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  • dose
  • The proportionality constant is 1/K. This is useful when trying to determine whether two formulations of the same dose (for example a capsule and a tablet) release the same dose of drug to the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • composition
  • BMI was designed to be used as a simple means of classifying average sedentary (physically inactive) populations, with an average body composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • In physical fitness, body composition is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone, water and muscle in human bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most accurate estimation of body composition is derived from body density by means of the equation of fractional densities which states that the overall density of a mixture containing more than one substance (each with a different density) can be calculated if the proportion and density of each component substance is known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Body composition measurement with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is used increasingly for a variety of clinical and research applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • A DEXA scan requires medical supervision by a radiologist and some consider it to be the new "Gold Standard" in body composition testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another technique for measuring body composition has been developed for measuring body volume using a different method than underwater weighing. (wikipedia.org)
  • measurement
  • Body Mass Index or BMI is a reliable statistical measurement of a person's body fat. (probharat.com)
  • Various calculations have been published to arrive at the BSA without direct measurement. (wikipedia.org)
  • In crude terms, this measurement compares left and right cardiac activity and calculates preload and afterload flow and pressures which, theoretically, can be stabilized or adjusted with drugs to either constrict or dilate the vessels (to raise or lower, respectively, the pressure of blood flowing to the lungs), in order to maximize oxygen for delivery to the body tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2D measurement of the diameter (d) of the aortic annulus allows calculation of the flow cross-sectional area (CSA), which is then multiplied by the VTI of the Doppler flow profile across the aortic valve to determine the flow volume per beat (stroke volume, SV). (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Justification for its continued use rests on a large body of clinical experience, disadvantages of other cardiac output monitoring systems, its ability to accurately measure pulmonary artery pressure, and the potential to use the catheter as a direct conduit for drug administration into the pulmonary artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • equation
  • Rearranging the equation of fractional densities to solve for the proportion of fat (f) will yield the following equation: f = 495 / D b − 450 {\displaystyle f=495/Db-450} The density of human fat is remarkably constant across all sub-groups studied but variations have been reported in the density of the fat free mass (i.e. lean or non-fat components). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mass of water per unit volume as in the equation above is also defined as volumetric humidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence
  • Hence, it is possible for two women to have vastly different body mass indices but the same waist-hip ratio, or to have the same body mass index but vastly different waist-hip ratios. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in a lower rate of heat removal from the body, hence the sensation of being overheated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, the heat index could seem unrealistically low, unless resting inactive (idle) in heavily shaded areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • nonlinear
  • However, a recent analysis by iWeatherNet found the assumption to be erroneous given that the heat index/relative humidity relationship and the corresponding equilibrium temperature (the point at which the air temperature and the heat index are equal) are nonlinear. (wikipedia.org)
  • estimation
  • The two compartment model allows for an estimation of the proportions of fat and lean components of the body to be made from the overall body density. (wikipedia.org)
  • The estimation of body fatness from body density (by means of underwater weighing) was accepted as the "gold standard" for many decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • risks
  • It's a more general method of knowing what the body fat levels are like and what the risks for illness are. (wisegeek.com)
  • heat index
  • The heat index (HI) or humiture is an index that combines air temperature and relative humidity, in shaded areas, as an attempt to determine the human-perceived equivalent temperature, as how hot it would feel if the humidity were some other value in the shade. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in a heat index that relates one combination of temperature and humidity to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the humidity index is based on temperatures in the shade, while people often move across sunny areas, then the heat index can give a much lower temperature than actual conditions of typical outdoor activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, for people exercising or active, at the time, then the heat index could give a temperature lower than the felt conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, with a temperature in the shade of only 82 °F (28 °C) at 60% relative humidity, then the heat index would seem 84 °F (29 °C), but movement across sunny areas of 102 °F (39 °C), would give a heat index of over 137 °F (58 °C), as more indicative of the oppressive and sweltering heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The heat index was developed in 1978 by George Winterling as the "humiture" and was adopted by the USA's National Weather Service a year later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Significant deviations from these will result in heat index values which do not accurately reflect the perceived temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The heat index is referenced to any combination of air temperature and humidity where the partial pressure of water vapor is equal to a baseline value of 1.6 kilopascals [kPa] (0.23 psi). (wikipedia.org)
  • The heat index also does not factor in the effects of wind, which lowers the apparent temperature, unless the air is above body temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, according to the Heat Index, a relative humidity of 75% at air temperature of 80.0 °F (26.7 °C) would feel like 83.6 °F ±1.3 °F (28.7 °C ±0.7 °C). Specific humidity (or moisture content) is the ratio of the mass of water vapor to the total mass of the moist air parcel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various
