• transmission electron m
  • Transmission electron microscopy image of encrusted cystitis calcifications (magnification 7,000) demonstrating multiple calcifying nanoparticles (some indicated by black thin arrows) with the characteristic electron-dense shell (ring structures 165 nm to 440 nm) surrounding a central electron lucent core. (nih.gov)
  • controversial
  • Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers.It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology.We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. (nih.gov)
  • calcium
  • It is easy to notice in Figure 3 that merging of the calcifying nanoparticles (like stacking of snowballs) forms micron-size calcium aggregates (micron-size plaques) measuring about 3 square microns that by further merging have ultimately become plaques of encrusted cystitis visible by light microscope (Figure 2) and naked eye (Figure 1). (nih.gov)