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  • separation
  • A solid-phase extraction method based on an ionexchange retention mechanism has been used for in-line preconcentration of inorganic anions prior to their separation by capillary electrophoresis (CE). (edu.au)
  • A single capillary containing a preconcentration and a separation zone has been used in a commercial CE instrument without instrumental modification. (edu.au)
  • Optimization of the electrolyte concentrations, sample injection times, and back-flushing times allowed the successful separation of sub-ppb levels of inorganic anions using a 100-min injection at 2 bar pressure, introducing over 40 capillary volumes of sample. (edu.au)
  • analytes
  • Despite the very small sample sizes (typically only a few nanoliters of liquid are introduced into the capillary), high sensitivity and sharp peaks are achieved in part due to injection strategies that result in concentration of analytes into a narrow zone near the inlet of the capillary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capillary electrophoresis aims to separate analytes on the basis of their mass-to-charge ratio by passing a high voltage across ends of a capillary tube, which is filled with the analyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluids
  • In fluid statics, capillary pressure ( p c {\displaystyle {p_{c}}} ) is the pressure between two immiscible fluids in a thin tube (see capillary), resulting from the interactions of forces between the fluids and solid walls of the tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fluid mechanics and mathematics, a capillary surface is a surface that represents the interface between two different fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • boundary
  • A capillary wave is a wave traveling along the phase boundary of a fluid, whose dynamics and phase velocity are dominated by the effects of surface tension . (wikipedia.org)
  • As a bridging substance may be used liquids or gases enclosed in a boundary, called interface (capillary surface). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not uncommon to see the capillary fringe treated as a boundary condition separating the water table from the unsaturated zone, without defining it as a significant part of either. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Usually, we understand the term Capillary bridge as a minimized surface of liquid or membrane, created between two rigid bodies with an arbitrary shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the field of diagnostics, the lateral flow test is a common microfluidic device platform that utilizes capillary forces to drive fluid transport through a porous membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electroosmosis is the motion of liquid induced by an applied potential across a porous material, capillary tube, membrane or any other fluid conduit. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluid phases
  • The capillary number is defined as: C a = μ V σ {\displaystyle \mathrm {Ca} ={\frac {\mu V}{\sigma }}} where µ is the dynamic viscosity of the liquid, V is a characteristic velocity and σ {\displaystyle \sigma } is the surface tension or interfacial tension between the two fluid phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • displaystyle
  • Also, in systems where θ {\displaystyle \ \theta } = 0o the radius of curvature is equal to the capillary radius. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relationship between the linear velocity u of the liquid in the capillary and the applied electric field is given by the Smoluchowski equation as u = ϵ r ϵ 0 ζ E η {\displaystyle u=\epsilon _{r}\epsilon _{0}\zeta E\eta } where ζ is the potential across the Stern layer (zeta potential), E is the electric field strength, and η is the viscosity of the solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capillary length is defined as: λ c = γ ρ g {\displaystyle \lambda _{c}={\sqrt {\frac {\gamma }{\rho g}}}} , where g {\displaystyle g} is the gravitational acceleration and ρ {\displaystyle \rho } is the density of the fluid, and γ {\displaystyle \gamma } is the surface tension of the fluid-fluid interface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that, since this equation defines a surface, z {\displaystyle z} is the z {\displaystyle z} coordinate of the capillary surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • Unlike the velocity of gravity waves, the velocity of capillary waves increases with decreasing wavelength, the minimum velocity being 23.1 centimetres per second (9.09 inches per second), where the wavelength is the maximum 1.73 cm. (britannica.com)
  • As Pv/Psat increases, vapor will continue to condense inside a given capillary. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, as the capillary pressure increases, a wettable surface in a channel will pull the liquid through the conduit. (wikipedia.org)
  • gravity
  • A longer wavelength on a fluid interface will result in gravity-capillary waves which are influenced by both the effects of surface tension and gravity , as well as by fluid inertia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Distinction can be made between pure capillary waves - fully dominated by the effects of surface tension - and gravity-capillary waves which are also affected by gravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dispersion of gravity-capillary waves on the surface of deep water (zero mass density of upper layer, ρ′ = 0 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Drawn lines: dispersion relation for gravity-capillary waves. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, waves are also affected by gravity and are then called gravity-capillary waves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between these two limits is a point at which the dispersion caused by gravity cancels out the dispersion due to the capillary effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • At precisely this same wavelength, the phase velocity of gravity-capillary waves as a function of wavelength (or wave number) has a minimum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between these two limits, an interesting and common situation occurs when the dispersion caused by gravity cancels out the dispersion due to the capillary effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • We distinguished three important classes of bridging, depending on connected bodies surface shapes: two planar surfaces (fig.1) planar surface and spherical particle (fig. 2) two spherical particles (in general, particles may not be of equal sizes, fig. 3) Capillary bridges and their properties may also be influenced by Earth gravity and properties of bridged surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • A general survey on capillary bridge behavior in gravity field is completed by Myshkis and Babskii. (wikipedia.org)
