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  • strains
  • The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. (pnas.org)
  • The general strategy followed for the generation of microbial strains with the capacity to synthesize CA or pHCA from a simple carbon source involves performing genetic modifications that result in increased carbon flow to the L-Phe or L-Tyr biosynthetic pathways, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are many different species and strains of bacteria found in various types of starters, and because they produce lactic acid while fermenting sugar, they fall under the heading of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). (thefreshloaf.com)
  • Advantages of microalgal vs. plant biomass production include higher yield, use of non-arable land, recovery of nutrients from wastewater, efficient carbon capture and faster development of new domesticated strains. (springer.com)
  • anaerobic
  • The ultimate goal is to understand the cycling of complex organic mixtures by anaerobic soil bacteria. (phys.org)
  • Cornell University biological engineers have deciphered the cellular strategy to make the biofuel ethanol, using an anaerobic microbe feeding on carbon monoxide - a common industrial waste gas. (phys.org)
  • Clostridium termitidis CT1112 is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, mesophilic, spore-forming, cellulolytic bacterium, originally isolated from the gut of a wood feeding termite Nasusitermes lujae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment can elucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms that enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the dynamics of cellular chemical environment in a model oxygen-stress adaptive response system, namely that of the strictly anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough during transient exposure to air. (pnas.org)
  • The resulting S. cerevisiae strain exhibited high rates of arabinose consumption (0.70 g h −1 g [dry weight] −1 ) and ethanol production (0.29 g h −1 g [dry weight] −1 ) and a high ethanol yield (0.43 g g −1 ) during anaerobic growth on l -arabinose as the sole carbon source. (asm.org)
  • lactic
  • Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. (pnas.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive gene loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats. (pnas.org)
  • The LAB also differ in the number of rRNA operons, from two in Oenococcus oeni to nine in Lb. delbrueckii , which correlates with the number of tRNA genes (Table 1) and may reflect differences in the ecological competitiveness (e.g., capacity for rapid growth and production of lactic acid) between these bacteria ( 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Lactic acid bacteria common to sourdoughs include members of Leuconostoc , Pediococcus , Weissella and other genera. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • Homo- , meaning "all the same," refers to the end product of fermentation (by lactic acid bacteria), which is only, or "all" lactic acid. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • As lactic acid bacteria, heterofermentative LAB produce lactic acid, but they also produce carbon dioxide gas, alcohol or acetic acid as well. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • The primary function of all these bacteria is to convert one of the two major grape acids found in wine called L-malic acid, to another type of acid, L+ lactic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • While Pasteur did notice an acid reduction in wine with the lactic bacteria, he did not link that process to a consumption of malic acid by the bacteria, but rather assumed it was just tartrate precipitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast
  • (7) YM-11 agar contains a rich source of trace elements, vitamins, amino acids, and carbon sources to provide optimum growing conditions for yeast and molds. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • There are two major types of growth media: those used for cell culture, which use specific cell types derived from plants or animals, and microbiological culture, which are used for growing microorganisms, such as bacteria or yeast. (blogspot.com)
  • In yeasted breads, acids come in small doses from naturally occurring bacteria present in flour and commercial yeast. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • You're right about the bacteria count over yeast - leavaning of loaves is problematic. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • and sugar transporters in various yeast, protozoa and higher plants. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Significant progress has been made with respect to increasing the substrate loading, decreasing the yeast concentration and co-fermentation of both hexoses and pentoses during SSF. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most process concepts for bioethanol from lignocellulose start with a thermo-chemical hydrolysis of the hemicellulose part (pretreatment), followed by an enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose part and a yeast-based fermentation of the resulting sugars. (biomedcentral.com)
  • metabolism
  • To satisfy the increased demand for sustainable energy sources and identify the mechanism of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, which is one of the bottlenecks in photosynthesis, it is essential to understand the process of solar energy storage and associated carbon metabolism in photosynthetic organisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Researchers have employed physiological studies, microbiological chemistry, enzyme assays, genome sequencing, transcriptomics, and 13 C-based metabolomics/fluxomics to investigate central carbon metabolism and enzymes that operate in phototrophs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Considering the metabolic versatility in these fascinating and diverse photosynthetic bacteria, many essential questions in their central carbon metabolism still remain to be addressed. (frontiersin.org)
  • To unravel how intricate waste biomass converts to biofuels, a Cornell professor studied the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum to decipher its metabolism. (phys.org)
  • This process involves the accumulation of sugar against a concentration gradient and requires active metabolism of the mucosal tissue as a source of energy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The metabolic requirements and interactions of the bacterium with its host are poorly understood, and herein we describe a metabolic model of S. glossinidius metabolism. (asm.org)
  • Untargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of mycoplasma metabolite extracts revealed significant differences in the steady-state levels of many metabolites in central carbon metabolism, while 13 C stable isotope labeling studies revealed marked differences in carbon source utilization. (asm.org)
  • ethanol
  • The United States and most other countries seek to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to stave off global warming, and most gasoline sold in the U.S. contains ethanol because such plant-based biofuels are carbon-neutral. (phys.org)
