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  • duodenum
  • the acidity is due to hydrochloric acid in the chyme that enters the duodenum from the stomach via the pyloric sphincter. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 . As the amino acids enter the duodenum digestion is partial, they trigger the release of cholectystokinin-pancreozymin ( CCK-PZ ) and Secretin in to the bloodstream. (gravitywaves.com)
  • The pKa of the unconjugated bile acids are between 5 and 6.5, and the pH of the duodenum ranges between 3 and 5, so when unconjugated bile acids are in the duodenum, they are almost always protonated (HA form), which makes them relatively insoluble in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus conjugated bile acids are almost always in their deprotonated (A-) form in the duodenum, which makes them much more water-soluble and much more able to fulfil their physiologic function of emulsifying fats. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • The hydrogen ions are pumped into the collecting duct tubule by vacuolar H+ ATPase, the apical proton pump, which thus excretes acid into the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arginine
  • Probes 1-15 were originated by conjugating cytotoxic quinone fragments (II and III) with amino acids (i.e. arginine and lysine) by means of an amide linkage. (jove.com)
  • Transport assays indicated that the novel conjugates inhibited transport activity of lysine, arginine and proline transporters. (jove.com)
  • Here, we report the crystal structure of AdiC, the arginine:agmatine antiporter from E. coli O157:H7 and a member of the amino acid/polyamine/organocation (APC) superfamily of transporters at 3.6 Å resolution. (sciencemag.org)
  • The lactone is bonded with two hydrogen bonds to the amino groups on arginine 364 (Arg364). (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Both diffusion and carrier mediated transport mechanisms which facilitate molecular trafficking through transcellular route to maintain influx and outflux of important nutrients and metabolic substances are elucidated. (hindawi.com)
  • Some congenital amino acid metabolic defects cause mental retardation that can prevented with prompt treatment of the newborn. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • His primary interest lay in the physiological use of organic bound phosphate and the turnover of metabolic energy by its utilization (as "energy rich" or "squiggle" phosphate: ~P) in carbohydrate, fatty acid, amino acid, and nucleic acid syntheses as well as degradations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For the discovery of coenzyme A as cocatalyst of the metabolic transfer of activated acetate-groups he received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1953, jointly with Hans Adolf Krebs, who was laureated for untangling the energy-yielding tricarboxylic acid (or "Krebs") cycle, which also (re)utilizes CoA-activated acetate, derived from glucose-borne pyruvate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cysteine
  • Mammalian taurine synthesis occurs in the pancreas via the cysteine sulfinic acid pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this pathway, cysteine is first oxidized to its sulfinic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme cysteine dioxygenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysteine sulfinic acid, in turn, is decarboxylated by sulfinoalanine decarboxylase to form hypotaurine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cystathionine is then converted to hypotaurine by the sequential action of three enzymes: cystathionine gamma-lyase, cysteine dioxygenase, and cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipids
  • As a result, the concentration of bile acids/salts in the small intestine is high enough to form micelles and solubilize lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acid-containing micelles aid lipases to digest lipids and bring them near the intestinal brush border membrane, which results in fat absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin B-6 deficiency has been linked to the altered n-6 fatty acid (FA) profiles of rat tissue lipids, particularly with a decrease of arachidonic acid (AA) and an increase of linoleic acid over 80 years. (ufl.edu)
  • Based on previous findings, it was hypothesized that low vitamin B-6 status decreases n-6/n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) but increases their precursors, linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid in both blood lipids and cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line by impairing LCPUFA synthesis. (ufl.edu)
  • organic
  • Bile acids are about 80% of the organic compounds in bile (others are phospholipids and cholesterol). (wikipedia.org)
  • Taurine (/ˈtɔːriːn/), or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is an organic compound that is widely distributed in animal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium
  • Overall, it appears that amino acids merely catalyze the polymerization of sodium silicate. (fossilhunters.xyz)
  • Synthetic taurine is obtained by the ammonolysis of isethionic acid (2-hydroxyethanesulfonic acid), which in turn is obtained from the reaction of ethylene oxide with aqueous sodium bisulfite. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreas
  • They discovered (by cutting all the nerves to the pancreas in their experimental animals) that this process was not, in fact, governed by the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • They determined that a substance secreted by the intestinal lining stimulates the pancreas after being transported via the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • proton
  • AdiC couples the influx of Arg with the efflux of Agm, resulting in net expulsion of one proton for each transport cycle ( 5 , 14 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • pantothenic acid
  • In this course he discovered the coenzyme of enzymatic transacetylations, coenzyme A, acronymized "CoA" or "CoA-SH," containing the transfer catalyzing thiol(SH)-function of its pantetheine moiety, a vitamin composed of pantothenic acid and cysteamine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • tricarboxylic acid
  • Thiamine functions in all cells as the coenzyme cocarboxylase, thiamine pyrophosphate, which participates in the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid to acetate for entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. (fao.org)
  • found
  • These are quite different from other capillaries found in the body as their endothelial wall possesses tight junctions which obstruct transport between cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Also, vimentin is found to control the transport of low-density lipoprotein, LDL, -derived cholesterol from a lysosome to the site of esterification. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the blocking of transport of LDL-derived cholesterol inside the cell, cells were found to store a much lower percentage of the lipoprotein than normal cells with vimentin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conjugated salts of their 7-alpha-dehydroxylated derivatives, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, are also found, with derivatives of cholic, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic acids accounting for over 90% of human biliary bile acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • A serine protease inhibitor domain, absent from the isoform differentially expressed in the brain, is found between acidic region and E2 domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • react
  • When the binder is applied to the powder, the oxidant and reductant react to generate an acid that catalyzes crosslinking. (google.com)
  • bile
  • Primary bile acids are those synthesized by the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary bile acids result from bacterial actions in the colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 600 mg of bile salts are synthesized daily to replace bile acids lost in the feces, although, as described below, much larger amounts are secreted, reabsorbed in the gut and recycled. (wikipedia.org)
  • These conjugated bile acids are often referred to as bile salts because of their physiologically-important acid-base properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • All four of these bile acids can be taken back up into the blood stream, return to the liver, and be re-secreted in a process known as enterohepatic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Critical micellar concentration" refers to both an intrinsic property of the bile acid itself and amount of bile acid necessary to function in the spontaneous and dynamic formation of micelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human adults secrete between 12-18 g of bile acids into the intestine each day, mostly after meals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bile acid pool size is between 4-6 g, which means that bile acids are recycled several times each day. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • 2. These processes are carrier mediated , discriminating between natural, L amino acids and D-amino acids, require energy (from the Na + gradient, Na-K ATPase) and physiologic temperatures . (gravitywaves.com)
  • Examples are as follows: Alanine + α-ketoglutarate ⇌ pyruvate + glutamate Aspartate + α-ketoglutarate ⇌ oxaloacetate + glutamate Both pyruvate and oxaloacetate are key components of cellular metabolism, contributing as substrates or intermediates in fundamental processes such as glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • moiety
  • 2. The compound of claim 1 , wherein the first moiety is a baclofen, vigabatrin, gabapentin, or pregabalin, or a γ-amino-phosphinic acid derivative. (google.nl)