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  • zinc
  • Most cadmium used in the United States is extracted as a byproduct during the production of other metals such as zinc, lead, or copper. (cdc.gov)
  • dose
  • The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. (cdc.gov)
  • soil
  • Cadmium is emitted to soil, water, and air by non-ferrous metal mining and refining, manufacture and application of phosphate fertilizers, fossil fuel combustion, and waste incineration and disposal. (cdc.gov)
  • Generally, cadmium binds strongly to organic matter where it will be immobile in soil and be taken up by plant life, eventually, entering the food supply. (cdc.gov)