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  • lung
  • If left untreated, the majority of patients with fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma may progress to develop metastasis to abdominal lymph nodes, peritoneum, and lung. (wikidoc.org)
  • Oncology
  • Phase II clinical trial of neoadjuvant alternating doublet chemotherapy with ifosfamide/doxorubicin and etoposide/cisplatin in small-cell urothelial cancer," Journal of Clinical Oncology , vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 2592-2597, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • biopsy
  • This is most often the case when a pathologist examines a small amount of malignant cells or tissue in a cytology or biopsy specimen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histopathological analysis of the biopsy revealed a tumor consisting of tightly packed nests and diffuse irregularly shaped sheets of cells with areas of necrosis. (hindawi.com)
  • chemotherapy
  • Evidence supporting preoperative chemotherapy for small cell carcinoma of the bladder: a retrospective review of the M. D. Anderson cancer experience," Journal of Urology , vol. 172, no. 2, pp. 481-484, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in small cell urothelial cancer improves pathologic downstaging and long-term outcomes: results from a retrospective study at the MD anderson cancer center," European Urology , vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 307-313, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • rarely
  • These carcinomas are rarely seen in the head-neck region with laryngeal predominance, and the prognosis is very poor [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • incidence
  • However, since the incidence of ROS1 or RET fusions is less than that of ALK fusions in NSCLC, only a small number of NSCLC patients with ROS1 or RET fusions has thus far been identified. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • light microscopic
  • Because of its nonspecific clinical and radiological manifestations, the diagnosis of small cell carcinoma of the larynx is essentially based on the light microscopic examination aided by electron microscopy or immunohistochemical staining [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • patients
  • Recently, crizotinib, a small molecule inhibitor of ALK, was shown to selectively inhibit the growth of ALK-positive NSCLC ( 6 - 8 ), indicating that a subclass of NSCLC patients are likely to benefit clinically from an ALK inhibitor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • basal
  • The olfactory epithelium consists of olfactory sensory cells, sustentacular cells and basal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • By using Mohs surgery the defect can be kept minimal, but nevertheless infiltrative basal cell carcinoma may have the need to remove a large part of the scalp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic mice over-expressing the transcription factor Gli2 under the K5 promoter in cutaneous keratinocytes develop multiple skin tumours on the ears, tail, trunk and dorsal aspect of the paw, resembling those of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations of the GLI2 gene are associated with several phenotypes including Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome, Pallister-Hall syndrome, preaxial polydactyly type IV, postaxial polydactyly types A1 and B. In human keratinocytes Gli2 activation upregulates a number of genes involved in cell cycle progression including E2F1, CCND1, CDC2 and CDC45L. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Genital warts, which are a form of benign tumor of epithelial cells, are also caused by various strains of HPV. (wikipedia.org)
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary mechanical role of catenins is connecting cadherins to actin filaments, specifically in these adhesion junctions of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several cell types or tissues, e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, cardiac tissue, gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells, and epithelial cells of some tissues normally do not express LECT2 but do so under a variety of disease conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignant
  • 2007) argued that continued use of non-malignant terms, i.e., adenoma, for those frequent cases with low-grade features (such as DPAM), is misleading because pseudomyxoma peritonei is a disease state that results from invasion of the abdominal cavity by cells with uncontrolled growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Activities of some enzymes of pyrimidine and DNA synthesis in a rat transplantable hepatoma and human primary hepatomas, in cell lines derived from these tissues, and in human fetal liver. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of CD34 on non-hematopoietic cells in various tissues has been linked to progenitor and adult stem cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • When these cells or tissues are subjected to inflammatory, fibrotic, and other insults, they commonly reduce their expression of LECT2. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Antibodies are used to quantify and purify hematopoietic progenitor stem cells for research and for clinical bone marrow transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancers
  • Tomasetti and Vogelstein show that the lifetime risk of cancers of many different types is strongly correlated with the total number of divisions of the normal self-renewing cells maintaining that tissue's homeostasis. (xonl.de)
  • All cancers are caused by damage to the DNA inside cells. (thetanningguru.com)
  • proteins
  • These cells have proteins that make up the characteristics of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a member of the DOCK-D subfamily of the DOCK family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors, which function as activators of small G proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DHR2 domain of Dock10 appears to bind to the small G proteins Cdc42, TC10 and TCL although these interactions are of low affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a member of the DOCK-D subfamily of the DOCK family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) which function as activators of small G proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • migration
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of its mode of action, under all circumstances CD34, and its relatives podocalyxin and endoglycan, facilitates cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdc42 in turn regulates signaling pathways that control diverse cellular functions including morphology, migration, endocytosis and cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidney
  • H-FABP is 20 times more specific to cardiac muscle than myoglobin, it is found at 10-fold lower levels in skeletal muscle than heart muscle and the amounts in the kidney, liver and small intestine are even lower again. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Like the nine other distinct FABPs that have been identified, H-FABP is involved in active fatty acid metabolism where it transports fatty acids from the cell membrane to mitochondria for oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • defects
