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  • However
  • However, other data types (e.g. protein alignments, ab initio prediction programs, trans-splice leader sites, poly-A signals and addition sites, SAGE and TEC-RED transcript tags, mass-spectroscopic peptides, and conserved protein domains) are useful in refining the structures, especially where expression is low and so transcripts are not sufficiently available. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • Cell-nonautonomous control of chaperone expression by the thermosensory neurons allows C. elegans to respond differently to acute stress such as heat shock, and chronic stress caused by the expression of misfolded proteins, suggesting that neuronal signaling determines the course of cellular proteotoxicity. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we examine whether neuronal activity also regulates the cellular response to chronic expression of misfolded proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Thermosensory Neuronal Mutants Suppress Aggregation of Polyglutamine Expansion Proteins Expressed in Intestinal Cells of C. elegans . (pnas.org)
  • Most programmed cell deaths occur in the brain tissue of the C. elegans where the majority of cells targeted for cell death have lineages from neuronal and glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • NeuN (Feminizing Locus on X-3, Fox-3, Rbfox3, or Hexaribonucleotide Binding Protein-3), a homologue to sex-determining genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, is a neuronal nuclear antigen that is commonly used as a biomarker for neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • UNC-31/CAPS docks and primes dense core vesicles in C. elegans neurons. (nih.gov)
  • PKA activation bypasses the requirement for UNC-31 in the docking of dense core vesicles from C. elegans neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Whereas polyglutamine expansion-expressing animals with WT thermosensory neurons readily express protein aggregates, leading to cellular dysfunction without concomitant up-regulation of molecular chaperones, modulation of the nervous system results in chaperone up-regulation that suppresses aggregation and toxicity. (pnas.org)
  • homologous
  • Vertebrate brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2 (BAI1-associated protein 2) or insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate p53 (IRSp53), a multifunctional adaptor protein that links Rac1 with a Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome family verprolin-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2/WASF2) to induce lamellipodia or Cdc42 with Mena to induce filopodia. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cysteine-rich domain (the galactose binding lectin domain) homologous to the SUEL protein has been identified in the following proteins: Plant beta-galactosidases EC 3.2.1.23 (lactases). (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is composed of three tandem repeat domains homologous to the SUEL lectin domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Our results indicate that C. elegans RPGs are regulated by a complex novel series of regulatory elements that is evolutionarily distinct from those of all other species examined up until now. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The IRSp53/MIM family is a novel F-actin bundling protein family that includes invertebrate relatives: Vertebrate MIM (missing in metastasis) (MTSS1), an actin-binding scaffold protein that may be involved in cancer metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • ERM proteins are regulated by an intramolecular association of the FERM and C-terminal tail domains that masks their binding sites for other molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ig molecules are highly modular proteins, in which the variable and constant domains have clear, conserved sequence patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • RRM domains are one of the most common in the human genome and are found in numerous proteins which bind RNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertebrate Emu proteins, which could interact with several different extracellular matrix components and serve to connect and integrate the function of multiple partner molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pores cross both nuclear membranes, providing a channel through which larger molecules must be actively transported by carrier proteins while allowing free movement of small molecules and ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound sub compartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of sub-nuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each plasma membrane domain has a distinct protein composition, giving them distinct properties and allowing directional transport of molecules across the epithelial sheet. (wikipedia.org)
  • These molecules are the proteins Cdc42, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), Par6, Par3/Bazooka/ASIP. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicles
  • Synaptic vesicles are relatively simple because only a limited number of proteins fit into a sphere of 40 nm diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purified vesicles have a protein:phospholipid ratio of 1:3 with a lipid composition of 40% phosphatidylcholine, 32% phosphatidylethanolamine, 12% phosphatidylserine, 5% phosphatidylinositol, and 10% cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins do not share a characteristic that would make them identifiable as synaptic vesicle proteins, and little is known about how these proteins are specifically deposited into synaptic vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Golgi
  • During the process of apoptosis, the cell undergoes: DNA fragmentation Nucleus fragmentation Disruption of cytoskeletal proteins Golgi matrix protein fragmentation Phagocytosis of neighbouring cells Cytoplasm shrinkage As a wild-type protein, ced-3 will cleave other protein substrates within the cell and trigger apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Programmed cell death in C. elegans will occur in the embryonic and post-embryonic stages in both somatic and germ line cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptional
  • Specifically, R-Smads are phosphorylated in the nucleus at the linker domain by CDK8 and 9, and these phosphorylations modulate the interaction of Smad proteins with transcriptional activators and repressors. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. (nih.gov)
  • NeuN/Fox-3 and the other Fox proteins function in the regulation of mRNA splicing and bind specific RNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • To combat the deleterious effects of accumulated protein damage, all cells possess robust quality-control systems, specifically molecular chaperones and clearance machineries, that sense and respond to protein misfolding. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show, in animals expressing polyglutamine expansion proteins and mutant SOD-1 G93A in intestinal or muscle cells, that the nervous system does indeed control the cellular response to misfolded proteins. (pnas.org)
