• If genes provide the blueprint for life and proteins are the machines that do much of the work for cells, then carbohydrates that are linked to proteins are among the tools that enable cells to communicate with the outside world and each other. (rdworldonline.com)
  • In summary, the person is trying to get their head around the basic structure, formulas and meanings of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and lipids. (physicsforums.com)
  • I have been trying to get my head around the basics for these four (Carbohydrates, Proteins, Amino Acids and Lipids) for about a week and I just don't understand the basic structure, formulas and such. (physicsforums.com)
  • It uses a free program she developed called PhyloBlast to evaluate relationships between genes by comparing their sequences and the proteins they code for. (technologyreview.com)
  • Participants got part of their genome sequenced, allowing scientists to look for specific gene patterns associated with producing proteins that modify carbohydrate or fat metabolism. (stanford.edu)
  • Carbohydrates differ from proteins in two important features. (iucr.org)
  • According to the European Medicines Agency guideline on environmental risk assessments for pharmaceuticals (EMA/CHMP/SWP/4447/00) vitamins, electrolytes, amino acids, peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vaccines and herbal medicinal products are exempted because they are unlikely to result in significant risk to the environment. (janusinfo.se)
  • Sequence analysis of the Daphnia pulex genome holds some surprises that could not have been anticipated from what was learned so far from other arthropod genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are highly variable features of all genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To further investigate the genomic diversity among this group and to help characterize lineages of the plague organism that have no sequenced members, we present here the genomes of two isolates of the "classical" antiqua biovar, strains Antiqua and Nepal516. (asm.org)
  • We compare all five currently sequenced Y. pestis genomes and the corresponding features in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis . (asm.org)
  • 90 samples (overlapping with CHB and CHS in the 1000 Genomes Projects) were sequenced by BGI-Shenzhen at a high depth (~80×) (Lan et al. (biosino.org)
  • The genomes of 11,670 women Han Chinese were sequenced by the CONVERGE project as a control group for the investigation of major depressive disorders (Chiang et al. (biosino.org)
  • Bacteroides, Ruminococcaceae, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii) and three Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthologues, of which two relate to carbohydrate metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • For structural analysis of asparagine-linked carbohydrates, sugars are released from the protein backbone by enzymes such as PNGase F ( NEB #P0704 ). (neb.com)
  • Biopolymers include the polysaccharides such as cellulose, starch, the carbohydrate polymers produced by bacteria and fungi and animal protein-based biopolymers such as wool, silk, gelatin and collagen: biopolymers, especially the carbohydrate origin, have been found very promising industrial application in … This group consists of naturally occurring polymers and chemical modifications of these polymers. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • Proteinet visade sig t o m ha en isopeptidbinding, vilket är den första som observerats i ett protein uttryckt av en Gram-negativ bakterie. (umu.se)
  • The muscle and nonmuscle isoforms of dystroglycan differ by carbohydrate moieties but not protein sequence. (thermofisher.com)
  • Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of the carbo-hydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein-carbohydrate interactions. (iucr.org)
  • The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a valuable resource for three-dimensional structural information on glycoproteins and protein-carbohydrate complexes. (iucr.org)
  • Glycosylation is classified by the way the carbohydrate chain is linked to the protein. (iucr.org)
  • The MUC1 protein, also known as polymorphic epithelial mucin or epithelial membrane antigen, has a large extracellular region, a transmembrane sequence, and a cytosolic domain. (medscape.com)
  • Affected individuals often have specific food preferences, preferring protein-rich and fatty foods and avoiding carbohydrate-rich foods. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Recombinant glycoprotein products were purified and characterized by amino acid sequencing and carbohydrate structural analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, and methylation analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Mature mouse Resistin shares 56% and 72% amino acid (aa) sequence identity with human and rat Resistin, respectively. (rndsystems.com)
  • Teriparatide is a 4117.8 dalton peptide with a 34-amino acid sequence. (janusinfo.se)
  • In this study, the Illumina HiSeq 4000 and PacBio platforms were used to sequence and assemble the whole genome of Fusarium equiseti D25-1. (researchsquare.com)
  • Advances in whole-genome sequencing technologies have enabled numerous key discoveries. (researchsquare.com)
