###### economic calculation

- The economic calculation problem is a criticism of using economic planning as a substitute for market-based allocation of the factors of production. (wikipedia.org)
- It was first proposed by Ludwig von Mises in his 1920 article "Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth" and later expanded upon by Friedrich Hayek. (wikipedia.org)
- Mises and Hayek argued that economic calculation is only possible by information provided through market prices, and that bureaucratic or technocratic methods of allocation lack methods to rationally allocate resources. (wikipedia.org)
- Robin Cox has argued that the economic calculation argument can only be successfully rebutted on the assumption that a moneyless socialist economy was to a large extent spontaneously ordered via a self-regulating system of stock control which would enable decision-makers to allocate production goods on the basis of their relative scarcity using calculation in kind. (wikipedia.org)
- Since capital goods and labor are highly heterogeneous (i.e., they have different characteristics that pertain to physical productivity), economic calculation requires a common basis for comparison for all forms of capital and labour. (wikipedia.org)
- The use of money as a medium of exchange and unit of account is necessary to solve the first two problems of economic calculation. (wikipedia.org)
- The socialist calculation debate (sometimes known as the economic calculation debate) was a discourse on the subject of how a socialist economy would perform economic calculation given the absence of the law of value, money, financial prices for capital goods, and private ownership of the means of production. (wikipedia.org)
- Labor-time calculation is a method of economic calculation that uses labor time as the basic unit of accounting and valuation. (wikipedia.org)
- Socialism, Economic Calculation and Entrepreneurship. (wikipedia.org)
- The author who most convincingly defended the claim that economic calculation in labor hours is possible was Otto Leichter (1923). (wikipedia.org)
- From Marx to Mises: Post Capitalist Society and the Challenge of Economic Calculation. (wikipedia.org)
- Economic planning Economic calculation problem Input-output planning Material balances Natural capital accounting Post-capitalism Post-scarcity economy Production for use Socialism Socialist calculation debate Socialist economics Socialist mode of production Technological rationality Time-based currency Utility Value (economics) Steele, David (1992). (wikipedia.org)
- Otto Neurath's concepts of socialization and economic calculation and his socialist critics. (wikipedia.org)
- Retrieved July 05, 2010, from wspus.org "The disappearance of economic value would mean the end of economic calculation in the sense of calculation in units of value whether measured by money or directly in some unit of labour-time. (wikipedia.org)

###### Socialism

- citation needed] Without the market process to fulfill such comparisons, critics of non-market socialism say that it lacks any way to compare different goods and services and would have to rely on calculation in kind. (wikipedia.org)
- Although contributions to the question of economic coordination and calculation under socialism existed within the socialist movement prior to the 20th century, the phrase socialist calculation debate emerged in the 1920s beginning with Ludwig von Mises' critique of socialism. (wikipedia.org)
- or that socialism would be based on calculation in natura or calculation performed in-kind. (wikipedia.org)
- Calculation in kind Socially-necessary labor time Socialist calculation debate Socialization (economics) Socialism Economic planning De Soto, Jess Huerta (July 2010). (wikipedia.org)
- Calculation in kind was strongly advocated by the positivist philosopher and political economist Otto Neurath in the early 1920s, when much of the discussion about socialism centered on whether economic planning should be based on physical quantities or monetary accounting. (wikipedia.org)
- Austrian school critics of socialism, particularly Ludwig von Mises, based his critique of socialism on the calculation problem. (wikipedia.org)
- The disappearance of economic or value calculation in socialism would by no means involve the disappearance of all rational calculation, since the calculations in kind connected with producing specific quantities of goods as physical use values would continue. (wikipedia.org)

###### socialist

- The debate raged in the 1920s and 1930s, and that specific period of the debate has come to be known by economic historians as The Socialist Calculation Debate. (wikipedia.org)
- As a result, this perspective played little to no role during the socialist calculation debate in the early 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
- This method of calculation was advocated by the economists Otto Bauer, Helene Bauer and Otto Leichter as an alternative to calculation in kind for a socialist economy. (wikipedia.org)
- However, Marx was vehemently opposed to any proposal for using labor-time as the basis for socialist calculation because his concept of socially-necessary labor time was a conceptual framework for understanding and analyzing value in capitalism. (wikipedia.org)
- As the basis for a socialist economy it was proposed to replace money and financial calculation. (wikipedia.org)
- This differs from other proposed methods of socialist calculation, such as simultaneous equations, Taylor-Lange accounting prices, and the use of labor time as a measure of cost. (wikipedia.org)
- Neurath was the most forceful advocate of physical planning (economic planning using calculation-in-kind) in contrast to market socialist neoclassical economists who advocated use of notional prices computed by solving simultaneous equations. (wikipedia.org)

