• The complex formed produces or releases second messengers that integrate and adapt the signal, amplifying it, by activating molecular targets, which in turn trigger effectors that will lead to the desired cellular response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The top pathway enriched for genes differentially expressed in calcified compared with normal valves was fibrosis, which support the remodeling process as a therapeutic target. (nih.gov)
  • This gene is expressed in rod photoreceptors and functions in the phototransduction signaling cascade. (genecards.org)
  • Photon absorption triggers a signaling cascade in rod photoreceptors that activates cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE), resulting in the rapid hydrolysis of cGMP, closure of cGMP-gated cation channels, and hyperpolarization of the cell. (genecards.org)
  • A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • At each step of the signaling cascade, various controlling factors are involved to regulate cellular actions, responding effectively to cues about their changing internal and external environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the tissue factor pathway in the coagulation cascade of secondary hemostasis is the primary pathway leading to fibrin formation, and thus, the initiation of blood coagulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • We used quantitative liquid chromatography-based mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS) with label-free quantification and pathway enrichment analyses for identification of disease-related molecular phenotypes. (arvojournals.org)
  • 180 unique genes related to DNA damage & repair pathways, including base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, trans-lesion synthesis, and other repair processes genes. (propath.co.uk)
  • Palmitoylation is necessary because it initiates targeting of the Wnt protein to the plasma membrane for secretion and it allows the Wnt protein to bind its receptor due to the covalent attachment of fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results suggest that Axin2 participates in a negative feedback loop, which could serve to limit the duration or intensity of a Wnt-initiated signal. (asm.org)
  • Shared pathways between calcified (BAVc and TAVc) and normal (TAVn) aortic valves were also more extensively altered in BAVc. (nih.gov)