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  • stomach cancer
  • Unemployment, public-sector healthcare spending and stomach cancer mortality in the European Union, 1981-2009. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the association between changes in unemployment, healthcare spending and stomach cancer mortality. (ox.ac.uk)
  • METHODS: Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess how changes in unemployment and public-sector expenditure on healthcare (PSEH) varied with stomach cancer mortality in 25 member states of the European Union from 1981 to 2009. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSION: Increases in unemployment are associated with a significant increase in stomach cancer mortality. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Stomach cancer mortality is also affected by public-sector healthcare spending. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Initiatives that bolster employment and maintain public-sector healthcare expenditure may help to minimize increases in stomach cancer mortality during economic downturns. (ox.ac.uk)
  • breast cancer
  • Because of their similarity to several of the expression subtypes of breast cancer we have named the "basal" and "luminal" and developed a gene expression classifier consisting of 47 genes (BASE47) that can accurately distinguish basal and luminal bladder cancer. (elsevier.com)
  • support
  • The ETMC Cancer Institute has been a leader in the war against prostate cancer for years with free screenings, educational seminars, support groups and the Henry M. Bell Golf Tournament. (gilmermirror.com)
  • Malignant
  • Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. (cancer.gov)
  • They include: Cell growth and division absent the proper signals Continuous growth and division even given contrary signals Avoidance of programmed cell death Limitless number of cell divisions Promoting blood vessel construction Invasion of tissue and formation of metastases The progression from normal cells to cells that can form a detectable mass to outright cancer involves multiple steps known as malignant progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Also, by giving chemo before the tumor is removed, doctors can better see how the cancer responds to it. (cancer.org)
  • If the first set of chemo drugs doesn't shrink the tumor, your doctor will know that other drugs are needed.It should also kill any cancer cells that have spread but can't be seen. (cancer.org)
  • Stanford Cancer Institute researchers are developing an immune-stimulating vaccine that may remove all traces of cancer once injected directly into a tumor. (stanford.edu)
  • All tumor cells show the six hallmarks of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In different types of cancer, a variety of epigenetic mechanisms can be perturbed, such as silencing of tumor suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes by altered CpG island methylation patterns, histone modifications, and dysregulation of DNA binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in cancer cells, CpG islands preceding tumor suppressor gene promoters are often hypermethylated, while CpG methylation of oncogene promoter regions and parasitic repeat sequences is often decreased. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, cancer cells can become addicted to the transcriptional silencing, due to promoter hypermethylation, of some key tumor suppressor genes, a process known as epigenetic addiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutant Proteins themselves detected by Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) have been reported to be the most specific biomarkers for cancers because they can only come from an existing tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tobacco
  • Other episodes in this series discussed various topics ranging from the history of the advances in cancer therapy to the influence of Margaret Thatcher's neoliberal policies which cut funding to Anti-smoking campaigns in Britain because of interests in protecting British tobacco companies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Obese and overweight women are two to about four times as likely as normal-weight women to develop endometrial cancer (cancer of the lining of the uterus), and extremely obese women are about seven times as likely to develop the more common of the two main types of this cancer ( 7 ). (cancer.gov)
  • risk
  • A family history of breast cancer and other factors increase the risk of breast cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • The use of certain medicines and other factors decrease the risk of breast cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Talk to your doctor if you think you may be at risk for breast cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Inherited changes in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes or in other genes that increase the risk of breast cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Older age is the main risk factor for most cancers. (cancer.gov)
  • NCI's Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool uses a woman's risk factors to estimate her risk for breast cancer during the next five years and up to age 90. (cancer.gov)
  • For more information on breast cancer risk, call 1-800-4-CANCER. (cancer.gov)
  • Women who have certain gene mutations , such as a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, have an increased risk of breast cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Men who have a mutated gene related to breast cancer also have an increased risk of breast cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • These genetic tests are sometimes done for members of families with a high risk of cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Adjuvant chemo can lower the risk of breast cancer coming back. (cancer.org)