###### socialists

- Socialists in favor of calculation in kind argued that, in a system of in-kind calculation, waste associated with the monetary system would be eliminated, and in particular objects would no longer be desired for functionally useless purposes like resale and speculation - they would only be desired for their use-value. (wikipedia.org)

###### arithmetical

- The term is used in a variety of senses, from the very definite arithmetical calculation of using an algorithm, to the vague heuristics of calculating a strategy in a competition, or calculating the chance of a successful relationship between two people. (wikipedia.org)
- Mental calculation comprises arithmetical calculations using only the human brain, with no help from any supplies (such as pencil and paper) or devices such as a calculator. (wikipedia.org)

###### algorithm

- The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) positioning for receiver's position is derived through the calculation steps, or algorithm, given below. (wikipedia.org)

###### calculate

- Can someone show me how to calculate the following heparin calculation? (allnurses.com)

###### rational

- Otto Leichter criticized in-kind calculation on the basis that rational accounting required a general unit for comparing costs of heterogeneous goods. (wikipedia.org)

###### mathematical

- The paper demonstrates that calculations integrate smoothly with other language constructs, producing concise and readable proofs in a wide range of problem domains: from mathematical theorems to correctness of imperative programs. (microsoft.com)
- In mathematical logic, a formal calculation is a calculation which is systematic, but without a rigorous justification. (wikipedia.org)
- The development of better instrumentation for measuring the eye's axial length (AL) and the use of more precise mathematical formulas to perform the appropriate calculations have significantly improved the accuracy with which the surgeon determines the IOL power. (wikipedia.org)

###### Determine

- By contrast, static timing analysis computes the delays of entire paths, using delay calculation to determine the delay of each gate and wire. (wikipedia.org)
- Where the water supply is drawn from a static supply like an underground tank or a pond, hydraulic calculations will also determine what pressure must be added to deliver the water. (wikipedia.org)
- Glass batch calculation or glass batching is used to determine the correct mix of raw materials (batch) for a glass melt. (wikipedia.org)
- The calculations to be performed on the measurements taken depend on the technology used, since beta counters measure the sample's radioactivity, whereas accelerator mass spectrometers (AMS) determine the ratio of the three different carbon isotopes in the sample. (wikipedia.org)

###### practice

- Much practice is usually necessary to develop speed and accuracy in making such calculations. (springer.com)
- Hydraulic calculations are a practice within the fire safety industry of determining the flow of liquids through a medium (usually a piping network) to ensure that fires can be adequately controlled. (wikipedia.org)

###### paths

- Because hydraulic calculations for gridded systems require an iterative process to balance the water flow through all possible water paths, these calculations are most often performed by computer software. (wikipedia.org)

###### involves

- If the network is not tree structured the Elmore delay can still be computed, but involves matrix calculations. (wikipedia.org)
- Mental calculation often involves the use of specific techniques devised for specific types of problems. (wikipedia.org)

###### produces

- Statistical estimations of the likely election results from opinion polls also involve algorithmic calculations, but produces ranges of possibilities rather than exact answers. (wikipedia.org)
- By substituting q=2 into the proof of the first equation, one obtains a formal calculation that produces the last equation. (wikipedia.org)

###### processes

- The 2013 NFPA 13 Handbook includes a supplement that describes some of the application theory and processes applied when performing hydraulic calculations. (wikipedia.org)

###### equation

- The formal calculation implies that the last equation must be valid in those contexts. (wikipedia.org)
- This batch calculation is based on the common linear regression equation: N B = ( B T ⋅ B ) − 1 ⋅ B T ⋅ N G {\displaystyle N_{B}=(B^{T}\cdot B)^{-1}\cdot B^{T}\cdot N_{G}} with NB and NG being the molarities 1-column matrices of the batch and glass components respectively, and B being the batching matrix. (wikipedia.org)

###### depends

- The quality of results from the noise calculation depends on the quality of the acoustic data provided and the capability of the noise calculation engine.o take decisions. (wikipedia.org)

###### Mental

- People use mental calculation when computing tools are not available, when it is faster than other means of calculation (such as conventional educational institution methods), or even in a competitive context. (wikipedia.org)
- While checking the mental calculation, it is useful to think of it in terms of scaling. (wikipedia.org)

###### solve

- Can anyone please show me a step by step to solve the calculation? (allnurses.com)

###### measurements

- IOL power calculations using these measurements will lead to an overestimation of the IOL power. (wikipedia.org)