  • The proportions of water, protein and mineral in the body are found by various chemical and radiometric tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • Drinking water dilutes the electrolytes in the body making it less conductive as does increasing body fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the temperature of a parcel of water becomes lower it will eventually reach the point of saturation without adding or losing water mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific humidity is the ratio of the mass of water vapor to the total mass of the moist air parcel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absolute humidity is the total mass of water vapour present in a given volume or mass of air. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, absolute humidity in chemical engineering may refer to mass of water vapor per unit mass of dry air, also known as the humidity ratio or mass mixing ratio (see "specific humidity" below), which is better suited for heat and mass balance calculations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific humidity is approximately equal to the "mixing ratio", which is defined as the ratio of the mass of water vapor in an air parcel to the mass of dry air for the same parcel. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • This results in taller people having a reported BMI that is uncharacteristically high, compared to their actual body fat levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • DEXA exams provide both total body and up to 14 regional (trunk, individual arms & legs, android, gynoid, etc.) results. (wikipedia.org)
  • simple
  • As with traditional calculations with real numbers, simple arithmetic operations and functions on elementary intervals must first be defined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Simple arithmetic operations, such as basic arithmetic and trigonometric functions, enable the calculation of outer limits of intervals. (wikipedia.org)
  • exact
  • As far as I understand, body mass index is not an exact or detailed description of your health or fitness level. (wisegeek.com)
  • The most common use is to keep track of and handle rounding errors directly during the calculation and of uncertainties in the knowledge of the exact values of physical and technical parameters. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface area
  • Flowcharts, e.g., a binary decision tree for deciding what is the etiology of chest pain Look-up tables, e.g., for looking up food energy and nutritional contents of foodstuffs Nomograms, e.g., a moving circular slide to calculate body surface area or drug dosages. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • In order to determine the respective AUCs, the serum concentration vs. time plots are typically gathered using C-14 labeled drugs and AMS (accelerated mass spectroscopy). (wikipedia.org)
  • amount
  • Assuming linear pharmacodynamics with elimination rate constant K, one can show that AUC is proportional to the total amount of drug absorbed by the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount eliminated by the body (mass) = clearance (volume/time) * AUC (mass*time/volume). (wikipedia.org)
  • medical
  • Prescribed by dieticians and physicians, the inclusive Body Mass Index feature is easy to use for the monitoring of personal health and medical needs. (usab2c.com)
  • binary
  • Flowcharts, e.g., a binary decision tree for deciding what is the etiology of chest pain Look-up tables, e.g., for looking up food energy and nutritional contents of foodstuffs Nomograms, e.g., a moving circular slide to calculate body surface area or drug dosages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binary star systems are very important in astrophysics because calculations of their orbits allow the masses of their component stars to be directly determined, which in turn allows other stellar parameters, such as radius and density, to be indirectly estimated. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, these close binary systems can exchange mass, which may bring their evolution to stages that single stars cannot attain. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the modern definition, the term binary star is generally restricted to pairs of stars which revolve around a common center of mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • calculate
  • Because the differences between the systems are of little practical significance (the differences are less than the precision of most common instruments) and wide historical use of the Brix unit, modern instruments calculate mass fraction using ICUMSA official formulas but report the result as °Bx. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • This explanation was seen as inadequate by several philosophers in his era, who offered alternate views: Nicholas Malebranche suggested occasionalism, according to which mind and body appear to interact but are in fact moved separately by God, while Gottfried Leibniz argued in The Monadology that mind and body are in a pre-established harmony. (wikipedia.org)
  • gravity
  • Gr.,=sphere of air], the mixture of gases surrounding a celestial body with sufficient gravity to maintain it. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the early 1800s, Karl Balling, followed by Adolf Brix, and finally the Normal-Commissions under Fritz Plato, prepared pure sucrose solutions of known strength, measured their specific gravities and prepared tables of percent sucrose by mass vs. measured specific gravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Equipped with one of these tables, a brewer wishing to know how much sugar was in his wort could measure its specific gravity and enter that specific gravity into the Plato table to obtain °Plato, which is the concentration of sucrose by percentage mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, a vintner could enter the specific gravity of his must into the Brix table to obtain the °Bx, which is the concentration of sucrose by percent mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whichever means are used, the analyst enters the tables with specific gravity and takes out (using interpolation if necessary) the sugar content in percent by mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • masses
  • This also determines an empirical mass-luminosity relationship (MLR) from which the masses of single stars can be estimated. (wikipedia.org)
  • total
  • Custom made equipment, including a rotating plate and harness, was fabricated and added to a standard total body irradiation stand and tested to facilitate patient setup under sedated condition. (springer.com)
  • Due to the ability to achieve therapeutic dose levels to the skin with a rapid fall-off in dose beyond a shallow depth to avoid bone marrow toxicity, electron beams delivered to the total body in the energy range of 3-7 MeV (4-10 MeV at the accelerator beam exit window) have been shown to be successful for treating these superficial lesions. (springer.com)
  • energy
  • Minkowski's geometric interpretation of relativity was to prove vital to Einstein's development of his 1915 general theory of relativity, wherein he showed how mass and energy curve this flat spacetime to a Pseudo Riemannian manifold. (wikipedia.org)
  • given
  • On the other hand, it has been suggested that given many disciplines deal with things they do not entirely understand, dualists not entirely understanding the mechanism of mind-body interaction need not be seen as definitive refutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • There has been a body of work discussing the view that cancer arises from genetic instability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The TNM classification for staging breast cancer is based on the size of the cancer where it originally started in the body and the locations to which it has travelled. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cancer characteristics are described as the size of the tumor (T), whether or not the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes (N) in the armpits, neck, and inside the chest, and whether the tumor has metastasized (M) (i.e. spread to a more distant part of the body). (wikipedia.org)
  • general
  • Note: General relativity articles using tensors will use the abstract index notation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, the guidance system computes the instructions for the control system, which comprises the object's actuators (e.g., thrusters, reaction wheels, body flaps, etc.), which are able to manipulate the flight path and orientation of the object without direct or continuous human control. (wikipedia.org)