  • Nearly all of the evidence linking obesity to cancer risk comes from large cohort studies , a type of observational study . (cancer.gov)
  • That is because obese or overweight people may differ from lean people in ways other than their body fat, and it is possible that these other differences-rather than their body fat-are what explains their different cancer risk. (cancer.gov)
  • Whether people who have long-term exposure to talc particles at work, such as talc miners, are at higher risk of lung cancer from breathing them in. (cancer.org)
  • Some studies of talc miners and millers have suggested an increased risk of lung cancer and other respiratory diseases, while others have found no increase in lung cancer risk. (cancer.org)
  • When working underground, miners can also be exposed to other substances that might affect lung cancer risk, such as radon . (cancer.org)
  • No increased risk of lung cancer has been reported with the use of cosmetic talcum powder. (cancer.org)
  • Can Coffee Lower Cancer Risk? (cancer.org)
  • We'll tell you what the research says about coffee and your cancer risk. (cancer.org)
  • The MRL is an estimate of the daily human exposure to a hazardous substance that is likely to be without appreciable risk of adverse, non-cancer health effects over a specified duration of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers are looking for ways to use vitamins or medicines to prevent lung cancer in people at high risk, but so far none have been shown to clearly reduce risk. (cancer.org)
  • While any protective effect of fruits and vegetables on lung cancer risk is likely to be much smaller than the increased risk from smoking, following the American Cancer Society dietary recommendations (such as staying at a healthy weight and eating a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) may still be helpful. (cancer.org)
  • screening with spiral CT scans in people at high risk of lung cancer (due to smoking history) lowers the risk of death from lung cancer, when compared to chest x-rays. (cancer.org)
  • The risk of suicide in people with cancer is approximately double. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary care physicians can identify people who are at risk of heridatary cancer syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) are at increased risk of colon cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer include: older age, a family history of the disease, and race. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening using the PSA test, due to the risk of overdiagnosis and overtreatment, as most cancer diagnosed would remain asymptomatic. (wikipedia.org)
  • While 5α-reductase inhibitors appear to decrease low-grade cancer risk they do not affect high-grade cancer risk and thus are not recommended for prevention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nearly
  • Its nearly 400 members include scientists and physicians from a wide range of disciplines, all collaborating to translate research advances into improved cancer treatments. (stanford.edu)
  • In the developing world nearly 20% of cancers are due to infections such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human papillomavirus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer productus has carapace teeth that are somewhat broad and rounded with teeth between the eyes of nearly equal size and shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • esophageal
  • People who are overweight or obese are about twice as likely as normal-weight people to develop a type of esophageal cancer called esophageal adenocarcinoma, and people who are extremely obese are more than four times as likely ( 9 ). (cancer.gov)
  • tissues
  • Cancer is a collection of related diseases in which some of the body's cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues. (cancer.gov)
  • A transrectal MRI is done to find out if the cancer has spread outside the prostate into nearby tissues. (cancer.gov)
  • The National Cancer Institute (NCI), in particular, defines biomarker as a: "A biological molecule found in blood, other body fluids, or tissues that is a sign of a normal or abnormal process, or of a condition or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatments
  • Chemo can be used as the main treatment for women whose cancer has spread outside the breast and underarm area, either when it is diagnosed or after initial treatments. (cancer.org)
  • prevention
  • Select a type of cancer to learn about treatment, causes and prevention, screening, and the latest research. (cancer.gov)
  • But it's more than our decades of experience, top national rankings and leadership in cancer prevention that set us apart. (mdanderson.org)
  • The Institute's mission is to support and coordinate the wide range of cancer-related activities - in basic, translational, clinical and population-based science - occurring at Stanford University, Stanford Health Care and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford, along with its partner institution, the Cancer Prevention Institute of California. (stanford.edu)
  • Research into the prevention , early detection , and treatment of lung cancer is being done in many medical centers throughout the world. (cancer.org)
  • Prevention offers the greatest opportunity to fight lung cancer. (cancer.org)
  • Manipulation of epigenetic alterations holds great promise for cancer prevention, detection, and therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basal Cell Carc
