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  • protocol buffers
  • Each tutorial in this section shows you how to implement a simple application using protocol buffers in your favourite language, introducing you to the language's protocol buffer API as well as showing you the basics of creating and using .proto files . (google.com)
  • You don't need to understand this to use protocol buffers in your applications, but it can be very useful to know how different protocol buffer formats affect the size of your encoded messages. (google.com)
  • Protocol Buffers is a method of serializing structured data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Google developed Protocol Buffers for use internally and has provided a code generator for multiple languages under an open source license (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • The design goals for Protocol Buffers emphasized simplicity and performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protocol Buffers is widely used at Google for storing and interchanging all kinds of structured information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protocol Buffers are similar to the Apache Thrift (used by Facebook) or Microsoft Bond protocols, offering as well a concrete RPC protocol stack to use for defined services called gRPC. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is no defined way to include or refer to such an external specification (schema) within a Protocol Buffers file. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the primary purpose of Protocol Buffers is to facilitate network communication, its simplicity and speed make Protocol Buffers an alternative to data-centric C++ classes and structs, especially where interoperability with other languages or systems might be needed in the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • A schema for a particular use of protocol buffers associates data types with field names, using integers to identify each field. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "Line" and "Polyline" messages, which both use Point, demonstrate how composition works in Protocol Buffers. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • A gelding, Buffering is one of the highest money earning horses in Australian racing history having surpassed $7,000,000 in earnings on March 26, 2016 by winning the 2016 Al Quoz Sprint at the Meydan Racecourse during the 2016 Dubai World Cup race meeting. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of March, 2016 Buffering is the highest earning Queensland racehorse of all time. (wikipedia.org)
  • buffer's
  • In computer security and programming , a buffer overflow , or buffer overrun , is an anomaly where a program , while writing data to a buffer , overruns the buffer's boundary and overwrites adjacent memory locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apparent pKa is equal to the buffer's pH when the concentrations of two buffering species are equal, and the buffer solution has the maximum buffering capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In utilizing full buffer capacity with pointer-based implementation strategy, the buffer's full or empty state could not be resolved directly from checking the positions of the start and end indexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • riparian
  • A riparian buffer or stream buffer is a vegetated area (a "buffer strip") near a stream, usually forested, which helps shade and partially protect the stream from the impact of adjacent land uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the decline of many aquatic ecosystems due to agriculture, riparian buffers have become a very common conservation practice aimed at increasing water quality and reducing pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Riparian buffers act to intercept sediment, nutrients, pesticides, and other materials in surface runoff and reduce nutrients and other pollutants in shallow subsurface water flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intercepting pesticides - Riparian buffers keep chemicals that can be harmful to aquatic life out of the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Provide habitat - Riparian buffers can act as crucial habitat for a large number of species, especially those who have lost habitat due to agricultural land being put into production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shading water - The large trees in the first zone of the riparian buffer provide shade and therefore cooling for the water, increasing productivity and increasing habitat quality for aquatic species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Produce profitable alternative crops - Vegetation such as Black Walnut and Hazelnut, which can be profitably harvested, can be incorporated into the riparian buffer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media A riparian buffer is usually split into three different zones, each having its own specific purpose for filtering runoff and interacting with the adjacent aquatic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Riparian forest buffers are diverse communities of trees, shrubs and native perennial grasses. (wikipedia.org)
  • FIFO
  • A buffer often adjusts timing by implementing a queue (or FIFO ) algorithm in memory, simultaneously writing data into the queue at one rate and reading it at another rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffers are usually used in a FIFO (first in, first out) method, outputting data in the order it arrived. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, the circular buffer is well-suited as a FIFO buffer while a standard, non-circular buffer is well suited as a LIFO buffer. (wikipedia.org)
  • tris
  • TE" is derived from its components: Tris, a common pH buffer, and EDTA, a molecule that chelates cations like Mg2+. (wikipedia.org)
  • To make a 100 ml solution of T10E1 Buffer, 1 ml of 1 M Tris base (pH 8.0) and 0.2 ml EDTA (0.5 M) are mixed and made up with double distilled water up to 100ml. (wikipedia.org)