###### simple

- Doing this calculation is really quite simple and it helps you to get a better picture of your overall health. (infobarrel.com)
- For example, multiplying 7 by 6 is a simple algorithmic calculation. (wikipedia.org)
- Logical effort provides a simple delay calculation that accounts for gate sizing and is analytically tractable. (wikipedia.org)
- Elmore delay is a simple approximation, often used where speed of calculation is important but the delay through the wire itself cannot be ignored. (wikipedia.org)
- It uses the R and C values of the wire segments in a simple calculation. (wikipedia.org)
- Tree and Loop systems are simple enough that the hydraulic calculations could be performed by hand. (wikipedia.org)
- Play in Calculation is simple. (wikipedia.org)
- Simple glass batch calculation can be found at the website of the University of Washington. (wikipedia.org)

###### characteristics

- Calendrical calculation is one of the five major Savant syndrome characteristics. (wikipedia.org)

###### kind

- When doctors do this kind of a test, they are not just looking at the levels of LDL in your blood, but they actually use total cholesterol calculation. (infobarrel.com)
- Paradoxically, in this book, Leichter fiercely criticizes proposals of calculation in kind. (wikipedia.org)
- Calculation in kind or calculation in nature is a way of valuating resources and a system of accounting that uses disaggregated physical magnitudes as opposed to a common unit of calculation. (wikipedia.org)
- Calculation in kind would value each commodity based only on its use value, for purposes of economic accounting. (wikipedia.org)
- Calculation in kind would quantify the utility of an object directly without recourse to a general unit of calculation. (wikipedia.org)
- Proponents of in-kind calculation argue that the use of a common medium like money distorts information about the utility of an object. (wikipedia.org)
- The term 'calculation in kind' is normally reserved for attempts to dispense with any general unit of calculation. (wikipedia.org)
- Calculation in kind is an essential aspect of the production of goods in any society, including capitalism. (wikipedia.org)

###### known

- Answers to such questions can be obtained only if it is known how to perform mix calculations. (springer.com)
- The date of a religious holiday, like Easter (the calculation is known as Computus) or Passover, for a given year. (wikipedia.org)
- Calculation (also known as Broken Intervals and as Hopscotch) is a solitaire card game played with a standard pack of 52 cards. (wikipedia.org)

###### methods

- There are many methods used for delay calculation for the gate itself. (wikipedia.org)

###### Program

- It builds the support for calculations into the programming language and auto-active program verifier Dafny. (microsoft.com)
- Beyond Calculation is the second studio album by noise rock duo The Austerity Program, released in 2014 through their very own Controlled Burn Records. (wikipedia.org)
- A more complex model called Delay Calculation Language, or DCL, calls a user-defined program whenever a delay value is required. (wikipedia.org)

###### Date

- Further to this, I would like to have a calculation that populates the age field in years where the age is the age as at the start date of the competition. (jotform.com)
- This is done using Date/Time Tool under Quick Tools and a Form Calculation Widget. (jotform.com)
- Some examples of calendrical calculations: Converting a Julian or Gregorian calendar date to its Julian day number and vice versa (see the section on calculation in that article for details). (wikipedia.org)

###### different

- Correspondingly, the process of production under capitalism is both a process of production of exchange values and a process of production of use values, involving two different kinds of calculation. (wikipedia.org)
- For the former, the unit of calculation is money, but for the latter there is no single unit but a whole series of different units for measuring the quantity and quality of specific goods used in the process of producing other specific goods (tonnes of steel, kilowatt-hours of electricity, person-hours of work and so on). (wikipedia.org)

###### Example

- An example batch calculation may be demonstrated here. (wikipedia.org)

###### below

- The details of the calculations for beta counting and AMS are given below. (wikipedia.org)

###### software

- Today most calculations on all types of piping networks are performed by computer software. (wikipedia.org)

###### glass properties

- The calculation of glass properties (glass modeling) is used to predict glass properties of interest or glass behavior under certain conditions (e.g., during production) without experimental investigation, based on past data and experience, with the intention to save time, material, financial, and environmental resources, or to gain scientific insight. (wikipedia.org)
- Historically, the calculation of glass properties is directly related to the founding of glass science. (wikipedia.org)
- For this purpose Otto Schott introduced the additivity principle in several publications for calculation of glass properties. (wikipedia.org)

###### sense

- Often, it makes sense to combine the calculation of a gate and all the wire connected to its output. (wikipedia.org)
- Another standard is the use of 1950 as "present", in the sense that a calculation that shows that a sample's likely age is 500 years "before present" means that it is likely to have come from about the year 1450. (wikipedia.org)

###### basis

- The basis for labor-time calculation is found in Karl Marx's analysis of value in capitalism. (wikipedia.org)