  • Stanford Cancer Institute researchers have found possible drug targets that may allow for a more personalized treatment of basal cell carcinoma. (stanford.edu)
  • chemo
  • Whether you need emotional support, the latest cancer information, a ride to chemo, or a place to stay when treatment is far away, we're here to help - 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. (cancer.org)
  • The drugs travel through the bloodstream to reach cancer cells in most parts of the body.Occasionally, chemo may be given directly into the spinal fluid which surrounds the brain and spinal cord. (cancer.org)
  • Adjuvant chemo is used to try to kill any cancer cells that might have been left behind or have spread but can't be seen, even on imaging tests . (cancer.org)
  • For cancers that are HER2-positive , one or more drugs that target HER2 may be used with chemo. (cancer.org)
  • The team has nothing new and House orders chemo for the cancer he suspects she has. (wikipedia.org)
  • Types of Cancer
  • Some types of cancer run in certain families, but most cancers are not clearly linked to the genes we inherit from our parents. (cancer.org)
  • Several other types of cancer, which collectively represent the majority of the non-adenocarcinomas, can also arise from these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • lungs
  • In its natural form, some talc contains asbestos, a substance known to cause cancers in and around the lungs when inhaled (see Asbestos ). (cancer.org)
  • Genetics
  • See the PDQ summary on Genetics of Breast and Gynecologic Cancers for more information. (cancer.gov)
  • In this section you can learn more about the known and possible causes of cancer, as well as general information about carcinogens and how genetics play a role in cancer. (cancer.org)
  • Oncology
  • Cancer is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering oncology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer Cytopathology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers practice of cytopathology and its related oncology-based disciplines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer Investigation is a peer-reviewed medical journal in the field of basic and clinical oncology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signs
  • Signs of prostate cancer include a weak flow of urine or frequent urination. (cancer.gov)
  • Cancer is considered one of the most enigmatic signs of the zodiac, an association largely attributed to its ruling planet being that of the Moon. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientific
  • Designation as a Comprehensive Cancer Center signifies that the Stanford Cancer Institute maintains the highest level of scientific rigor, institutional support and coordination for the complete range of cancer-related research, including basic, translational, clinical and population-based science. (stanford.edu)
  • obesity
  • What is known about the relationship between obesity and cancer? (cancer.gov)
  • However, data from observational studies can be difficult to interpret and cannot definitively establish that obesity causes cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • asbestos
  • Both types of asbestos have been linked with cancer. (cancer.org)
  • As asbestos-related cancers became better recognized in the second half of the 20th century, measures were taken to reduce exposure, including establishing exposure standards and laws that banned the use of asbestos in construction materials. (cancer.org)
  • When talking about whether or not talcum powder is linked to cancer, it is important to distinguish between talc that contains asbestos and talc that is asbestos-free. (cancer.org)
  • Talc that has asbestos is generally accepted as being able to cause cancer if it is inhaled. (cancer.org)
  • type
  • If you aren't sure which type of lung cancer you have, ask your doctor so you can get the right information. (cancer.org)
  • Another type of study looks at cancer rates in different groups of people. (cancer.org)
  • In most cases neither type of study provides enough evidence on its own, so researchers usually look at both lab-based and human and studies when trying to figure out if something causes cancer. (cancer.org)
  • Urachal cancer is a very rare type of cancer arising from the urachus or its remnants. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancers are a large family of diseases that involve abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cancer is the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The mutation in the inherited gene is known as a germline mutation and a further mutation in the normal allele results in the development of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both alleles of a gene must be mutated in autosomal recessive disorders for an individual to have a predisposition to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • spread
  • The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other area of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical imaging may then be done to determine if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spread of cancer into other bones such as the femur is usually to the proximal or nearby part of the bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colon
  • House still believes in cancer and Kutner suggests they use a high-pressure water jet to apply pressure to Frank's colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bowel cancer may be diagnosed by obtaining a sample of the colon during a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with inflammatory bowel disease account for less than 2% of colon cancer cases yearly. (wikipedia.org)