  • The options range from simple solutions for small skin defects to complicated reconstructions requiring multi-tissue reconstructions. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • They also limit viral spread by increasing p53 activity, which kills virus-infected cells by promoting apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Injection of CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells has been clinically applied to treat various diseases including Spinal Cord Injury, Liver Cirrhosis and Peripheral Vascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • intestine
  • This will result in compression of organs and will destroy the function of colon, small intestine, stomach, or other organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Interferon type I: All type I IFNs bind to a specific cell surface receptor complex known as the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) that consists of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • It targets the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor of lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pembrolizumab is an immunoglobulin G4, with a variable region against the human programmed cell death 1 receptor, a humanized mouse monoclonal [228-L-proline(H10-S>P)]γ4 heavy chain (134-218') disulfide and a humanized mouse monoclonal κ light chain dimer (226-226:229-229)-bisdisulfide. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • Conversely, under other circumstances CD34 has been shown to act as molecular "Teflon" and block mast cell, eosinophil and dendritic cell precursor adhesion, and to facilitate opening of vascular lumina. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • It is a cell beyond flock, even, that where remittent diagnosis of a other treatment is in danger the philosopher is more tempted to advance a blood from a present to a graver tadalafil price usa than he is to descend the sickness. (hughesanderson.com)
  • cases
  • proposed separating pseudomyxoma peritonei cases into two diagnostic categories: adenoma (disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis, DPAM) or carcinoma (peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis, PMCA) with a third category reserved for cases with intermediate features. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this classification system, cases of DPAM were characterized by peritoneal lesions composed of abundant extracellular mucin containing scant simple to focally proliferative mucinous epithelium with little cytologic atypia or mitotic activity (in other words, most cells looked fairly normal and there was no evidence of mitosis which would indicate that cells were rapidly dividing), with or without an associated appendiceal mucinous adenoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Challis and Stam, even more at a loss, concluded in 1989, "In summary, we are left to conclude that, although a great number of interesting and unusual cases continue to be published annually, there is still little conclusive data that explains the occurrence of spontaneous regression. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • However, its expression in these cells is extremely low or undetectable even though these cells express very high levels of LECT2 mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdc42
  • Dock11 binds and activates nucleotide-free Cdc42 via its DHR2 domain and has also been reported to mediate positive feedback on active, GTP-bound Cdc42, although this interaction required a small N-terminal region of Dock11 in addition to the DHR2 domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abdominal
  • Fat cells create aromatase enzymes that contribute to fat build up and low levels of testosterone that allows the forming of abdominal fat that produce more aromatase enzyme resulting in more formation of estrogen. (wellnesscenters.pro)
  • oxidation
  • 3) small amounts of oxidation products are formed due to the oxygen trapping of an allylic radical intermediate at positions 13 and 15. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • Cell-cell adhesion complexes are required for simple epithelia in higher organisms to maintain structure, function and polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • in a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD34 is also an important adhesion molecule and is required for T cells to enter lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • It is due to the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the abnormal cells continue to grow, divide, and produce more abnormal cells, the mass of abnormal cells may eventually become a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, loss of Gli3 leads to abnormal patterning and loss of Gli2 affects the development of ventral cell types, most significantly in the floor plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Arising from the upper nasal tract, esthesioneuroblastoma is believed to originate from sensory neuroepithelial cells, also known as neuroectodermal olfactory cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, little is known about its exact function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • It is important to mention that Long-Term Hematopoietic Stem Cells (LT-HSCs) in mice and humans are the hematopoietic cells with the greatest self-renewal capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty
  • Figure 2) While metabolizing arachidonic acid primarily to PGG2, COX-2 also converts this fatty acid to small amounts of a racemic mixture of 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acids (i.e., 15-HETEs) composed of ~22% 15(R)-HETE and ~78% 15(S)-HETE stereoisomers as well as a small amount of 11(R)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • however, it explains the next step in the process of the radial growth, when individual cells start to acquire invasive potential. (thetanningguru.com)
  • immune
  • You just need to match quite closely to fool the immune system into accepting the other person's stem cells. (health24.com)
  • binds
  • It is expressed on lymph node endothelia, whereas the L-selectin to which it binds is on the T cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • August 15th to October 15th marks Bone Marrow Stem Cell Donation and Leukaemia Awareness Months in South Africa. (health24.com)
  • It may also mediate the attachment of stem cells to bone marrow extracellular matrix or directly to stromal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • i.e., they are multipotential hemopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • typical
  • In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten their anti-viral defenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • The tumor cells may differ in their structure and function, but they all have normal function, which is directed by the deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a tumor, there is a collection of mutations that are typos in the genetic material, which disrupts the function of the normal cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the N-terminal part of human Gli2 is much smaller than its mouse or frog homologs, suggesting that it may lack repressor function. (wikipedia.org)