  • ph7.4 TE buffer=100mM/L Tris(pH7.4)+10mM/L EDTA(pH8.0) from Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual Yagi N, Satonaka K, Horio M, Shimogaki H, Tokuda Y, Maeda S (1996). (wikipedia.org)
  • Queue
  • Buffer queue depth monitoring cannot be done directly with SNMP MIB-II polling of the current occupancy of the buffer. (ucsc.edu)
  • Max buffer queue depth requires that all packet memory can be put into a single queue. (ucsc.edu)
  • The queue area acts as a buffer-a temporary space where those wishing to ride wait until the ride is available. (wikipedia.org)
  • A circular buffer, circular queue, cyclic buffer or ring buffer is a data structure that uses a single, fixed-size buffer as if it were connected end-to-end. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circular buffering makes a good implementation strategy for a queue that has fixed maximum size. (wikipedia.org)
  • solution
  • To use Buffers, just choose a buffering agent and target pH along with the desired solution volume, temperature and buffer concentration. (apple.com)
  • A lysis buffer is a buffer solution used for the purpose of breaking open cells for use in molecular biology experiments that analyze the compounds of the cells (e.g. western blot ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of salts in lysis buffer is to establish an ionic strength in the buffer solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffer solution Good, Norman E. (wikipedia.org)
  • TAPS is effective to make buffer solutions in the pH range 7.7-9.1, since it has a pKa value of 8.44 (ionic strength I=0, 25 °C). The pH (and pKa at I≠0) of the buffer solution changes with concentration and temperature, and this effect may be predicted e.g. using online calculators. (wikipedia.org)
  • A buffering agent is a weak acid or base used to maintain the acidity (pH) of a solution near a chosen value after the addition of another acid or base. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is, the function of a buffering agent is to prevent a rapid change in pH when acids or bases are added to the solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffering agents are usually added to water to form a buffer solution, which only slightly changes its pH in response to other acids and bases being combined with it, particularly a strong acid or a strong base. (wikipedia.org)
  • agent
  • An information page for each buffering agent lists the pKa, appropriate pH range, and temperature dependence, along with molecular weights and CAS numbers for the acid and base forms and other pertinent information. (apple.com)
  • The buffer capacity of a buffering agent is at a local maximum when p[H+] = pKa. (wikipedia.org)
  • For buffers in acid regions, the pH may be adjusted to a desired value by adding a strong acid such as hydrochloric acid to the buffering agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • A buffering agent can be either a weak acid or weak base. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another example is buffered aspirin which has a buffering agent, such as MgO or CaCO3, that will help maintain the balance between the acid H-A (protonated) and the salt A− (deprotonated) forms of aspirin as it passes through the acidic stomach of the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • Manufacturers rarely put info on packet buffers in their data sheets. (ucsc.edu)
  • the total number of data samples (capacity) that can be stored by the buffer. (kernel.org)
  • description of the scan element data storage within the buffer and hence the form in which it is read from user space. (kernel.org)
  • A user space application will interpret data samples read from the buffer as two byte little endian signed data, that needs a 4 bits right shift before masking out the 12 valid bits of data. (kernel.org)
  • Pushes data to the IIO device's buffers. (kernel.org)
  • If timestamps are enabled for the device the function will store the supplied timestamp as the last element in the sample data buffer before pushing it to the device buffers. (kernel.org)
  • In computer science , a data buffer (or just buffer ) is a region of a physical memory storage used to temporarily store data while it is being moved from one place to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, the data is stored in a buffer as it is retrieved from an input device (such as a microphone) or just before it is sent to an output device (such as speakers). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a buffer may be used when moving data between processes within a computer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffers can be implemented in a fixed memory location in hardware-or by using a virtual data buffer in software, pointing at a location in the physical memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • In all cases, the data stored in a data buffer are stored on a physical storage medium . (wikipedia.org)
  • A majority of buffers are implemented in software , which typically use the faster RAM to store temporary data, due to the much faster access time compared with hard disk drives . (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffers are typically used when there is a difference between the rate at which data is received and the rate at which it can be processed, or in the case that these rates are variable, for example in a printer spooler or in online video streaming . (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffers are often used in conjunction with I/O to hardware , such as disk drives , sending or receiving data to or from a network , or playing sound on a speaker. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further benefits can be achieved if the application is reading or writing small blocks of data that do not correspond to the block size of the disk subsystem, allowing a buffer to be used to aggregate many smaller read or write operations into block sizes that are more efficient for the disk subsystem, or in the case of a read, sometimes to completely avoid having to physically access a disk. (wikipedia.org)