  • In the current release of the PGG.Han database, we collect data of 114,783 individuals in total, including whole-genome sequencing data of 12,197 samples and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of 102,586 samples. (biosino.org)
  • With these more than 100K Han Chinese samples being whole-genome sequenced to high coverage (~30 - 80×), or low-coverage (~1.7 - 4×), or high-density genome-wide SNP genotyped or imputed, we constructed the first and the largest reference panel specific to the Han Chinese population, a.k.a. (biosino.org)
  • Using all the whole-genome sequencing data of Han Chinese samples as reference data, the 102,586 samples are carefully imputed so that the final data set 8,056,973 genome-wide SNPs. (biosino.org)
  • Rapid Whole Genome Sequencing Diagnoses and Guides Treatment in Critically Ill Children in Belgium in Less than 40 Hours. (cdc.gov)
  • 1W1B: Structure of Bacillus subtilis PdaA with Cadmium, a family 4 Carbohydrate esterase. (rcsb.org)
  • Finally, these new peptides reveal a carbohydrate moiety, indicating a glycosylation in the sequence. (springer.com)
  • Peptides were characterized by a combined use of MALDI- TOF/TOF and nanoESI-IT-ETD experiments to determine not only the peptide sequence but also the composition and the position of the carbohydrate moiety. (springer.com)
  • In this study, the complete genomic sequence of Fusarium equiseti D25-1 was determined using multiple sequencing platforms. (researchsquare.com)
  • They are generated by alternative splicing combinations of three exons (A, B, and C) of the genomic sequence. (beckman.com)
  • These microbial communities reached a higher population density and net carbohydrate fermentation, leading to an increased SCFA production at longer transit times. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For diet-driven alterations of gut microbial composition particularly the type and proportion of complex indigestible carbohydrates that reach the colon turn out to be of great importance ( 18 , 19 , 21 - 24 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Baseline gut microbial composition (16S rRNA sequencing) and metabolic capacity (PICRUSt) were determined. (medscape.com)
  • As of 2017, the coverage on bacteria and archaea is ca. 80% of carbohydrate structures published in scientific literature The time lag between the publication of relative data and their deposition into CSDB is about 18 months. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expansion of hypervirulent sequence type 4821 clonal complex (CC4821) lineage Neisseria meningitidis bacteria has led to a shift in meningococcal disease epidemiology in China, from serogroup A (MenA) to MenC. (cdc.gov)
  • It is now well recognized that the bacteria living in our gut play an important role in the development and maintenance of the innate and adaptive immune system ( 1 , 2 ) as well as the fermentation of low-, or non-digestible dietary carbohydrates ( 3 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Faecal 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that fasting caused a decrease in the abundance of bacteria known to degrade dietary polysaccharides such as Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. (nih.gov)
  • have analyzed the tef-1α sequences of F. equiseti , as well as the toxin-related genes PKS13 , PKS4, and TRI5 [26], and Kari has successfully cloned a protease gene [27]. (researchsquare.com)
  • His Ensembl software and data allow researchers to find information on the Web on any known or predicted gene and to automatically match pieces of genes they have sequenced with other genes-without tediously combing through endless raw-sequence data. (technologyreview.com)
  • Biochemical assay for enzyme activity and gene sequencing is the method of definitive diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • Serum biochemistry confirmed the metabolic switch from carbohydrates to fatty acids and ketones. (nih.gov)
  • The diagram below illustrates metabolic pathways of carbohydrates. (medscape.com)
  • With GSDs, carbohydrate metabolic pathways are blocked at various levels and excess glycogen accumulates in affected tissues. (medscape.com)
  • Family 4 carbohydrate esterases deacetylate polymeric carbohydrate substrates such as chitin, acetyl xylan and peptidoglycan. (rcsb.org)
  • The PdaA structure provides a template for interpreting the wealth of sequence data on family 4 carbohydrate esterases in a structural context and represents a first step towards understanding the reaction mechanism of this family of enzymes. (rcsb.org)
  • Obese, hypertensive, type 2 diabetic rats SHR/NDmcr-cp were given, for 12 weeks, either a normal, middle-carbohydrate/middle-fat diet (MC/MF group) or a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (HC/LF group). (hindawi.com)
  • Altogether, these data identify a specific role of body weight control by a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet in the progression of DN. (hindawi.com)
  • The observation that a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet reduces effectively body weight without calorie restriction [ 13 , 14 ] led us to use a similar isocaloric diet in our rat model to better identify factors mediating the weight-related factors involved in the genesis of DN. (hindawi.com)
