• Our results offer insights into HHV-6B capsid assembly and the roles of its tegument proteins, including not only the β-herpesvirus-specific pU11 and pU14, but also those conserved across all subfamilies of Herpesviridae . (nature.com)
  • We have derived atomic models for a total of 59 conformers of the four capsid proteins and one tegument protein of HHV-6B. (nature.com)
  • The assembly and regulation of viral capsid proteins into highly ordered macromolecular complexes is essential for viral replication. (edu.au)
  • Viral capsids are composed of multiple copies of one or a few gene products that self-assemble on their own or in the presence of the viral genome and/or auxiliary proteins into closed shells (capsids). (scripps.edu)
  • We have analyzed 75 high-resolution virus capsid structures by calculating the average fraction of the solvent-accessible surface area of the coat protein subunits buried in the viral capsids. (scripps.edu)
  • The PPI indices were used to compare the extent of association of subunits among different capsids. (scripps.edu)
  • Furthermore, the calculated residual (R(sym)) of the fraction buried surface areas of the structurally unique subunits in capsids with T>1 was used to calculate the quasi-equivalence of different subunit environments. (scripps.edu)
  • The multivalent RGD peptides on shell surface, as a result of self-assembling of capsid protein subunits, showed efficient delivery of siRNA to the tumor tissues in vivo, due to the RGD-mediated binding to integrin receptors overexpressed on tumor cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The capsid is a complex structure made up of many identical subunits of viral protein often termed a capsomer. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • Self-assembly of viruses seems to obey the principles of thermodynamically reversible self-assembly but assembled shells ('capsids') strongly resist disassembly. (asknature.org)
  • Here, we utilize crystal structures of the capsid protein from the smallest and simplest known viruses capable of autonomously replicating in animal cells, circoviruses, to establish structural and mechanistic insights into capsid morphogenesis and regulation. (edu.au)
  • To complement existing approaches to track HIV-1 capsid during early infection, we developed an HIV-1 imaging strategy, relying on viruses incorporating eGFP-tagged capsid (CA-eGFP) protein and mCherry-tagged integrase (IN-mCherry). (github.io)
  • with the support of Stuart Turville from the Kirby Institute team developed special viruses with fluorescent labels to monitor the life of the capsid. (life4me.plus)
  • The capsid functions to provide a protein shell in which the chemically labile viral genome can be maintained in a stable environment. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • The drive to engineer recombinant AAVs to improve their properties can make capsid titer determination a challenge. (gyrosproteintechnologies.com)
  • Common green capsid ( Lygocoris pabulinus ) overwinters as eggs, hatching in April. (which.co.uk)
  • A The common green capsid attacks a wide range of plants. (which.co.uk)
  • Common green capsid is a widespread and abundant readily recognised insect and, in some years, is an important pest of apple and pear. (ahdb.org.uk)
  • A full approval for spirotetramat (Batavia) on apples for the control of sucking insect pests will offer some control of common green capsid, but growers may prefer to reserve its use for more difficult to control pests such as woolly aphid or rosy apple aphid. (ahdb.org.uk)
  • To understand capsid assembly and capsid-tegument interactions, here we report atomic structures of HHV-6B capsid and capsid-associated tegument complex (CATC) obtained by cryoEM and sub-particle reconstruction. (nature.com)
  • Following assembly, some viral shells pass through a sequence of coordinated maturation steps that progressively strengthen the capsid. (asknature.org)
  • In these cases, the genome is usually inserted, after capsid assembly has been completed, by the action of a rotary molecular motor imbedded in the capsid. (asknature.org)
  • However, we do not understand how key nuclear processes, including capsid assembly, genome replication, capsid packaging, and nuclear egress, are dynamically connected in space and time. (asm.org)
  • We show that assembly of these complexes is regulated by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and provide a structural basis of capsid assembly around single-stranded DNA, highlighting novel binding interfaces distinct from the highly positively charged N-terminal ARM domain. (edu.au)
  • The HIV-1 capsid protein performs multiple roles in virus replication both during assembly and particle release and during virus trafficking into the nucleus. (github.io)
  • In the case of AAV-based therapeutics, this includes the ability to determine the concentrations of viral genomes (genome titer) and viral particles (capsid titer). (gyrosproteintechnologies.com)
  • Moreover, no direct link between nuclear capsid motility and a molecular motor has been established. (asm.org)
  • Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of nucleotide import into the capsid remains unknown. (udel.edu)
  • Employing all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we established that cooperative binding between nucleotides inside a CA hexamer cavity results in energetically-favorable conditions for passive translocation of dNTPs into the HIV-1 capsid. (udel.edu)
  • We further examined the variation of the PPI indices as a function of the molecular weight of the coat protein subunit and the capsid diameter. (scripps.edu)
  • Our results suggest that the PPI indices in T=1 and pseudo-T=3 capsids vary linearly with the molecular weight of the subunit and capsid size. (scripps.edu)
  • The striking outcome of this analysis is the distinctive clustering of the "T=2" capsids, which are distinguished by higher subunit molecular weights and a much lower degree of protein-protein interactions. (scripps.edu)
  • A group of British specialists, using a new method of unimolecular microscopy, developed at the Faculty of Molecular Science of UNSW at the Medical Faculty, found that HIV, creating a shield against immunity, to strengthen its capsid includes a specific molecule of the host cell, inositol-hexakisphosphate. (life4me.plus)
  • The HIV Capsid has been studied extensively for a long time, but the question of its stability and balance at the time of the" merger "has so far been one of the key in HIV biology," commented Dr. Leo James, head of the research group at the Laboratory molecular biology Research Council in Cambridge. (life4me.plus)
