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  • cusps
  • Individual AV cusps attach to the aortic wall in a semilunar fashion, ascending to the commissures and descending to the basal attachment of each cusp. (ahajournals.org)
  • calcium
  • For decades, this disease was thought to be a passive process in which the valve degenerates with age in association with calcium accumulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • however, whether metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased prevalence of aortic valve calcium (AVC) is not known. (ahajournals.org)
  • nodules
  • In turn, the addition of calcific nodules creates localized disturbances in the tissue biomechanics, which affects extracellular matrix (ECM) production and cellular activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • trileaflet
  • The Edwards SAPIEN valve consists of trileaflet bovine-pericardium valve mounted on a balloon-expandable stainless steel stent, and is available in four sizes (20, 23, 26 and 29 mm). (bmj.com)
  • myocardial
  • MicroRNA-21 contributes to myocardial disease by stimulating MAP kinase signalling in fibroblasts," Nature , vol. 456, no. 7224, pp. 980-984, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • 1 VHDs comprise 2 overarching groups: primary, involving intrinsic abnormalities of valve structures, and secondary, or "functional," featuring myocardial dysfunction or vascular deformation that secondarily affects valve performance. (ahajournals.org)
  • implantation
  • But over the last 5 years improvements in percutaneous approaches to implantation of prosthetic aortic valves have made it a potential therapeutic option for these patients. (mdedge.com)
  • Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), a technique in which a bioprosthetic valve is inserted via a catheter and implanted within the diseased native aortic valve, was first implanted by Andersen in 1993 in a closed chest experimental pig model. (bmj.com)
  • 9 It was a true 'resurrection' for Cribier and his whole team performing the first TAVI in an inoperable patient in 2002 10 , 11 using a transeptal antegrade approach and balloon-expandable aortic calve prosthesis, while at the same time in the USA, animal studies were being carried out to develop a transapical method of implantation. (bmj.com)
  • early stages
  • 4 , 6 , 7 Investigation into the cellular and molecular changes that occur at early stages of disease may lead to alternative therapies and alleviate the need for surgery. (ahajournals.org)
  • histological
  • The second issue is that, for many years, there were no animal models that faithfully replicated the key histological features of the disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • hypertension
  • The use of magnesium supplementation is currently being explored in the management of various conditions, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, asthma and pain. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Isolated right sided HF occuring in patients with intrinsic lung disease that result in chronic pulmonary hypertension. (brainscape.com)
  • Edwards SAPIEN
  • Of the approaches now undergoing refinement, the most promising is retrograde (ie, femoral arterial) placement of the Edwards SAPIEN valve or the CoreValve. (mdedge.com)
  • Currently, two valve models are available: the Edwards SAPIEN valve and the Medtronic CoreValve. (bmj.com)
  • functional
  • The functional requirements of the heart valves are accomplished by a specialized set of cells and heterogeneous extracellular matrix, arrayed in a spatially specific and differentiated tissue structure, that are temporally dynamic and highly responsive to the external biomechanical environment. (ahajournals.org)
  • morbidity
  • Calcific aortic valve disease is relatively common in the high-income countries, affecting between 4% and 5% of adults above the age of 75 years, and unless corrected, it carries significant morbidity and mortality. (bmj.com)