare, growing purchasing power and high incidence of cardiac diseases. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The incidence of blunt cardiac injury (BCI) has a broad range (8% to 76%) [7] because of the lack of a clear, accepted diagnostic criteria, lack of consensus on the definition, and the inconsistency of nomenclature that makes it difficult to quantify the incidence. (nih.gov)
  • Ikematsu Y. Incidence and characteristics of dysphoria in patients with cardiac tamponade. (medscape.com)
  • These two activities are associated with the highest incidence of sudden cardiac death. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Cardiac catheterization is performed to examine how well the heart and arteries are functioning. (webmd.com)
  • At Lawnwood, where an invasive diagnostic test known as a cardiac catheterization is performed, about half the procedures, or 1,200, were determined to have been done on patients without significant heart disease, according to a confidential 2010 review. (cnbc.com)
  • Your child won't be able to eat or drink for several hours before the cardiac stent procedure. (kidshealth.org)
  • Can I Stay With My Child During the Cardiac Stent Procedure? (kidshealth.org)
  • Cardiac catheterisation is an invasive diagnostic procedure that provides important information about the structure and function of the heart. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Cardiac catheterization is done in a procedure room with special X-ray and imaging machines. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In addition, our unique Cardiac Procedure Recovery Unit provides individualized care for patients before, during, and after undergoing anesthesia. (childrensnational.org)
  • We've incorporated the most sophisticated technology available into our procedure rooms and Cardiac Intensive Care Units (Cardiac ICU) . (childrensnational.org)
  • When the procedure is performed routinely with the bone radiotracer technetium-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (99mTc-HMDP) as a part of the diagnostic work for transthyretin-type cardiac amyloidosis, it could "potentially save lives" by prompting a complete cardiac work-up in at-risk patients, said lead investigator Axel Van Der Gucht, MD, from Henri Mondor Hospital in Créteil, France. (medscape.com)
  • Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, cardiac catheterization was primarily a diagnostic procedure that was used to evaluate hemodynamics, ventricular function, and coronary anatomy. (uptodate.com)
  • As a result, the risk-to-benefit ratio still favors performing this procedure as a part of the evaluation of potentially fatal or lifestyle-limiting cardiac disease. (uptodate.com)
  • The patient had a previous cardiac catheterization that was complicated by a transient ischemic attack during the procedure. (cdc.gov)
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Cardiac Catheterization Procedure in minutes with SmartDraw. (smartdraw.com)
  • Transradial cardiac catheterization is a procedure used to treat and diagnose certain heart conditions. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In most cases, a cardiologist and a team of specialized nurses will do the procedure in a cardiac catheterization lab. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In spite of this, people still maintain relatively poor diets and engage in activities that increase their risk of developing cardiac disease. (wikinvest.com)
  • We will review the history of cardiac care units, review the local history and discuss the current ACCU unit in Winnipeg, Manitoba. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Without a diagnostic endomyocardial biopsy, a patient with known extracardiac sarcoidosis may be diagnosed with cardiac sarcoidosis by fulfilling of at least two major criteria or at least one major criterion plus greater than two minor criteria. (medscape.com)
  • Using this catheter, doctors can then do diagnostic tests as part of a cardiac catheterization. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Echo is diagnostic and shows associated cardiac anomalies. (utmb.edu)
  • Since cardiac catheterization is a diagnostic test, doctors tend to disagree about when it is necessary to subject patients to it. (go.com)
  • 4) Diseases and conditions: What is diagnostic cardiac catheterization? (medindia.net)
  • This excellent book serves as a complete guide to therapeutic strategies for patients with cardiac diseases. (springer.com)
  • Acute management of complex cardiac injuries. (springer.com)
  • The invasive tests that cardiac electrophysiologists use include cardiac catheterization, placement of an implantable loop recorder (ILR, Reveal or Reveal Plus), and electrophysiological testing (EP study). (bcm.edu)