###### common

- It would mean that there was no longer any common unit of calculation for making decisions regarding the production of goods. (wikipedia.org)

###### complex

- Estimating the fair price for financial instruments using the Black-Scholes model is a more complex algorithmic calculation. (wikipedia.org)
- The noise calculation process is complex in input (gathering data, correctly modeling acoustic elements in the field) and from a pure compute power perspective, recently advances involved: moving calculation routines into self-contained calculation engines adapting CAD systems for input of acoustic models moving into 3D for displaying models or even data capture moving into cloud services and web enabled calculation tools. (wikipedia.org)

###### Often

- Hydraulic calculations are often required to prove the flow of water (or water mixed with additives like firefighting foam concentrate) through piping networks for the purpose of suppressing or extinguishing a fire. (wikipedia.org)

###### values

- Recently, calculations of 2 J 11 B- 11 B couplings in lithium borates have been presented, whereby their small values are correlated with small B-O-B angles ( Barrow 2011 ). (warwick.ac.uk)

###### usually

- It is usually not taken to include cases where a general unit of calculation is arrived at without reference to money or markets. (wikipedia.org)

###### Tools

- Noise experts and some small specialized companies have slowly developed a limited number of calculation tools, which have increased in number and become more user-friendly, covering more application cases, and adding service elements to the noise calculation tools. (wikipedia.org)

###### possible

- Hydraulic calculations provide a verifiable analysis of the 3 primary components of a fire suppression system: 1) The water delivery requirements to suppress a possible fire 2) The available water supply 3) The network of piping that will deliver this water in the event of a fire. (wikipedia.org)

###### process

- This is a process that is much easier if you know how to do a total cholesterol calculation. (infobarrel.com)
- On the calculation of the freezing point of ice cream mixes and of quantities of ice separated during the freezing process. (springer.com)
- A calculation is a deliberate process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more results, with variable change. (wikipedia.org)
- Noise calculation is the process of calculating the level of noise immission using the metric dB(A). Noise immission is created by noise sources (noise emission) of various types which are propagating noise into the environment. (wikipedia.org)
- The method or process of determining the resulting immission level is called noise calculation, its graphical representation is called noise map. (wikipedia.org)

###### dates

- A calendrical calculation is a calculation concerning calendar dates. (wikipedia.org)

###### examples

- We illustrate the calculation of retirement benefits using two examples, labeled case A and case B. In each case, the worker retires in 2019. (ssa.gov)

###### time

- a skilled player can win Calculation more than half of the time when "normal play" can allow winning 1 in 5 times. (wikipedia.org)

###### standards

- Knowledge of calculations is also helpful in properly balancing a mix to provide uniform quality and to meet legal standards. (springer.com)
- The calculations to convert measured data to an estimate of the age of the sample require the use of several standards. (wikipedia.org)

###### method

- The Gauge-Including Projector Augmented Wave (GIPAW) method that was presented by Pickard and Mauri in 2001 ( Pickard 2001 ) enables the calculation of NMR parameters for periodic solids. (warwick.ac.uk)
- Easiest drug calculation method? (allnurses.com)
- I'm preparing for my first drug calculation test and am hoping for some input on what others think is the easiest drug calc method/formula. (allnurses.com)
- The method and procedures of making mix calculations are demonstrated by a few typical problems along with some detail to aid in understanding. (springer.com)

###### term

- Delay calculation is the term used in integrated circuit design for the calculation of the gate delay of a single logic gate and the wires attached to it. (wikipedia.org)

###### provide

- The aim of an accurate intraocular lens power calculation is to provide an intraocular lens (IOL) that fits the specific needs and desires of the individual patient. (wikipedia.org)

###### results

- Formal calculations can lead to results that are wrong in one context, but correct in another context. (wikipedia.org)
- The AL is the most important factor in IOL calculation: A 1-mm error in AL measurement results in a refractive error of approximately 2.88 D or about 3.0-3.5 D error of IOL power in an average eye. (wikipedia.org)

###### done

- When the digits of b are all smaller than the corresponding digits of a, the calculation can be done digit by digit. (wikipedia.org)

###### pages

- Yet these formulas are derived out of a lot of calculations, something like 10 pages of them. (physicsforums.com)

###### factor

- The third type of cholesterol, and the final factor in the total cholesterol calculation, is triglycerides. (infobarrel.com)

###### systems

- The full hydraulic calculation procedure is defined in the applicable reference model codes such as published by NFPA (National Fire Protection Association), or EN 12845 Fixed firefighting system - Automatic sprinkler systems - Design, installation and maintenance. (wikipedia.org)

###### models

- published similar additive glass property calculation models. (wikipedia.org)