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  • Genes
  • "Carbohydrate utilization in Streptococcus thermophilus: characterization of the genes for aldose 1-epimerase (mutarotase) and UDPglucose 4-epimerase. (tcdb.org)
  • Furthermore, mutations in human genes encoding the glycosyltransferases, epimerases, and sulfotransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of DS chains cause connective tissue disorders including Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity characterized by skin hyperextensibility, joint hypermobility, and tissue fragility, and by severe skeletal disorders such as kyphoscoliosis, short trunk, dislocation, and joint laxity. (mdpi.com)
  • Although substrate-specific carbohydrate transporters and hydrolases were regulated at the transcriptional level, genes encoding regulatory proteins CcpA, Hpr, HprK/P, and EI were consistently highly expressed. (pnas.org)
  • Enzyme
  • This type of intercellular communication can restore the activity of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in mammalian cells that are deficient in the enzyme UDP-Gal/UDP-GalNAc 4-epimerase. (sciencemag.org)
  • Further, it was demonstrated that the activity of the precursor-producing enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase, converting UDP-N-acetylglucosamine into UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine, is responsible for the presence of N-acetylgalactosamine in the EPS repeating units of both strains. (hud.ac.uk)
  • transcriptional
  • Cloning, sequence, and transcriptional regulation of the operon encoding a putative N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate epimerase (nanE) and sialic acid lyase (nanA) in Clostridium perfringens. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Environmental
  • L. acidophilus 's adaptability to environmental conditions likely contributes to its competitive ability for limited carbohydrate sources available in the human gastrointestinal tract. (pnas.org)
  • activity
  • Pure cultures of the 4-epimerase mutant are unable to synthesize normal carbohydrate chains on LDL receptors and many other glycoproteins and therefore do not express LDL receptor activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • When these cells are cocultivated with cells expressing normal 4-epimerase activity, the structure and function of LDL receptors are restored to normal by the transfer of this enzyme's products through intercellular junctions. (sciencemag.org)
  • The activity of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase was higher in both S. thermophilus strains than in a non-EPS-producing control strain. (hud.ac.uk)
  • However, the level of this activity was not correlated with EPS yields, a result independent of the carbohydrate source applied in the fermentation process. (hud.ac.uk)
  • primarily
  • The lactic acid bacteria represent a large heterogeneous family of microorganisms that share the property of converting fermentable carbohydrates primarily to lactic acid. (springer.com)
  • source
  • Undigested carbohydrates are a primary source of energy for intestinal microbes residing in the large intestine. (pnas.org)
  • On the other hand, both the amounts of EPS and the carbohydrate consumption rates were influenced by the type of carbohydrate source used during S. thermophilus Sfi20 fermentations. (hud.ac.uk)