  • The inability to maintain protein quality control has detrimental effects on cell physiology and function, and is the basis of diseases of protein conformation, including Huntington disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and type II diabetes, in which cells accumulate misfolded and aggregated proteins ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • To inhibit aggregation and toxicity, cells and organisms have evolved multiple stress responsive networks that detect and respond to the accumulation of damaged proteins ( 3 - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus, Xk-family proteins have evolutionarily conserved roles in promoting the phagocytosis of dying cells by altering the phospholipid distribution in the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basolateral membrane refers to both the lateral membrane where cell-cell junctions connect neighboring cells and to the basal membrane where cells are attached to the basement membrane, a thin sheet of extracellular matrix proteins that separates the epithelial sheet from underlying cells and connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Molecular and functional analysis of apical junction formation in the gut epithelium of Caenorhabditis elegans. (nih.gov)
  • The current hypothesis for the induction of chaperones is that elevated levels of misfolded and damaged proteins caused by environmental insults or errors in protein biogenesis titrate the molecular chaperones away from HSF-1 and toward association with misfolded proteins, resulting in the derepression and activation of HSF-1 ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, the crustacean neurohormone family of proteins is a family of neuropeptides expressed by arthropods. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, the EMI domain, first named after its presence in proteins of the EMILIN family, is a small cysteine-rich protein domain of around 75 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular identity of most important proteins involved in leading spontaneous symmetry breaking have been extensively studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • The XMAP215/Dis1 family is a highly conserved group of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in eukaryotic organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This special property classifies this protein family as plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The family is categorized into three groups based on the number of TOG domains that specific protein contains. (wikipedia.org)
  • An additional HEAT repeat, localized between the first and second HEAT repeat, is exclusive to the TOG3 domain in zyg-9 and the TOG5 domains in the first group family proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • showed that the Xk-family protein Xkr8 mediates PtdSer exposure in response to apoptotic stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smads (or SMADs) comprise a family of structurally similar proteins that are the main signal transducers for receptors of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B) superfamily, which are critically important for regulating cell development and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a review of the Fox family of proteins see this reference. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (nih.gov)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • Immunoglobulin-like domains that are related in both sequence and structure can be found in several diverse protein families. (wikipedia.org)
  • The level of sequence conservation of the Co-Smad and of R-Smads proteins across species is extremely high. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rbfox1, and the related protein Rbfox2, bind the consensus RNA sequence motif (U)GCAUG within introns to exert their functions as alternative splicing factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • ERM proteins are made of three domains, the FERM domain, a central helical domain and a C-terminal tail domain, which binds F-actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Filopodin, a slime mould protein that binds actin and which is involved in the control of cell motility and chemotaxis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the Rbfox1/A2BP1 protein binds to the C-terminus of ataxin-2, and may contribute to the restricted pathology of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Cooperative regulation of AJM-1 controls junctional integrity in Caenorhabditis elegans epithelia. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we performed an in-depth examination of C. elegans RPG regulation and found nine highly conserved motifs in the upstream regions of C. elegans RPGs using the motif discovery algorithm DME. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite the evidence that protein misfolding triggers HSF-1 ( 9 , 10 ), the up-regulation of chaperones and activation of HSF-1 is infrequently observed in animal models of protein aggregation and tissues from affected humans ( 11 - 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • The Unc93 protein is involved in the regulation or coordination of muscle contraction in the worm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linker region between MH1 and MH2 is not just a connector, but also plays a role in protein function and regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • These proteins are unique MAPs because they primarily interact with the growing-end (plus-end) of microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In first and second groups, the C-terminal domain is known to interact with transforming acidic coiled-coil protein 3 (TACC3), which transports the protein to the centrosomes during mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that the EMI domain could be a protein-protein interaction module, as the EMI domain of EMILIN-1 was found to interact with the C1q domain of EMILIN-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • disruption
  • Instead, the protein quality control system appears to be impaired as a result of the titration of chaperones, disruption of proteasomal activity ( 17 - 19 ), modification of HSF-1 and its regulators, or sequestration of important cofactors by aggregation-prone proteins ( 17 - 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • membranes
  • Aside from binding to membranes, the activated FERM domain of ERM proteins can also bind the guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor of Rho GTPase (RhoDGI), which suggests that in addition to functioning as a cross-linker, ERM proteins may influence Rho signalling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basal and lateral membranes share common determinants, the proteins Lethal Giant Larvae (Lgl), Discs Large (Dlg) and Scribble (Scrib). (wikipedia.org)