  • A sessile drop whose largest dimension is smaller than the capillary length, for example, will take the shape of spherical cap, which is the solution to the Young-Laplace equation with gravity completely absent. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, static capillary surfaces with gravity absent have constant mean curvature, so that a minimal surface is a special case of static capillary surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • There are two types of capillaries: true capillaries, which branch from arterioles and provide exchange between tissue and the capillary blood, and metarterioles , found only in the mesenteric circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • When excess interstitial fluid accumulates and causes tissue swelling, the anchoring filaments are pulled, making the openings between cells even larger so that more fluid can flow into the lymphatic capillary. (wikipedia.org)
  • eyelids
  • Capillary haemangioma of the eyelids and orbit: a clinical review of the safety and efficacy of intralesional steroid. (medscape.com)
  • saturation
  • The unique aspect of capillary condensation is that vapor condensation occurs below the saturation vapor pressure, Psat, of the pure liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • waves
  • Capillary waves produced by droplet impacts on the interface between water and air. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wavelength of capillary waves on water is typically less than a few centimeters, with a phase speed in excess of 0.2-0.3 meter/second. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dash-dotted lines: dispersion relation valid for deep-water capillary waves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shorter (large k ) waves (e.g. 2 mm for the water-air interface), which are proper capillary waves, do the opposite: an individual wave appears at the front of the group, grows when moving towards the group center and finally disappears at the back of the group. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • The cause(s) of idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (ISCLS) is not known, although there is an associated monoclonal gammopathy in many patients. (uptodate.com)
  • occur
  • Capillary hemangiomas occur 5 times more often in female infants than in males, and mostly in Caucasian populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • In the last century a lot of efforts were put of study of surface forces that drive capillary effects of bridging. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fluid's "wettability" can be controlled by varying capillary surface properties (e.g. roughness, hydrophilicity). (wikipedia.org)
  • A capillary surface that has a characteristic length smaller than the capillary length can be considered a low Bond number surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a consequence of being a surface, a capillary surface has no thickness in slight contrast with most real fluid interfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • The defining equation for a capillary surface is called the stress balance equation, which can be derived by considering the forces and stresses acting on a small volume that is partly bounded by a capillary surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • flow
  • An interesting phenomena, capillary rise of water (as pictured to the right) provides a good example of how these properties come together to drive flow through a capillary tube and how these properties are measured in a system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capillary pressure can also be utilized to block fluid flow in a microfluidic device. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also of practical interest for fluid management in space (or other environments free of body forces), where both flow and static configuration are often dominated by capillary effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • pressure
  • Capillary refill time (CRT) is defined as the time taken for color to return to an external capillary bed after pressure is applied to cause blanching. (wikipedia.org)
  • In newborn infants, capillary refill time can be measured by pressing on the sternum for five seconds with a finger or thumb, and noting the time needed for the color to return once the pressure is released. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sample is introduced into the capillary via capillary action, pressure, siphoning, or electrokinetically, and the capillary is then returned to the source vial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capillary pressure can serve as both an opposing or driving force for fluid transport and is a significant property for research and industrial purposes (namely microfluidic design and oil extraction from porous rock). (wikipedia.org)
  • Capillary pressure is one of many geometry-related characteristics that can be altered in a microfluidic device to optimize a certain process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods for taking physical measurements of capillary pressure in a microchannel have not been thoroughly studied, despite the need for accurate pressure measurements in microfluidics. (wikipedia.org)
  • For clean water and air at standard temperature and pressure, the capillary length is around 2.7 mm. (wikipedia.org)
  • System
  • Certain aspects of the instrumentation (such as detection) are necessarily more complex than for a single-capillary system, but the fundamental principles of design and operation are similar to those shown in Figure 1. (wikipedia.org)