  • March 10, 2010 -- A large percentage of patients without known heart disease who undergo invasive cardiac catheterization to check for dangerous artery blockages do not have them, a new study suggests. (webmd.com)
  • Stays after minimally invasive operations are from 3 to 5 days compared to 5 to 7 days for traditional sternotomy-based cardiac operations. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Recovery times after minimally invasive operations are from 2 to 4 weeks compared to 6 to 8 weeks for standard sternotomy-based cardiac operations. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • What minimally invasive cardiac operations does Johns Hopkins offer? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Within cardiac care, examples of medical intervention include surgical procedures, such as coronary bypass operations, and invasive treatments like angioplasty. (harvardmagazine.com)
  • Image Caption: Listeria monocytogenes cardiac-invasive strain replicating and moving within infected heart cells. (redorbit.com)
  • Major factors driving the growth of this market include growing prevalence of cardiac conditions and the subsequent increase in the number of surgical procedures, rising geriatric population, and growing investments, funds, and grants by government bodies worldwide. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The high growth in this segment is attributed to the increase in the number of cardiac surgeries and the repeated use of forceps in most cardiac procedures. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Cardiac catheterization is also used as part of some procedures to treat heart disease. (mayoclinic.org)
  • As with most procedures done on your heart and blood vessels, cardiac catheterization has some risks. (mayoclinic.org)
  • But unneeded cardiac procedures can cause strokes, heart attacks and death. (go.com)
  • There are a wide range of both drug treatments and surgical procedures that are used to either prevent or treat cardiac disease. (wikinvest.com)
  • Healthcare providers also use cardiac catheterization to do other procedures on the heart. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • While the key distinguishing feature in giant cell myocarditis vs cardiac sarcoidosis is the lack of granuloma formation, occasional granuloma formation has been observed in 5% to 10% of giant cell cardiomyopathy cases. (medscape.com)
  • [ 27 ] Additional distinguishing features include the presence of eosinophils in giant cell cardiomyopathy vs cardiac sarcoidosis. (medscape.com)
  • During cardiac catheterization, a long thin tube called a catheter is inserted in an artery or vein in your groin, neck or arm and threaded through your blood vessels to your heart. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Cardiac tamponade following insertion of an internal jugular vein catheter for hemodialysis. (medscape.com)
  • The superficial part of the cardiac plexus lies beneath the arch of the aorta, in front of the right pulmonary artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any of the parasympathetic ganglia of the cardiac plexus between the arch of the aorta and the bifurcation of the pulmonary artery. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A cardiac risk calculator looks to assess a person's chances of experiencing a cardiac event within the next 10 years. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • An "all no" set of responses does not guarantee that you are risk free while running, but it does give you less chance of experiencing a cardiac event. (runnersworld.com)
  • Keough V, Letizia M. Blunt cardiac injury in the elderly trauma patient. (springer.com)
  • Once discharged from the hospital, the patient works with his cardiac team to create an individual exercise plan. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Hindi Z. Rare purulent cardiac tamponade caused by Streptococcus constellatus in a young immunocompetent patient: case report and review of the literature. (medscape.com)
  • Does this patient with a pericardial effusion have cardiac tamponade? (medscape.com)
  • The Emory Cardiac Imaging Center offers advanced cardiac CT technology, including dual-source and 64-slice cardiac CT scanners which can produce images that reveal whether or not the patient has coronary disease. (emoryhealthcare.org)
  • When the patient exhales and decompresses the heart, the heart's rate will dramatically slow because it has additional space to expand during ventricular filling time in the cardiac cycle. (nau.edu)
  • When a patient undergoes cardiac catheterization, a wire tube, or sheath, is inserted into the arteries in the patient's groin or wrist area (femoral or radial arteries). (go.com)