  • mobilis (strain NCIB 11163) is a facultative aerobic, ethanol-producing bacterium. (wishartlab.com)
  • This bacterium ferments using the Enter-Doudoroff pathway, with the result that less carbon is used in cellular biomass production and more ends up as ethanol, another factor that favors this organism for ethanol production. (wishartlab.com)
  • In addition to the development of pentose-consuming bacteria such as Zymomonas mobilis , Escherichia coli , and Klebsiella oxytoca as alternative biocatalysts for ethanol production ( 5 ), this situation has inspired various studies to expand the substrate range of S. cerevisiae . (asm.org)
  • pathogenic bacteria
  • IMPORTANCE Mycoplasmas are pathogenic bacteria that cause serious chronic infections in production animals, resulting in considerable losses worldwide, as well as causing disease in humans. (asm.org)
  • Sialic acids are a group of monosaccharides with a nine-carbon backbone, commonly found in mammalian cells and pathogenic bacteria, and frequently described to protect EPS molecules and cells from attack by. (tudelft.nl)
  • genome
  • We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. (pnas.org)
  • Among sulfate-reducing bacteria, genome sequencing has shown that D. vulgaris has developed well-defined protective enzymatic oxygen-defense systems ( 5 , 24 ). (pnas.org)
  • sucrose
  • In sink organs, sucrose is broken down by invertase or sucrose synthase to provide carbon and energy for growth and accumulation of storage reserves, such as starch, oil and fructans. (els.net)
  • Sucrose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and the most common transport sugar in plants. (els.net)
  • In leaves, the rate of sucrose synthesis is tightly coordinated with the rates of photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation and starch synthesis in the chloroplasts. (els.net)
  • Sucrose is transported from leaves via the phloem, to provide the rest of the plant with carbon and energy for growth and storage product synthesis. (els.net)
  • It can be hydrolysed by cell wall invertases and imported into the cells as hexose sugars, or taken up intact and metabolised by intracellular invertases or sucrose synthase. (els.net)
  • Domain architecture of sucrose‐phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose‐phosphatase (SPP) from bacteria and plants. (els.net)
  • Fungi
  • Trehalose is a nonreducing disaccharide found in many bacteria, archaea, invertebrates and fungi, and is often used as a stress protectant, compatible solute, storage reserve or transport sugar. (els.net)
  • lignocellulosic
  • In this study the quantitative contribution of active or inactive PTS as well as expression of PAL/TAL from R. glutinis or A. thaliana were determined for production performance of CA and pHCA when growing on carbon sources derived from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • photosynthetic
  • We also discuss the reducing equivalent flow during photoautotrophic and photoheterotrophic growth, evolutionary links in the central carbon metabolic network, and correlations between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hexoses, accumulating from a significantly increased invertase activity, possibly inhibited the expression of photosynthesis genes and photosynthetic activity in infected leaves. (ugent.be)
  • Catabolite Repression
  • More recently, transcriptome analysis of C. cellulolyticum cultured on different substrates [ 10 ] revealed substrate specificity of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) and the transcriptional regulation of core cellulases by Carbon Catabolite Repression (CCR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, genetic manipulations were performed to alleviate carbon catabolite repression in our most efficient methyl ketone-producing strain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The underlying mechanism for diauxic growth is carbon catabolite repression (CCR), which is primarily mediated by components of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP): carbohydrate phosphotransferase (PTS) system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genes
  • Specifically, genes for cellulosomal enzymes and components were highly expressed on α-cellulose, while xylanases and glucosidases were up-regulated on 5 carbon sugars with respect to cellobiose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • species
  • These bacteria have extremely reduced genomes and are thought to have limited metabolic flexibility, even though they are highly successful persistent parasites in a diverse number of species. (asm.org)
  • The extent to which different Mycoplasma species are capable of catabolizing host carbon sources and nutrients, or synthesizing essential metabolites, remains poorly defined. (asm.org)
  • photosynthesis
  • All plant materials used to produce biofuels, such as grasses and nonedible crops, capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through photosynthesis, offsetting car exhaust. (phys.org)
  • mixtures
  • Metabolite labelling reveals hierarchies inthat selectively channel carbons from sugar mixtures towards biofuel precursors, Microbial Biotechnology (2016). (phys.org)
  • Microbiology
  • In 1866, Louis Pasteur , one of the pioneers of modern microbiology , isolated the first bacteria from wine and determined that all bacteria in wine were a cause for wine spoilage . (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • Some types of bacteria are poisoned by oxygen, others can take it or leave it. (blogspot.com)
  • Liquid broth allows bacteria to grow at varying oxygen levels, which decrease as the depth of the broth increases. (blogspot.com)
  • Sulfate-reducing bacteria are of particular interest because of their importance in cycling and transformation of essential nutrients and minerals ( 24 , 25 ) and of their links to different pathogenesis ( 26 , 27 ) in environments where extreme fluctuations in oxygen concentrations occur. (pnas.org)
  • The bacteria can even survive very high levels of oxygen in their natural environment ( 28 , 29 ), but the mechanism remains elusive. (pnas.org)
  • yield
  • However, the yield of solvent decreased with the increased initial sugar concentration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To improve pHCA production, a mutant with inactive pheA gene was generated, causing an 8-fold increase in the yield of this aromatic acid from the sugars in a simulated hydrolysate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • enzymes
  • A novel bifunctional enzyme, L-rhamnulose-phosphate aldolase (RhaE) fused to L-lactaldehyde dehydrogenase (RhaW), which is not homologous to previously characterized L-Rha catabolic enzymes, was identified in diverse bacteria including Chloroflexi, Bacilli, and Alphaproteobacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • involves
  • Using nonedible plant materials for biofuel production is important to sustainable energy options, and processing these materials involves metabolizing the plant's sugars. (phys.org)