  • A buffer routine or storage medium used in telecommunications compensates for a difference in rate of flow of data , or time of occurrence of events, when transferring data from one device to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • A buffer is primarily used for input, output, and sometimes very temporary storage of data that is either en route between other media or data that may be modified in a non-sequential manner before it is written (or read) in a sequential manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffers are areas of memory set aside to hold data, often while moving it from one section of a program to another, or between programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • if one assumes all inputs will be smaller than a certain size and the buffer is created to be that size, then an anomalous transaction that produces more data could cause it to write past the end of the buffer. (wikipedia.org)
  • By sending in data designed to cause a buffer overflow, it is possible to write into areas known to hold executable code , and replace it with malicious code. (wikipedia.org)
  • A buffer overflow occurs when data written to a buffer also corrupts data values in memory addresses adjacent to the destination buffer due to insufficient bounds checking . (wikipedia.org)
  • This can occur when copying data from one buffer to another without first checking that the data fits within the destination buffer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protocol buffer data contains only the numbers, not the field names, providing some bandwidth/storage savings compared with systems that include the field names in the data. (wikipedia.org)
  • This structure lends itself easily to buffering data streams. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the buffer is used as the bounded buffer in the producer-consumer problem then it is probably desired for the producer (e.g., an audio generator) to overwrite old data if the consumer (e.g., the sound card) is unable to momentarily keep up. (wikipedia.org)
  • Implementations store the most recent data in a circular buffer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two elements removed, in this case, are 1 & 2, leaving the buffer with just a 3: If the buffer has 7 elements then it is completely full: A consequence of the circular buffer is that when it is full and a subsequent write is performed, then it starts overwriting the oldest data. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, two more elements - A & B - are added and they overwrite the 3 & 4: Alternatively, the routines that manage the buffer could prevent overwriting the data and return an error or raise an exception. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether or not data is overwritten is up to the semantics of the buffer routines or the application using the circular buffer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffers are used for many purposes, including: Interconnecting two digital circuits operating at different rates, Holding data for later use, Allowing timing corrections to be made on a data stream, Collecting binary data bits into groups that can then be operated on as a unit, Delaying the transit time of a signal in order to allow other operations to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • While data in the page cache is reused multiple times, the data in the disk buffer is rarely reused. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be somewhat dangerous, because if power is lost before the data is permanently fixed in the magnetic media, the data will be lost from the disk buffer, and the file system on the disk may be left in an inconsistent state. (wikipedia.org)
  • In case of a read/write FPDMA command with Force Unit Access (FUA) bit set to 0 and enabled write buffering, an operating system may see the write operation finished before the data is physically written to the media. (wikipedia.org)
  • In case of FUA bit set to 1 and enabled write buffering, write operation returns only after the data is physically written to the media. (wikipedia.org)
  • relatively
  • As a result, 99% of the calcium added to the cytosol of a cardiomyocyte during each cardiac cycle becomes bound to calcium buffers, creating a relatively small change in free calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Industrially, buffer solutions are used in fermentation processes and in setting the correct conditions for dyes used in colouring fabrics. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • It is common that a protease inhibitor is added to lysis buffer, along with other enzyme inhibitors of choice, such as a phosphotase inhibitor when studying proteins with phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffer creates an environment for isolated proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • RIPA buffer releases proteins from cells as well as disrupts most weak interactions between proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • When calcium is added to or removed from the cytoplasm by transport across the cell membrane or sarcoplasmic reticulum, calcium buffers minimise the effect on changes in cytoplasmic free calcium concentration by binding calcium to or releasing calcium from intracellular proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within these cells, many intracellular proteins can act as calcium buffers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hot SDS buffer is often used when the proteins need to be completely solubilized and denatured. (wikipedia.org)
  • Useful
  • The useful property of a circular buffer is that it does not need to have its elements shuffled around when one is consumed. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • Buffer may also be made with cacodylic acid. (ou.edu)
  • Buffer solutions achieve their resistance to pH change because of the presence of an equilibrium between the acid HA and its conjugate base A−. HA ⇌ H+ + A− When some strong acid is added to an equilibrium mixture of the weak acid and its conjugate base, the equilibrium is shifted to the left, in accordance with Le Châtelier's principle. (wikipedia.org)