  • 3) The effect of early education on patient anxiety while waiting for elective cardiac catheterization. (medindia.net)
  • What is the average time for patient to stay in hospital on observation after cardiac Catheterization that is paid and covered by Horizon Blue Cross and other commercial insurance companies? (medindia.net)
  • BCBS does even pay for 24 hours for patient stay after cardiac cath. (medindia.net)
  • A system for providing cardiac stimulation to a patient includes an implantable stimulation device with a microprocessor and a separate programmer. (google.ca)
  • Despite cardiac metastases are found in about 20% of cancer deaths, the presence of primary cardiac tumors is rare. (hindawi.com)
  • Primary cardiac sarcomas are rare tumors with a median survival of 6-12 months. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we report that mice bearing mutant alleles of Yap and its paralog WW domain containing transcription regulator 1 ( Taz ) exhibit gene dosage-dependent cardiac phenotypes, suggesting redundant roles of these Hippo pathway effectors in establishing proper myocyte number and maintaining cardiac function. (pnas.org)
  • The Division of Cardiac Anesthesia is part of the Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine at SickKids. (sickkids.ca)
  • A cardiac surgeon performs CRT with mild sedation and local anesthesia for most people. (medicinenet.com)
  • Provides the key cardiac anesthesia information you need to know by authorities you trust. (worldcat.org)
  • This title is suitable those clinicians who would like an economical yet dependable resource in cardiac anesthesia. (worldcat.org)
  • Maintaining and regulating cardiac output, which is usually proportional to the tissues' need for oxygen and other nutrients, is one of the circulatory system's most intricate functions. (britannica.com)
  • Measurement of cardiac output, as first described by the German physiologist Adolf E. Fick in 1870, makes possible an evaluation of respiratory exchange, i.e., the delivery of oxygen to the tissues. (britannica.com)
  • Certain strains of the food pathogen Listeria are uniquely adapted to infect heart tissues and may put people at a higher risk from serious cardiac disease, according to a new study published in the Journal of Medical Microbiology. (redorbit.com)
  • In these cases death rate from cardiac illness is estimated to be up to 35% yet very little is known about how these bacteria infect heart tissues. (redorbit.com)
  • Marcolini EG, Keegan J. Blunt Cardiac Injury. (springer.com)
  • Because of the term's ambiguity in describing a spectrum of myocardial injuries secondary to blunt trauma, "cardiac contusion" is now termed "blunt cardiac injury" (BCI). (nih.gov)
  • Blunt cardiac injury (BCI) most commonly occurs from motor vehicle accidents, followed by falls and crush injuries. (nih.gov)
  • Figure 3 shows the normal cardiac rhythm on an ECG, where the P wave is associated with the excitation of atria, the QRS complex is associated with the excitation of ventricles, and the T wave is associated with the relaxation of the ventricles. (scholarpedia.org)
  • AV conduction during normal cardiac rhythm occurs through two different pathways: the first "pathway" has a slow conduction velocity but shorter refractory period the second "pathway" has a faster conduction velocity but longer refractory period. (wikipedia.org)
  • An open question is if retinoid effects are limited to growth factor stimulation pathway(s) or if additional actions on uncommitted progenitor/stem populations might drive cardiac differentiation. (pnas.org)
  • Raldh2 −/− hearts display increased SP cell numbers, with selective increases in expression of cardiac progenitor cell markers and reduced differentiation marker levels. (pnas.org)
  • Hence, although lack of RA signaling increases cardiac SP numbers, simultaneous reductions in Fgf signaling reduce cardiomyocyte differentiation, possibly accounting for long-term defects in myocardial growth. (pnas.org)
  • BMP (Bone morphogenetic protein) cell signaling plays a key role in diverse aspects of cardiac differentiation and morphogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac output , in human physiology, volume of blood expelled by either ventricle of the heart . (britannica.com)
  • Enhanced normal automaticity is best understood by beginning with a brief review of the physiology and hierarchy of stimulation of normal cardiac automaticity. (uptodate.com)
  • The first section covers the scientific basis of cardiac anaesthesia: anatomy, physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. (google.com)