  • SHR/NDmcr-cp rats given a normal middle-carbohydrate/middle-fat diet (MC/MF group) were thus compared with similar rats fed a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (HC/LF group). (hindawi.com)
  • SHR/NDmcr-cp rats, aged 5 weeks, were randomly divided into two groups and given for 12 weeks either a normal diet (CE-2, CLEA Japan Inc., Tokyo, Japan) with tap water (MC/MF group, 10 rats), or a high carbohydrate/low fat diet (CE-2 with tap water containing 30% sucrose) (HC/LF group, 10 rats). (hindawi.com)
  • It is upregulated during adipogenesis, in obesity, and by insulin or a high carbohydrate diet (5, 6). (rndsystems.com)
  • Fragment-screening of N-acetylmannosamine kinase reveals non-carbohydrate inhibitors. (mpg.de)
  • Dietary supplementation with complex carbohydrates is known to alter the composition of gut microbiota, and optimal implementation of the use of these so called "prebiotics" could be of great potential in prevention and possibly treatment of obesity and associated cardiometabolic and inflammatory diseases via changes in the gut microbiota. (frontiersin.org)
  • To circumvent this potential interpretational problem, we aimed at providing an overview about whether and how dietary supplementation of different complex carbohydrates changes the gut microbiome in healthy non-obese individuals. (frontiersin.org)
  • The digestibility of dietary carbohydrates depends, among others, on structural properties of the carbohydrate, such as the degree of polymerization (DP) and branching. (frontiersin.org)
  • All were randomized into one of two dietary groups: low-carbohydrate or low-fat. (stanford.edu)
  • The main data stored in CSDB are carbohydrate structures of bacterial, fungal, and plant origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taxon clustering based on similarities of glycomes (carbohydrate-based tree of life) Glycosyltransferase subdatabase (GT-explorer) Until 2015, Bacterial Carbohydrate Structure Database (BCSDB) and Plant&Fungal Carbohydrate Structure Database (PFCSDB) databases existed in parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • We then reviewed whether the reported changes in gut bacterial members found to be established by complex carbohydrates would benefit or harm the cardiometabolic and immunological health of the host taking into account the alterations in the microbiome composition and abundance known to be associated with obesity and its associated disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • An alternative to this "microbiocentric view" is the idea that health-promoting effects of certain complex carbohydrates reside in the host, and could secondarily affect the diversity and abundance of gut microbiota. (frontiersin.org)
  • I am furthermore interested in carbohydrate chemisty, enzymology, the microbiota of the intestines and advanced statistical analysis. (dtu.dk)
  • Past attempts to sequence proteoglycans have relied on the so-called "bottom up" approach in which scientists use enzymes to chop a molecule into its component parts and then try to put it back together, like a puzzle. (rdworldonline.com)
  • The enzymes contain ~250-300 residues, which encode putative signal sequences and carbohydrate attachment sites. (embl.de)
  • These isoforms have extracytoplasmic sequences ranging from 391 to 552 amino acids long with numerous N-linked carbohydrate attachment sites. (beckman.com)
  • The non-restricted CD45, Leucocyte Common Antigen (LCA) consists of an extracellular sequence, proximal to the membrane, which is common to all CD45 isoforms. (beckman.com)
  • The effect of different ammonium concentrations and glucosamine on baby hamster kidney (BHK)-21 cell cultures grown in continuously perfused double membrane bioreactors was investigated with respect to the final carbohydrate structures of a secretory recombinant glycoprotein. (nih.gov)
  • This thematic series of companion papers constitutes the initial exploration of the genome biology of the waterflea (Daphnia) building on the first complete crustacean genome sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This article gives an overview of the information that can be obtained from individual PDB entries and from statistical analyses of sets of three-dimensional structures, of typical problems that arise during the analysis of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures and of the validation tools that are currently available to scientists to evaluate the quality of these structures. (iucr.org)
  • The third difference is the very high proportion of proline residues in the sequence accounting for about one-third of the sequence. (springer.com)
  • The new study, published Feb. 20 in JAMA , homed in on genetics and insulin, seeking to discover if these nuances of biology would encourage an individual's body to favor a low-carbohydrate diet or a low-fat diet. (stanford.edu)
  • Therefore, carbohydrate chains are usually displayed as a tree-like two-dimensional graph. (iucr.org)
  • Now that we have demonstrated that bikunin, a small chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, has sequence, we are moving on to larger, more structurally complex dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycans," said study co-author Robert Linhardt, professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. (rdworldonline.com)