  • A buffer of carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3) and bicarbonate (HCO− 3) is present in blood plasma, maintaining a pH between 7.35 and 7.45. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, a buffer mixture can be made from a mixture of an acid and its conjugate base. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potential inhibition of ACES and other Good buffers has been investigated in γ-aminobutyric acid receptor binding to rat brain synaptic membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tunnicliff, G., and Smith, J.A., "Competitive inhibition of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor binding by N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ε-ethanesulfonic acid and related buffer. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The habitat provided by the buffers also double as corridors for species that have had their habitat fragmented by various land uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is generally recommended that native species be chosen to plant in these three zones, with the general width of the buffer being 50 feet (15 m) on each side of the stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beaten
  • In his fifth start, and first at stakes level, Buffering was beaten for the first time in the Group 2 Bollinger Champagne Classic, finishing third with future Group 1 winners Pressday and Spirit of Boom finishing ahead of him in first and second respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • Alterations in calcium buffering have been implicated in the tendency to arrhythmias (abnormal cardiac rhythms) in some genetic mutations known to cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium buffering within atrial myocytes is affected by ageing in large animal models, elevating sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content, which could potentially contribute towards a tendency to atrial fibrillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • suitable
  • 1. Not suitable as buffer during primary fixation with osmium tetroxide due to considerable extraction of tissue components. (ou.edu)
  • range
  • 1. the buffering capacity in the desired pH range with the ability to maintain constant pH during fixation. (ou.edu)
  • Australian
  • Buffering (foaled November 5, 2007) is a retired Australian Thoroughbred racehorse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffering is the 7th horse in Australian history to surpass $7,000,000 in prizemoney and the first Queensland bred horse to do so. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffering competed with many of the greatest modern day Australian sprinters throughout his career including aforementioned Black Caviar, Chautauqua, Hay List, Sepoy, Foxwedge, Terravista and Lankan Rupee, a claim that no other horse can make. (wikipedia.org)
  • solutions
  • Buffer solutions are used as a means of keeping pH at a nearly constant value in a wide variety of chemical applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffer solutions are necessary to keep the correct pH for enzymes in many organisms to work. (wikipedia.org)
  • EDTA
  • Recipe: 150mM ammonium chloride 10mM potassium bicarbonate 0.1mM EDTA Adjust pH to 7.2-7.4 In studies like DNA fingerprinting the lysis buffer is used for DNA isolation. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • The disk buffer is physically distinct from and is used differently from the page cache typically kept by the operating system in the computer's main memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disk's embedded computer typically saves these unrequested sectors in the disk buffer, in case the operating system requests them later. (wikipedia.org)
  • general
  • The UK-APC amended the name to Buffer Island following a general eastward recession of the Wordie Ice Front in about 1999, which disclosed the feature to be an island. (wikipedia.org)
  • capacity
  • 1. Maximum buffering capacity about 7.4. (ou.edu)
  • This equation shows that there are three regions of raised buffer capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • At very low p[H+] the [H+] term in the denominator predominates and buffer capacity rises exponentially with decreasing pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the buffer is instead designed to track the number of inserted elements n, checking for emptiness means checking n = 0 and checking for fullness means checking whether n equals the capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • A cache often also acts as a buffer, and vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • In computer storage, disk buffer (often ambiguously called disk cache or cache buffer) is the embedded memory in a hard disk drive (HDD) acting as a buffer between the rest of the computer and the physical hard disk platter that is used for storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • Buffers are widespread in operating system (OS) code, so it is possible to make attacks that perform privilege escalation and gain unlimited access to the computer's resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • The techniques to exploit a buffer overflow vulnerability vary by architecture , by operating system and by memory region. (wikipedia.org)
  • in EU standards, it's two devices: buffers and draw gear and screw coupling) is the standard train coupling system used in Europe, outside the former Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the bicarbonate buffering system is used to regulate the pH of blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Buffer Island" (content from the Geographic Names Information System). (wikipedia.org)
  • read
  • When the read offset is advanced into the second virtual-memory region, both offsets-read and write-are decremented by the length of the underlying buffer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disk buffer is used so that both the I/O interface and the disk read/write head can operate at full speed. (wikipedia.org)