  • The weak forces at work include attraction or repulsion between electrostatic charges, water solubility, and constituent amino acid structures in various parts of the capsid. (asknature.org)
  • The capsid protein forms distinct macromolecular assemblies during replication and here we elucidate these structures at high resolution, showing that these complexes reverse the exposure of the N-terminal arginine rich domain responsible for DNA binding and nuclear localization. (edu.au)
  • Only latrunculin A treatment stalled nuclear capsids but did so by an unexpected effect: the drug induced actin rods in the nucleus. (asm.org)
  • The latter gives the capsid stability and allows unhindered to carry the genetic material of the virus to the nucleus of the cell. (life4me.plus)
  • The diffusive way out: Herpesviruses remodel the host nucleus, enabling capsids to access the inner nuclear membrane. (princeton.edu)
  • These resilient proteinaceous packets self-assemble in response to a variety of weak forces that, in concert, provide the capsid with a great deal of stability. (asknature.org)
  • To extend RNAi to the in vivo applications, we here demonstrated that the siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes could have tumor-specific targeting ability in vivo as well as the increased stability of siRNA during body circulation. (elsevier.com)
  • Remodeling nuclear architecture allows efficient transport of herpesvirus capsids by diffusion. (princeton.edu)
  • A kinesin-3 recruitment complex facilitates axonal sorting of enveloped alpha herpesvirus capsids. (princeton.edu)
  • Collectively, our results provide an atomistic description of the permeability of the HIV-1 capsid to small molecules and reveal a novel mechanism for the involvement of metabolites in HIV-1 capsid stabilization, nucleotide import and reverse transcription. (udel.edu)
  • Now we can see the influence of different molecules on the capsid and accurately determine when it starts to break down," Bucking said. (life4me.plus)
  • While there are methods for sequencing RNA molecules, these methods are not applicable to Fig. 11.6 The famous Kleinschmidt electron micrograph of phage T4 DNA extruded from the capsid. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • The beak and feather disease virus, like many circoviruses, encode only two genes: a capsid protein and a replication initiation protein. (edu.au)
  • Presenting at a recent webinar, Capsid titer quantification for AAV-based therapeutics, Tomasz Witkos, Ph.D., Scientist at AstraZeneca talked about how miniaturized immunoassays can be used to measure purified AAV vector as well as in-process samples and how the immunoassay experimental setup can be modified to measure several AAV serotypes. (gyrosproteintechnologies.com)
  • This assay setup can be readily adapted to titer measurements of various AAV serotypes and has a broader quantification range (3 - 3.5 logs) compared to a commercially available capsid ELISA kit (1 - 1.5 logs). (gyrosproteintechnologies.com)
  • This is in contrast to quasi-equivalent capsids with T>or=3, where the extent of protein-protein interactions is relatively independent of the subunit and capsid sizes. (scripps.edu)
  • Taking a more systematic approach to the capsid protein-engineering problem, researchers mutated one by one each of the 735 amino acids within the AAV2 capsid, the best-known member of the AAV family, including all possible codon substitutions, insertions and deletions at each position. (beerreviewed.com)
  • The scientists found that inositol-hexakisphosphate, which is present in large numbers inside mammalian cells, makes the capsid much stronger, stabilizing it for 10-20 hours. (life4me.plus)
  • Immobile capsids accumulated around actin rods, and immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that capsid motility stopped because latrunculin-induced actin rods nonspecifically bind nuclear capsids. (asm.org)
  • When you bind this molecule, you stabilize the capsid and open the path to the cell to penetrate it", explains Becking. (life4me.plus)
  • In order to decipher the roles of capsid protein during early replication, a reliable method to follow its intracellular distribution is required. (github.io)
  • Scientists from the University of New South Wales (UNSW, UK) found that the special protein capsid envelope created by HIV at the time of entry into the human body uses a specific host cell molecule, inositol-hexakisphosphate, as a shield from immunity. (life4me.plus)
  • We show for representative members of all three herpesvirus subfamilies that nuclear capsid motility is not dependent on nuclear F-actin and that herpesvirus infection does not induce nuclear F-actin in primary fibroblasts. (asm.org)
  • Capsids should be much more stable inside the cell, because the process of infection takes several hours, not minutes. (life4me.plus)
  • Compared to other β-herpesviruses, HHV-6B exhibits high similarity in capsid structure but organizational differences in its CATC (pU11 tetramer). (nature.com)
  • it shows that pp150, a β-herpesvirus subfamily-specific tegument protein, forms a " △ "-shaped group-of-three structure on each of the 320 triplexes in a capsid, leading to a net that encloses the capsid. (nature.com)
  • Recently, we reported that a chimeric capsid protein assembled into a macromolecular container-like structure with capsid shell and the resulting siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes efficiently suppressed RFP gene expression in the cell culture system. (elsevier.com)
  • The association of capsids with genomes is a complex process, but it must result in an energetically stable structure. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • In the webinar, Tomasz Witkos presents an immunoassay developed on the Gyrolab platform with AAV serotype-specific antibodies that can reliably measure AAV capsid titer in purified and in-process samples, delivering accurate and precise data suitable for AAV process development. (gyrosproteintechnologies.com)
  • When systemically administered, our siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes delivered siRNA to tumor tissues and efficiently suppressed RFP gene expression in tumor-bearing mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, the prolonged in vivo circulation time of our siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes increased the potential to serve as siRNA carriers for optimal in vivo RNAi. (elsevier.com)