  • By combining these research areas, we aimed to give a better insight into the potential of (foods containing) complex carbohydrates in the treatment and prevention of above-mentioned diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • We conclude that supplemental complex carbohydrates that increase Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, without increasing the deleterious Bacteroides , are most likely promoting cardiometabolic and immunological health in obese subjects. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because certain complex carbohydrates also affect the host's immunity directly, it is likely that host-microbiome interactions in determination of health and disease characteristics are indeed bidirectional. (frontiersin.org)
  • Glycobiology is the study of the structure, function and biology of carbohydrates, also called glycans, which are widely distributed in nature. (neb.com)
  • Polymers, including biopolymers, are made of repetitive units called monomers.Biopolymers inherently have a well defined structure: The exact chemical composition and the sequence in which these units are arranged is called the primary structure. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • Economic Evaluation of Next-generation Sequencing Techniques in Diagnosis of Genetic Disorders: A Systematic Review. (cdc.gov)
  • Click molecule labels to explore molecular sequence information. (nih.gov)
  • Unfortunately, many carbohydrate moieties in the PDB contain inconsistencies or errors. (iucr.org)
  • We know that carbohydrates are how cells communicate with each other and their environment, but they're also likely to play many roles that we can't even envision yet," Amster said. (rdworldonline.com)
  • The CA 15-3 antigen (also known as MUC1, from which it is derived) represents sequences of mucins that are often overexpressed in malignant glandular cells, such as breast cancer. (medscape.com)
  • 5] These carbohydrate epitopes may be antigenically different than those in normal breast cells. (medscape.com)
  • Overall, this review article shows that whereas it is relatively clear in which direction supplemental fermentable carbohydrates can alter the gut microbiome, the relevance of these changes regarding health remains controversial. (frontiersin.org)
  • Carbohydrates possess a variety of distinct features with stereochemistry playing a particularly important role in distinguishing their structure and function. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Of course, simplicity is a relative term: the sugar is composed of up to 55 distinct carbohydrate rings, which means that there are 210 billion different sequence possibilities. (rdworldonline.com)
  • The role of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in the long-term management of obesity is not well established. (cambridge.org)
  • In a paper published in the early online edition of the journal Nature Chemical Biology , however, a team of scientists from the University of Georgia and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute announced that it has, for the first time, determined the sequence and structure of a glycosaminoglycan, or GAG, proteoglycan. (rdworldonline.com)
  • Carbohydrate Structure Database (CSDB) is a free curated database and service platform in glycoinformatics, launched in 2005 by a group of Russian scientists from N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the initial eight weeks of the study, participants were told to limit their daily carbohydrate or fat intake to just 20 grams, which is about what can be found in a 1½ slices of whole wheat bread or in a generous handful of nuts, respectively. (stanford.edu)
  • Those statistics pleased Gardner, given that average fat consumption for the participants before the study started was around 87 grams a day, and average carbohydrate intake was about 247 grams. (stanford.edu)
  • Sequence conservation in this family has pointed to a conserved core, termed the NodB homology domain. (rcsb.org)
  • The portfolio low-carbohydrate diet (PLCD) is a plant-based diet with 40% carbohydrates combined with five cholesterol-lowering foods and nutrients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, the carbohydrate-to-biomass production efficiency was increased at shorter transits, particularly in well-adapted faecal microbiomes from donors with short in vivo transit. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CSDB stores published structural, taxonomical, bibliographic and NMR-spectroscopic data on natural carbohydrates and carbohydrate-related molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015, they were joined into the single Carbohydrate Structure Database (CSDB). (wikipedia.org)
  • CSDB web site CSDB usage examples CSDB technical documentation CSDB Linear (structure encoding notation) Carbohydrate databases registered in NAR collection Carbohydrate databases in the recent decade (lection) Toukach Ph.V. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you do carbohydrates, similarly look at their biosynthesis at the same time as their structure. (physicsforums.com)
  • One can define several major GSL series based on their internal core carbohydrate structure. (springer.com)
  • another 98 samples were also sequenced to high coverage (~30×) and obtained from a previous study (Sung et al. (biosino.org)